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AMS Acta (8,294 recursos)
Repository of the University of Bologna.

["viewname_eprint_types" not defined] = Monografia

Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 982

41. Optimal Commodity Taxation and Income Distribution - Benassi, Corrado; Randon, Emanuela
We consider the interplay between income distribution and optimal commodity taxation, linking equity issues to optimal taxes through the effect of income distribution on market demand and its price elasticity. We find conditions to conciliate the equity and efficiency tradeoff and to assess the impact of inequality changes on the optimal taxation of necessity and luxury goods. We show that the regressivity or progressivity of the tax system is determined by the distribution of luxuries and necessities in the economy. If the tax system is regressive (progressive), a decrease (increase) of income inequality leads to an average decrease of the optimal...

42. Ranking Bertrand, Cournot and Supply Function Equilibria in Oligopoly - Delbono, Flavio; Lambertini, Luca
We show that the standard argument according to which supply function equilibria rank intermediate between Bertrand and Cournot equilibria may be reversed. We prove this result within a static oligopolistic game in which both supply function competition and Cournot competition yield a unique Nash equilibrium, whereas price setting yields a continuum of Nash equilibria. There are parameter regions in which Bertrand profits are higher than Cournot ones, with the latter being higher than in the supply function equilibrium. Such reversal of the typical ranking occurs when price-setting mimics collusion. We then show that the reversal in profits is responsible for...

43. Scholarships vs. training for happiness gained from education in creativity: an analytical model - Zagonari, Fabio
This paper presents an analytical model of the dynamic interrelationships between education, creativity, and happiness based on both theoretical insights and recent empirical neurological studies. In the model, the outcome is conditional on individual intelligence and risk aversion. Specifically, it focuses on two main determinants of creativity (divergent and convergent thinking), and compares two main educational policies (scholarships vs. training) in terms of their impacts on the happiness gained from creativity in the general and healthy population. An empirical test is provided by matching the model’s predictions with the results of recent neuroscience research. Numerical simulations suggested that improving convergent...

44. Students' Social Origins and Targeted Grade Inflation - Tampieri, Alessandro
Having unique data we investigate the link between job separations (displacement and quits) and informal employment, which we define in several ways posing the general question whether the burden of informality falls disproportionately on job separators in the Russian labor market. After we have established positive causal effects of displacement and quits on informal employment we analyze whether displaced workers experience more involuntary informal employment than their non-displaced counterparts. Our main results confirm our contention that displacement entraps some of the workers in involuntary informal employment. Those who quit, in turn, experience voluntary informality for the most part, but there...

45. Measuring market liquidity: An introductory survey - Gabrielsen, Alexandros; Marzo, Massimiliano; Zagaglia, Paolo
Asset liquidity in modern financial markets is a key but elusive concept. A market is often said to be liquid when the prevailing structure of transactions provides a prompt and secure link between the demand and supply of assets, thus delivering low costs of transaction. Providing a rigorous and empirically relevant definition of market liquidity has, however, provided to be a difficult task. This paper provides a critical review of the frameworks currently available for modelling and estimating the market liquidity of assets. We consider definitions that stress the role of the bid-ask spread and the estimation of its components...

46. The Interplay of Human and Social Capital in Shaping Entrepreneurial Performance: The Case of Vietnam - Santarelli, Enrico; Thu Tran, Hien
This study investigates the effects of human capital, social capital and their interaction on the performance of 1,398 Vietnamese new-born firms. Operating profit is used as the measure of success. Human capital is captured by individual-level professional education, start-up experience, and learning. Whereas the first two dimensions of human capital are measured with traditional indicators, we define learning as ability to accumulate knowledge to conduct innovation activities (new product introduction, product innovation and process innovation). Social capital is measured as benefits obtained from personal strong-tie and weak-tie networks. Key findings are three-fold: (i) human capital strongly predicts firm success, with learning...

