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Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 857
L’imposta sul valore aggiunto: regime ordinario e regime del margine a confronto. Il caso del mercato dell’arte - Candela, Guido; Randon, Emanuela; Scorcu, Antonello Eugenio
In letteratura, il confronto tra i metodi di calcolo dell’imposta sul valore aggiunto (regime ordinario e regime del margine) è limitato: si riduce al risultato di equivalenza ottenuto con aliquote identiche e uniformi nelle diverse fasi della produzione e dello scambio. In questo lavoro proponiamo un’analisi comparativa generale per stabilire la desiderabilità di un metodo rispetto all’altro in relazione alla struttura delle aliquote, alla tipologia dei soggetti coinvolti, alle politiche di commercializzazione. I risultati sono applicati per valutare il meccanismo di formazione dei prezzi nel mercato dell’arte. Si propongono degli interventi di riforma per rendere il regime fiscale neutrale e...
A Top Dog Tale with Preference Rigidities - Randon, Emanuela; Simmons, Peter
With preference rigidities we find Pareto optima of an exchange economy, some of which involve unconsumed endowments. We show that such Pareto Optima can only be attained as market equilibria if there is a top dog in the initial endowment distribution who is richer than the
other individuals. The most inegalitarian efficient allocation favouring the top dog is globally stable and is in the core. For endowment distributions with a top dog, the core contains efficient allocations more equal than the market equilibrium. A voting mechanism or government policy
can also offset the top dog’s power.
Measuring Consumption Externalities - Randon, Emanuela
Estimation and measurement of consumption externalities are still challenging problems in applied research. In this paper, externalities as Nash equilibrium are estimated using consumer demand theory and a large data set. We estimate Nash equilibrium consumption externalities in petrol budget shares of households living in a metropolitan area in UK. The reaction curves are derived from an Almost Ideal Demand
System (AIDS) with externalities. A continuous set of ten year cross sections from the Family Expenditure Surveys is used. In each year, income decile cohorts are created. Results of 2SLS with Panel Data are presented after 2SLS estimates with pooling cross...
Structural distortions in the Euro interbank market: The role of ‘key players’ during the recent market turmoil - Liberati, Caterina; Marzo, Massimiliano; Zagaglia , Paolo; Zappa, Paola
We study the frictions in the patterns of trades in the Euro money market. We characterize the structure of lending relations during the period of recent financial turmoil. We use network-topology method on data from overnight transactions in the Electronic Market for Interbank Deposits (e-Mid) to investigate on two main issues. First, we characterize the division of roles between borrowers and lenders in long-run relations by providing evidence on network formation at a yearly frequency. Second, we identify the ‘key players’ in the marketplace and study their behaviour. Key players are ‘locally-central banks’ within a network that lend (or borrow)...
Do Households Anchor their Inflation Expectations? Theory and Evidence from a Household Survey - Easaw, Joshy; Golinelli, Roberto; Malgarini, Marco
The purpose of the present paper is to study how households form inflation expectations. Using a novel survey-base dataset of Italian households’ opinions of inflation we investigate two separate, but related, types of behavior: ‘inattentiveness’ and ‘anchoring’. The present analysis extends the existing literature by incorporating explicitly inflation targets and distinguishing between aggregate and disaggregate dynamics based on demographic groups. In addition, we extend the literature by considering both the short- and long-run dynamics as households update their inflation expectations while also accounting for their state-varying behavior. All these issues provide important insights into understanding actual inflation dynamics and the...
A strategy to reduce the count of moment conditions in panel data GMM - Bontempi, Maria Elena; Mammi, Irene
The problem of instrument proliferation and its consequences (overfitting of endogenous variables, bias of estimates, weakening of Sargan/Hansen test) are well known. The literature provides little guidance on how many instruments is too many. It is common practice to report the instrument count and to test the sensitivity of results to the use of more or fewer instruments.
Strategies to alleviate the instrument proliferation problem are the lag-depth truncation and/or the collapse of the instrument set (the latter being an horizontal squeezing of the instrument matrix). However, such strategies involve either a certain degree of arbitrariness (based on the ability and...
