Repository of the University of Bologna.
["viewname_eprint_types" not defined] = Monografia
Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 866
Technology and costs in international competitiveness: from countries and sectors to firms - Dosi, Giovanni; Grazzi, Marco; Moschella, Daniele
This paper examines the determinants of international competitiveness at the level of sectors and firms. First, we address the relation between cost-related and technological competition in a sample of fifteen OECD countries. Results suggest that the countries’ sectoral market shares are indeed mainly shaped by technological factors (proxied by investment intensity and patents) while cost advantages/disadvantages do not seem to play any significant role. Next, we attempt to identify the underlying dynamics at the firm level. We do that for a single country, Italy, using a large panel of Italian firms, over nearly two decades. Results show that also at...
Environmental Law Survey 2013
Within the EGP Project “The Capacity Building of Environmental Justice and Guarding Environmental Rights in Western China”, the scholars of the University of Bologna, partner of the China University of Political Science and Law (CUPL) and its Center for Legal Assistance to Pollution Victims (CLAPV), have worked on an Environmental Law Survey so as to provide to the interested public –in particular, Chinese judges, lawyers, academics, and civil society as a whole – with the most interesting and recent judicial decisions or pieces of Environmental Law legislations developed in the most relevant legal fields. The choice has fallen on the...
Climate Change and Natural Disasters: Responding to the Philippines’ Haiyan tragedy - Ratha, Keshab Chandra; Mahapatra, Sushanta Kumar
The powerful typhoon Haiyan that swept across the Philippines is one of the strongest storms ever to make landfall, cut a path of destruction through several central islands, causing scores of people dead. The disaster's full impact is still revealing as the entire country has been caught in a state of shock and desperation. The devastation is really horrific with human tragedy. Responding to the disaster of such magnitude calls for both national and international hands to come forward for the affected people.
Assessing the incidence and wage effects of overeducation among Italian graduates using a new measure for educational requirements - Cattani, Luca; Guidetti, Giovanni; Pedrini, Giulio
This paper investigates three dimensions of overeducation: incidence, impact on earnings and possible determinants.
The analysis focuses on Italian graduates and refers to the cohort that graduated in 2007 using data from the
AlmaLaurea survey on graduates' career paths. A new measure of overeducation is introduced and it is jointly
examined along with other pre-existing measures based on workers' self-assessment. The analysis is carried out by
comparing the different results obtained adopting the two different measures of overeducation. Results show that the
newly introduced measure can deal with the biases affecting workers' self- assessment measures.
Experiencing breast cancer at the workplace - Zanella, Giulio; Banerjee, Ritesh
We study unique data from a dynamic natural experiment involving more than 7,000 American women to understand how a woman’s propensity to perform an annual mammography changes over time after a co-worker is diagnosed with breast cancer. We find that in the year this event occurs the probability that a woman performs a mammography drops by about 8 percentage points, off a base level of about 70%. This impact effect is persistent during at least the following 2 years, is driven by cases of breast cancer diagnosed at non-early stages, and by the behavior of individuals who are less knowledgeable...
Grandchildren and Their Grandparents’ Labor Supply - Rupert, Peter; Zanella, Giulio
We study how becoming a grandparent affects grandparents’ labor supply. In a simple model
of the allocation of time in which seniors care about their offspring’s welfare and also value
time spent with family children, the sign of the effect is ambiguous. Using data from the Panel
Study of Income Dynamics we find evidence that becoming a grandparent causes a reduction
of employed grandmother’s hours of work. We identify a lower bound of about 190. This
effect originates towards the bottom of the hours distribution (i.e., among women less attached
to the labor market). For employed grandfathers, the effect is also negative, originates towards
the top of...
Revisiting wage, earnings, and hours profiles - Rupert, Peter; Zanella, Giulio
We document empirical life cycle profiles of wages, earnings, and hours of work for pay from
the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, following the same workers for up to four decades. For
six of the eight cohorts we analyze the wage profile does not decline with age (not before 65,
at least), while the earnings profile always does. The discrepancy is explained by a sharp drop
in the hours of work for pay profile beginning shortly after age 50, when many workers start a
smooth transition into retirement by working progressively fewer hours. This pattern is not an
artifact of staggered abrupt retirement, and is robust...
