PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 694
Nuclear inheritance and genetic exchange without meiosis in the binucleate parasite Giardia intestinalis - Carpenter, Meredith L.; Assaf, Zoe June; Gourguechon, Stéphane; Cande, W. Zacheus
The protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (also known as Giardia lamblia) is a major waterborne pathogen. During its life cycle, Giardia alternates between the actively growing trophozoite, which has two diploid nuclei with low levels of allelic heterozygosity, and the infectious cyst, which has four nuclei and a tough outer wall. Although the formation of the cyst wall has been studied extensively, we still lack basic knowledge about many fundamental aspects of the cyst, including the sources of the four nuclei and their distribution during the transformation from cyst into trophozoite. In this study, we tracked the identities of the nuclei...
Regulation of sphingolipid synthesis through Orm1 and Orm2 in yeast - Liu, Ming; Huang, Chunjuan; Polu, Surendranath R.; Schneiter, Roger; Chang, Amy
Sphingolipids are crucial components of membranes, and sphingolipid metabolites serve as signaling molecules. Yeast Orm1 and Orm2 belong to a conserved family of ER membrane proteins that regulate serine palmitoyltransferase, which catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid synthesis. We now show that sphingolipid synthesis through Orm1 is a target of TOR signaling, which regulates cell growth in response to nutritional signals. Orm1 phosphorylation is dependent on the Tap42–phosphatase complex, which acts downstream of TOR protein kinase complex 1. In temperature-sensitive tap42-11 cells, impaired Orm1 phosphorylation occurs concomitantly with reduced sphingolipid synthesis. A second mechanism for regulating sphingolipid synthesis...
Chronic photo-oxidative stress and subsequent MCP-1 activation as causative factors for age-related macular degeneration - Suzuki, Mihoko; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Du, Zhao-Jiang; Xie, Ping; Matsumura, Nagakazu; Fu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Renliang; Sonoda, Koh-hei; Egashira, Kensuke; Hazen, Stanley L.; Kamei, Motohiro
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Although pathogenic factors, such as oxidative stress, inflammation and genetics are thought to contribute to the development of AMD, little is known about the relationships and priorities between these factors. Here, we show that chronic photo-oxidative stress is an environmental factor involved in AMD pathogenesis. We first demonstrated that exposure to light induced phospholipid oxidation in the mouse retina, which was more prominent in aged animals. The induced oxidized phospholipids led to an increase in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which then resulted...
Autophagy and cell growth – the yin and yang of nutrient responses - Neufeld, Thomas P.
As a response to nutrient deprivation and other cell stresses, autophagy is often induced in the context of reduced or arrested cell growth. A plethora of signaling molecules and pathways have been shown to have opposing effects on cell growth and autophagy, and results of recent functional screens on a genomic scale support the idea that these processes might represent mutually exclusive cell fates. Understanding the ways in which autophagy and cell growth relate to one another is becoming increasingly important, as new roles for autophagy in tumorigenesis and other growth-related phenomena are uncovered. This Commentary highlights recent findings that...
PTEN at a glance - Shi, Yuji; Paluch, Benjamin E.; Wang, Xinjiang; Jiang, Xuejun
Supervillin couples myosin-dependent contractility to podosomes and enables their turnover - Bhuwania, Ridhirama; Cornfine, Susanne; Fang, Zhiyou; Krüger, Marcus; Luna, Elizabeth J.; Linder, Stefan
Podosomes are actin-rich adhesion and invasion structures. Especially in macrophages, podosomes exist in two subpopulations, large precursors at the cell periphery and smaller podosomes (successors) in the cell interior. To date, the mechanisms that differentially regulate these subpopulations are largely unknown. Here, we show that the membrane-associated protein supervillin localizes preferentially to successor podosomes and becomes enriched at precursors immediately before their dissolution. Consistently, podosome numbers are inversely correlated with supervillin protein levels. Using deletion constructs, we find that the myosin II regulatory N-terminus of supervillin [SV(1–174)] is crucial for these effects. Phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC) localizes at supervillin-positive...
PDGFRβ expression and function in fibroblasts derived from pluripotent cells is linked to DNA demethylation - Hewitt, Kyle J.; Shamis, Yulia; Knight, Elana; Smith, Avi; Maione, Anna; Alt-Holland, Addy; Sheridan, Steven D.; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Garlick, Jonathan A.
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRβ) is required for the development of mesenchymal cell types, and plays a diverse role in the function of fibroblasts in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. In this study, we characterized the expression of PDGFRβ in fibroblasts derived from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and showed that this expression is important for cellular functions such as migration, extracellular matrix production and assembly in 3D self-assembled tissues. To determine potential regulatory regions predictive of expression of PDGFRβ following differentiation from ESCs and iPSCs, we analyzed the DNA methylation status of a region...
Micro-environmental control of cell migration – myosin IIA is required for efficient migration in fibrillar environments through control of cell adhesion dynamics - Doyle, Andrew D.; Kutys, Matthew L.; Conti, Mary Anne; Matsumoto, Kazue; Adelstein, Robert S.; Yamada, Kenneth M.