Poor Institutions, Rich Mines: Resource Curse and the Origins of the Sicilian Mafia - Buonanno, Paolo; Durante , Ruben; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo
This study explains the emergence of the Sicilian mafia in the XIX century as the product of the interaction between natural resource abundance and weak institutions. We advance the hypothesis that the mafia emerged after the collapse of the Bourbon Kingdom in a context characterized by a severe lack of state property-right enforcement in response to the rising demand for the protection of sulfur - Sicily's most valuable export commodity - whose demand in the international markets was soaring at the time. We test this hypothesis combining data on the early presence of the mafia and on the distribution of...
Self-Financing of Traditional and R&D Investments: Evidence from Italian SMEs - Brighi, Paola; Patuelli, Roberto; Torluccio, Giuseppe
Self-financing has often been seen as an important source for research-and-development (R&D) funding. However, an in-depth comparison between the determinants of self-financing in the case of traditional investments versus those in R&D has not been provided yet. We use a comprehensive data set of Italian manufacturing firms to investigate this issue. We analyse the role of a wide number of financial variables in driving the rate of self-financing of firms, in both traditional and R&D investments, and we focus on public subsidies and firm size as critical factors explaining heterogeneity. First, we perform logit and logistic regressions separately for traditional...
Does inequality harm democracy? An empirical investigation
on the UK - Soci, Anna; Maccagnan, Anna; Mantovani, Daniela
This paper presents an empirical investigation about the effect of an increase in economic inequality on some aspects of the quality of a democracy. The main novelty of the paper lies in its methodology: it applies to a single country (instead of a pool of countries) - the UK - in a long run perspective. Using survey data, we select three questions and check whether an increase in inequality alters the answers to these questions, subject to other control variables. Another novelty is the use of several measures of inequality (rather than the usual GINI only) both for disentangling what...
La responsiveness dei sistemi sanitari: un’analisi empirica sull’assistenza ospedaliera nel Servizio Sanitario Regionale dell’Emilia Romagna - Robone, Silvana; Fiorentini, Gianluca; Nicoli, M. Augusta; Stefania, Rodella
The release of the World Health Report 2000 has brought to the fore the concept of responsiveness as an indicator of
health system performance. Responsiveness relates to a system’s ability to respond to the legitimate expectations of potential users about non-health enhancing aspects of care (Valentine et al. 2003). A few studies have investigated how standard socio-demographic characteristics (such as income or education) have an influence on the evaluation of responsiveness by health care users (Puentes Rosas et al. 2006, Sirven et al. 2012, Rice et al. 2012). However, we are not aware of any study investigating the relationship between the...
Are bad health and pain making us grumpy? An empirical evaluation of reporting heterogeneity in rating health system responsiveness - Fiorentini, Gianluca; Ragazzi, Giovanni; Robone, Silvana
This paper considers the influence of patients’ characteristics on their evaluation of a health system’s responsiveness, that is, a system’s ability to respond to the legitimate expectations of potential users regarding non-health enhancing aspects of care (Valentine et al. 2003a). Since responsiveness is evaluated by patients on a categorical scale, their selfevaluation can be affected by the phenomenon of reporting heterogeneity (Rice et al. 2012).
A few studies have investigated how standard socio-demographic characteristics influence the reporting style of health care users with regard to the question of the health system’s responsiveness (Sirven et al. 2012, Rice et al. 2012). However,...
Separating Gender Composition Effect from Peer Effects in Education - Jahanshahi, Babak
This paper aims to highlight the importance of considering endogenous peer effects, as defined by Manski (1993), in order to identify gender composition effect on education outcome appropriately. Using Manski (1993) linear-in-means model, this paper illustrates that the gender composition effect that is currently estimated in education function is the function of three parameters: social multiplier, gender differences in outcome and gender composition effect (known as a gender peer effect). The appropriate gender peer effect is identified after using Graham's variance restriction method to identify and rule out a social multiplier effect. The findings suggest that a social multiplier plays...