Effective Trade Execution - Cesari, Riccardo; Marzo, Massimiliano; Zagaglia , Paolo
This paper examines the role of algorithmic trading in modern financial markets. Additionally, order types, characteristics, and special features of algorithmic trading are described under the lens provided by the large development of high frequency trading technology. Special order types are examined together with an intuitive description of the implied dynamics of the order book conditional to special orders (iceberg and hidden). The chapter provides an analysis of the transaction costs associated with trading activity and examines the most common trading strategy employed in the market. It also examines optimal execution strategy with the description of the Efficient Trading Frontier....
One more in my backyard? Insights from the 2011 Italian nuclear referendum - Pignataro, Giuseppe; Prarolo, Giovanni
This paper investigates the 2011 Italian referendum on nuclear power as a clean laboratory for recovering information on the spatial pattern of votes about the construction (or restoration) of nuclear facilities. Our results show that voting preferences on building nuclear facilities are sensible to proximity determined by a strong local component. Voters’opposition to nuclear installments tends to be even higher when the effect of both existing and proposed plants is taken into account. The study tracks the changes of risk perception and voting preferences finding a positive correlation between the distance-related perceived nuclear risk and the share of participation against...
L’imposta sul valore aggiunto: regime ordinario e regime del margine a confronto. Il caso del mercato dell’arte - Candela, Guido; Randon, Emanuela; Scorcu, Antonello Eugenio
In letteratura, il confronto tra i metodi di calcolo dell’imposta sul valore aggiunto (regime ordinario e regime del margine) è limitato: si riduce al risultato di equivalenza ottenuto con aliquote identiche e uniformi nelle diverse fasi della produzione e dello scambio. In questo lavoro proponiamo un’analisi comparativa generale per stabilire la desiderabilità di un metodo rispetto all’altro in relazione alla struttura delle aliquote, alla tipologia dei soggetti coinvolti, alle politiche di commercializzazione. I risultati sono applicati per valutare il meccanismo di formazione dei prezzi nel mercato dell’arte. Si propongono degli interventi di riforma per rendere il regime fiscale neutrale e...
A Top Dog Tale with Preference Rigidities - Randon, Emanuela; Simmons, Peter
With preference rigidities we find Pareto optima of an exchange economy, some of which involve unconsumed endowments. We show that such Pareto Optima can only be attained as market equilibria if there is a top dog in the initial endowment distribution who is richer than the
other individuals. The most inegalitarian efficient allocation favouring the top dog is globally stable and is in the core. For endowment distributions with a top dog, the core contains efficient allocations more equal than the market equilibrium. A voting mechanism or government policy
can also offset the top dog’s power.
Measuring Consumption Externalities - Randon, Emanuela
Estimation and measurement of consumption externalities are still challenging problems in applied research. In this paper, externalities as Nash equilibrium are estimated using consumer demand theory and a large data set. We estimate Nash equilibrium consumption externalities in petrol budget shares of households living in a metropolitan area in UK. The reaction curves are derived from an Almost Ideal Demand
System (AIDS) with externalities. A continuous set of ten year cross sections from the Family Expenditure Surveys is used. In each year, income decile cohorts are created. Results of 2SLS with Panel Data are presented after 2SLS estimates with pooling cross...
Structural distortions in the Euro interbank market: The role of ‘key players’ during the recent market turmoil - Liberati, Caterina; Marzo, Massimiliano; Zagaglia , Paolo; Zappa, Paola
We study the frictions in the patterns of trades in the Euro money market. We characterize the structure of lending relations during the period of recent financial turmoil. We use network-topology method on data from overnight transactions in the Electronic Market for Interbank Deposits (e-Mid) to investigate on two main issues. First, we characterize the division of roles between borrowers and lenders in long-run relations by providing evidence on network formation at a yearly frequency. Second, we identify the ‘key players’ in the marketplace and study their behaviour. Key players are ‘locally-central banks’ within a network that lend (or borrow)...
Do Households Anchor their Inflation Expectations? Theory and Evidence from a Household Survey - Easaw, Joshy; Golinelli, Roberto; Malgarini, Marco
The purpose of the present paper is to study how households form inflation expectations. Using a novel survey-base dataset of Italian households’ opinions of inflation we investigate two separate, but related, types of behavior: ‘inattentiveness’ and ‘anchoring’. The present analysis extends the existing literature by incorporating explicitly inflation targets and distinguishing between aggregate and disaggregate dynamics based on demographic groups. In addition, we extend the literature by considering both the short- and long-run dynamics as households update their inflation expectations while also accounting for their state-varying behavior. All these issues provide important insights into understanding actual inflation dynamics and the...