47. The Change of Job Opportunities: the Role of Computerization and Institutions - Nellas, Viki; Olivieri, Elisabetta
This paper studies the pattern of job opportunities over the last two decades in European countries. We find that the share of high-skilled jobs have been expanding over time, while the share of medium-skilled jobs have been declining. These changes are in line with the US patterns and, according to the previous literature, they come from recent technological changes. However, our data show an interesting difference between the US and Europe: in Europe there is not any increase in the share of low-skilled employment. Moreover, we find that the difference between the proportion of employment hired in low-skilled and medium-skilled...

48. Are Self-regarding Subjects More Strategic? - Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca
To investigate the relationship between the depth of strategic thinking and social preferences we ask subjects in an experiment to perform dictator games and a guessing game. The guessing game measures depth of strategic thinking while dictator games control for social preferences. When performing a comparison within the same degree of strategic reasoning, self-regarding subjects show more strategic sophistication than other subjects.

49. On price competition with market share delegation contracts - Lambertini, Luca; Kopel, Michael
We identify a mistake in the specification of the demand system used in the strategic delegation model based on market shares by Jansen et al. (2007), whereby the price remains above marginal cost when goods are homogeneous. After amending this aspect, we perform a profit comparison with the alternative delegation scheme à la Fershtman and Judd (1987)

50. On the (non) existence of a price equilibrium in delegation games with relative performance compensation - Kopel, Michael; Lambertini, Luca
We show that Miller and Pazgal.s (2001) model of strategic delegation, in which managerial incentives are based upon relative performance, is affected by a non-existence problem which has impact on the price equilibrium. The undercutting incentives generating this result are indeed similar to those affecting the stability of price cartels.

51. Ethnic Concentration, Cultural Identity and Immigrant Self-Employment in Switzerland - Guerra, Giuliano; Patuelli, Roberto; Maggi, Rico
Immigrant self-employment rates vary considerably across regions in Switzerland. Business ownership provides an alternative to wage labour, where immigrants have to face structural barriers such as the limited knowledge of the local language, or difficulties in fruitfully making use of their own human capital. Despite their historically high unemployment rates with respect to natives, immigrants in Switzerland are less entrepreneurial. It is therefore important to uncover factors that may facilitate the transition from the status of immigrant to the one of economic agent. Among others factors, concentration in ethnic enclaves, as well as accumulated labour market experience and time elapsed since...

52. Cross-border intellectual property rights: contract enforcement and absorptive capacity - Naghavi, Alireza; Tsai, Yingyi
This paper studies cross-border intellectual property rights (IPR) as a North-South contract using a Nash bargaining approach and distinguishes between the outcome and its actual enforcement. The absorptive capacity of the Southern country to exploit technology transfer plays a key role in the negotiated level of IPRs and its post-treaty enforcement. The optimal level of IPR protection relates positively to absorptive capacity. This provides a rationale for the longer time-frame provided to least developed countries in Article 66 of TRIPS to implement its provisions. In addition, monitoring is only effective in preventing contract violation up to a critical level of...

53. Trade Costs, FDI incentives, and the Intensity of Price Competition - Gori, Giuseppe Francesco; Lambertini, Luca; Tampieri, Alessandro
Empirical evidence shows that an increase in trade liberalisation causes an increase in foreign direct investments (FDIs). Here we propose an explanation to this apparent puzzle by exploiting the intensity of competition in a Bertrand duopoly with convex costs where the two firms enter in a new market. We adopt Dastidar's (1995) approach, delivering a continuum of Bertrand-Nash equilibria ranging above marginal cost pricing, to show that softening competition may indeed more than offset the standard effect generated by trade costs, thereby leading to a positive relationship between trade liberalisation and FDIs.