Production theory: accounting for firm heterogeneity and technical change - Dosi, Giovanni; Grazzi, Marco; Marengo, Luigi; Settepanella, Simona
The paper presents a new framework to assess firm level heterogeneity and to study the rate and direction of technical change. Building on the analysis of revealed short-run production functions by Hildenbrand (1981), we propose the (normalized) volume of the zonotope composed by vectors-firms in a narrowly defined industry as an indicator of inter-firm heterogeneity. Moreover, the angles that the main diagonal of the zonotope form with the axes provide a measure of the rates and directions of technical change over time. The proposed framework can easily account for n-inputs and m-outputs and, crucially, the measures of heterogeneity and technical...
Trade, externalities, and the impact of asymmetric information on trade policy - Gori, Giuseppe Francesco; Lambertini, Luca
This paper investigates the relationship between trade liberalisation, consumers' environmental awareness and a negative environmental externality in consumption. We adopt an international Hotelling duopoly setup, where firms are located in two asymmetric countries. We find that, if the intensity of environmental externality is common knowledge for country governments, this setup delivers no need of accompanying trade policies in order to enforce trade liberalisation. In the opposite case, in which information is asymmetric, i.e., the small country's Government cannot observe the positive enviromental effects of its firm's exports to foreign consumers, we find that: (i) the Pareto optimum is always enforced,...
R&D for green technologies in a dynamic oligopoly: Schumpeter, Arrow and inverted-U’s - Feichtinger, Gustav; Lambertini, Luca; Leitmann, George; Wrzaczek, Stefan
We extend a well known differential oligopoly game to encompass the possibility for production to generate a negative environmental externality, regulated through Pigouvian taxation and price caps. We show that, if the price cap is set so as to fix the tolerable maximum amount of emissions, the resulting equilibrium investment in green R&D is indeed concave in the structure of the industry. Our analysis appears to indicate that inverted-U-shaped investment curves are generated by regulatory measures instead of being a "natural" feature of firms’ decisions.
Bankruptcy Remoteness and Incentive-compatible Securitization - Chiesa, Gabriella
ecuritization performs two functions. One refers to the risk allocation between the bank and outside investors; the other consists of creating transferable/liquid securities. A key ingredient of liquid/claimtransferability is bankruptcy remoteness - the insolvency of the sponsor (the loan originator) has no impact on the securities. We explore the implications of bankruptcy remoteness on risk allocation and regulatory/policy issues. Under traditional banking, when debt/deposits coexist with securitization, bankruptcy remoteness amounts to: i) a seniority structure when debt/deposits (the claim that insist on the bank as a whole) have the lowest priority; ii) the bank finds it optimal to grant securities...
Safe Assets’ Scarcity, Liquidity and Spreads - Chiesa, Gabriella
This paper constructs a simple general equilibrium model to analyse the interactions between the financial and the real sector in an environment where liquidity holdings is an input of the credit/investment process. The supply of liquidity is constrained in that income pledgeability limits inside liquidity, and not all sovereign debt is safe/liquid. We pin down the determinants of liquidity/collateral premia and bond spreads, and with reference to the eurozone: (i) the implications of the ECB’s policies on liquidity provision and credit, and (ii) the debt management policy that would increase welfare with
no need for transfer payments.
Arts vs Engineering: The Choice among Consumption of and Investment in Education - Romano, Richard; Tampieri, Alessandro
In this paper we develop a model in which students choose their university coursework based on both investment and consumption incentives. We show that these education decisions are socially inefficient. This result is driven by the fact that students do not consider an externality in the working environment of acquiring education for investment purposes. We show when and how it is possible to design tuition fees in such a way that students acquire the socially optimal level of education.
Process Innovation and Product Quality Improvement in a Dynamic Monopoly - Lambertini, Luca; Orsini, Raimondello
We investigate the optimal R&D portfolio of a single-product monopolist investing in cost-reducing activities accompanied by efforts improving the quality of its product. There emerges that the firm’s relative incentives along the two directions are conditional upon market affluency, measured by consumers’ willingness to pay for quality, and R&D efforts are complements at equilibrium. We also perform the stability analysis, showing that a stable branch exists along the quality dimension only.