A strategy to reduce the count of moment conditions in panel data GMM - Bontempi, Maria Elena; Mammi, Irene
The problem of instrument proliferation and its consequences (overfitting of endogenous variables, bias of estimates, weakening of Sargan/Hansen test) are well known. The literature provides little guidance on how many instruments is too many. It is common practice to report the instrument count and to test the sensitivity of results to the use of more or fewer instruments.
Strategies to alleviate the instrument proliferation problem are the lag-depth truncation and/or the collapse of the instrument set (the latter being an horizontal squeezing of the instrument matrix). However, such strategies involve either a certain degree of arbitrariness (based on the ability and...
Poor Institutions, Rich Mines: Resource Curse and the Origins of the Sicilian Mafia - Buonanno, Paolo; Durante , Ruben; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo
This study explains the emergence of the Sicilian mafia in the XIX century as the product of the interaction between natural resource abundance and weak institutions. We advance the hypothesis that the mafia emerged after the collapse of the Bourbon Kingdom in a context characterized by a severe lack of state property-right enforcement in response to the rising demand for the protection of sulfur - Sicily's most valuable export commodity - whose demand in the international markets was soaring at the time. We test this hypothesis combining data on the early presence of the mafia and on the distribution of...
Self-Financing of Traditional and R&D Investments: Evidence from Italian SMEs - Brighi, Paola; Patuelli, Roberto; Torluccio, Giuseppe
Self-financing has often been seen as an important source for research-and-development (R&D) funding. However, an in-depth comparison between the determinants of self-financing in the case of traditional investments versus those in R&D has not been provided yet. We use a comprehensive data set of Italian manufacturing firms to investigate this issue. We analyse the role of a wide number of financial variables in driving the rate of self-financing of firms, in both traditional and R&D investments, and we focus on public subsidies and firm size as critical factors explaining heterogeneity. First, we perform logit and logistic regressions separately for traditional...
Does inequality harm democracy? An empirical investigation
on the UK - Soci, Anna; Maccagnan, Anna; Mantovani, Daniela
This paper presents an empirical investigation about the effect of an increase in economic inequality on some aspects of the quality of a democracy. The main novelty of the paper lies in its methodology: it applies to a single country (instead of a pool of countries) - the UK - in a long run perspective. Using survey data, we select three questions and check whether an increase in inequality alters the answers to these questions, subject to other control variables. Another novelty is the use of several measures of inequality (rather than the usual GINI only) both for disentangling what...
La responsiveness dei sistemi sanitari: un’analisi empirica sull’assistenza ospedaliera nel Servizio Sanitario Regionale dell’Emilia Romagna - Robone, Silvana; Fiorentini, Gianluca; Nicoli, M. Augusta; Stefania, Rodella
The release of the World Health Report 2000 has brought to the fore the concept of responsiveness as an indicator of
health system performance. Responsiveness relates to a system’s ability to respond to the legitimate expectations of potential users about non-health enhancing aspects of care (Valentine et al. 2003). A few studies have investigated how standard socio-demographic characteristics (such as income or education) have an influence on the evaluation of responsiveness by health care users (Puentes Rosas et al. 2006, Sirven et al. 2012, Rice et al. 2012). However, we are not aware of any study investigating the relationship between the...
Are bad health and pain making us grumpy? An empirical evaluation of reporting heterogeneity in rating health system responsiveness - Fiorentini, Gianluca; Ragazzi, Giovanni; Robone, Silvana
This paper considers the influence of patients’ characteristics on their evaluation of a health system’s responsiveness, that is, a system’s ability to respond to the legitimate expectations of potential users regarding non-health enhancing aspects of care (Valentine et al. 2003a). Since responsiveness is evaluated by patients on a categorical scale, their selfevaluation can be affected by the phenomenon of reporting heterogeneity (Rice et al. 2012).
A few studies have investigated how standard socio-demographic characteristics influence the reporting style of health care users with regard to the question of the health system’s responsiveness (Sirven et al. 2012, Rice et al. 2012). However,...