54. Religious attitudes and home bias: theory and evidence from a pilot study - Leroch, Martin; Reggiani, Carlo; Rossini, Gianpaolo; Zucchelli, Eugenio
This paper examines the relationship between religion and home bias. We propose a simple theoretical framework that suggests that countries interacting via their representative individuals might show a certain degree of religion-driven international altruism that in turn affects trade. We test these predictions exploiting data from a survey on religious attitudes and individuals' preferences over consumption of home-produced versus foreign goods that we designed and carried out in 15 different countries. We find evidence that religious openness and home bias are negatively correlated. This appears to provide some support to the hypothesis that religious openness, through trust and altruism, may have...

55. Religious attitudes and home bias: theory and evidence from a pilot study - Lambertini, Luca; Tampieri, Alessandro
We compare a Bertrand with a Cournot duopoly in a setting where production is polluting and exploits natural resources, and firms bear convex production costs. We adopt Dastidar's (1995) approach, yielding a continuum of Bertrand-Nash equilibria ranging above marginal cost pricing also, to show that softening price competition may lead to a lower output production in a Bertrand rather than a Cournot industry. The market structure bringing about the lowest output determines the highest social welfare, given the fact that the negative environmental effects of production more than offset the gain in consumer surplus.

56. Efficient Horizontal Mergers in Polluting Industries with Cournot Competition - Lambertini, Luca; Tampieri, Alessandro
We compare a Bertrand with a Cournot duopoly in a setting where production is polluting and exploits natural resources, and firms bear convex production costs. We adopt Dastidar's (1995) approach, yielding a continuum of Bertrand-Nash equilibria ranging above marginal cost pricing also, to show that softening price competition may lead to a lower output production in a Bertrand rather than a Cournot industry. The market structure bringing about the lowest output determines the highest social welfare, given the fact that the negative environmental effects of production more than offset the gain in consumer surplus.

57. The strategic interplay between bundling and merging in complementary markets - Mantovani, Andrea; Vandekerckhove, Jan
In this paper, two pairs of complementors have to decide whether to merge and eventually bundle their products. Depending on the degree of competitive pressure in the market, either both pairs decide to merge (with or without bundling), or only one pair merges and bundles, while rivals remain independent. The latter case can very harmful for consumers as it brings surge in prices. We also consider the case in which one pair moves first. Interestingly, we find a parametric region where first movers merge but refrain from bundling, to not induce rivals to merge as well.

58. Social Expenditures at Sub-National Level: An Experience from Indian state of Odisha - Sahu, Pareswar; Mahapatra, Sushanta Kumar
The composition and trends of social expenditures at sub-national level in India has been examined using the secondary data from 1987-88 to 2013-14 of the state of Odisha. The composition shows (1) the insignificant share of productive social expenditures, (2) significant share of education relegating the role of health care and (3) higher priority of transfer payments relative to the level of employment and health. The comparative analysis of the composition between pre and post-restructuring period indicates the shifting of priority from education and health towards transfer payments in the later than the former period. The level of social expenditures...

59. Does death make us all equal? Conformism and status-seeking under mortality salience - Orsini, Raimondello; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Giannetti, Caterina
The thought of one’s own death induces anxiety and threatens self-esteem. According to Terror Management Theory, to reduce this existential threat individuals typically embrace their cultural worldview, and seek for an increase in self-esteem and status by improving their productivity. Within an experimental economy setting, this paper investigates the effect of Mortality Salience (MS) on individual productivity, using for the first time a real-effort task where the economic incentive is to not perform. We investigated whether the improvement in productivity was significantly driven by self-esteem or status seeking, providing either private feedback alone or, additionally, public feedback. Always controlling for...

60. Endogenous Timing in Quality Investments and Price Competition - Lambertini, Luca; Tampieri, Alessandro
We modify the price-setting version of the vertically differentiated duopoly model by Aoki (2003) by introducing an extended game in which firms noncooperatively choose the timing of moves at the quality stage. Our results show that there are multiple equilibria in pure strategies, in which firms always select sequential play at the quality stage. We also investigate the mixed-strategy equilibrium, revealing that the probability of generating outcomes out of equilibrium is higher than its complement to one. In the alternative of full market coverage, we show that the quality stage is solved in dominant strategies and therefore the choice of...

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