Recent evidence suggests that organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) into aligned fibrils or fibril-like ECM topographies promotes rapid migration in fibroblasts. However, the mechanisms of cell migration that are altered by these changes in micro-environmental topography remain unknown. Here, using 1D fibrillar migration as a model system for oriented fibrillar 3D matrices, we find that fibroblast leading-edge dynamics are enhanced by 1D fibrillar micropatterns and demonstrate a dependence on the spatial positioning of cell adhesions. Although 1D, 2D and 3D matrix adhesions have similar assembly kinetics, both 1D and 3D adhesions are stabilized for prolonged periods, whereas both paxillin...
Functional differences between kindlin-1 and kindlin-2 in keratinocytes - Bandyopadhyay, Aditi; Rothschild, Gerson; Kim, Sean; Calderwood, David A.; Raghavan, Srikala
Integrin-β1-null keratinocytes can adhere to fibronectin through integrin αvβ6, but form large peripheral focal adhesions and exhibit defective cell spreading. Here we report that, in addition to the reduced avidity of αvβ6 integrin binding to fibronectin, the inability of integrin β6 to efficiently bind and recruit kindlin-2 to focal adhesions directly contributes to these phenotypes. Kindlins regulate integrins through direct interactions with the integrin-β cytoplasmic tail and keratinocytes express kindlin-1 and kindlin-2. Notably, although both kindlins localize to focal adhesions in wild-type cells, only kindlin-1 localizes to the integrin-β6-rich adhesions of integrin-β1-null cells. Rescue of these cells with wild-type and...
Keratin 8 phosphorylation regulates keratin reorganization and migration of epithelial tumor cells - Busch, Tobias; Armacki, Milena; Eiseler, Tim; Joodi, Golsa; Temme, Claudia; Jansen, Julia; von Wichert, Götz; Omary, M. Bishr; Spatz, Joachim; Seufferlein, Thomas
Cell migration and invasion are largely dependent on the complex organization of the various cytoskeletal components. Whereas the role of actin filaments and microtubules in cell motility is well established, the role of intermediate filaments in this process is incompletely understood. Organization and structure of the keratin cytoskeleton, which consists of heteropolymers of at least one type 1 and one type 2 intermediate filament, are in part regulated by post-translational modifications. In particular, phosphorylation events influence the properties of the keratin network. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a bioactive lipid with the exceptional ability to change the organization of the keratin cytoskeleton,...
VANGL2 regulates membrane trafficking of MMP14 to control cell polarity and migration - Williams, B. Blairanne; Cantrell, V. Ashley; Mundell, Nathan A.; Bennett, Andrea C.; Quick, Rachel E.; Jessen, Jason R.
Planar cell polarity (PCP) describes the polarized orientation of cells within the plane of a tissue. Unlike epithelial PCP, the mechanisms underlying PCP signaling in migrating cells remain undefined. Here, the establishment of PCP must be coordinated with dynamic changes in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. During gastrulation, the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP or MMP14) is required for PCP and convergence and extension cell movements. We report that the PCP protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) regulates the endocytosis and cell-surface availability of MMP14 in manner that is dependent on focal adhesion kinase. We demonstrate that zebrafish trilobite/vangl2 mutant...
A conserved role of IQGAP1 in regulating TOR complex 1 - Tekletsadik, Yemsrach K.; Sonn, Robert; Osman, Mahasin A.
Defining the mechanisms that control cell growth and division is crucial to understanding cell homeostasis, which impacts human diseases such as cancer and diabetes. IQGAP1, a widely conserved effector and/or regulator of the GTPase CDC42, is a putative oncoprotein that controls cell proliferation; however, its mechanism in tumorigenesis is unknown. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, the center of cell growth control, is commonly activated in human cancers, but has proved to be an ineffective clinical target because of an incomplete understanding of its mechanisms in cell growth inhibition. Using complementary studies in yeast and mammalian cells, we examined...
Disruption of Kif3a in osteoblasts results in defective bone formation and osteopenia - Qiu, Ni; Xiao, Zhousheng; Cao, Li; Buechel, Meagan M.; David, Valentin; Roan, Esra; Quarles, L. Darryl
We investigated whether Kif3a in osteoblasts has a direct role in regulating postnatal bone formation. We conditionally deleted Kif3a in osteoblasts by crossing osteocalcin (Oc; also known as Bglap)–Cre with Kif3aflox/null mice. Conditional Kif3a-null mice (Kif3aOc-cKO) had a 75% reduction in Kif3a transcripts in bone and osteoblasts. Conditional deletion of Kif3a resulted in the reduction of primary cilia number by 51% and length by 27% in osteoblasts. Kif3aOc-cKO mice developed osteopenia by 6 weeks of age unlike Kif3aflox/+ control mice, as evidenced by reductions in femoral bone mineral density (22%), trabecular bone volume (42%) and cortical thickness (17%). By contrast,...
ERα-mediated repression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by glucocorticoids reveals a crucial role for TNFα and IL1α in lumen formation and maintenance - Eritja, Nuria; Mirantes, Cristina; Llobet, David; Masip, Gemma; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavi
Most glandular tissues comprise polarized epithelial cells organized around a single central lumen. Although there is active research investigating the molecular networks involved in the regulation of lumenogenesis, little is known about the extracellular factors that influence lumen formation and maintenance. Using a three-dimensional culture system of epithelial endometrial cells, we have revealed a new role for pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL1α in the formation and, more importantly, maintenance of a single central lumen. We also studied the mechanism by which glucocorticoids repress TNFα and IL1α expression. Interestingly, regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and subsequent lumen formation is...
ZNRF2 is released from membranes by growth factors and, together with ZNRF1, regulates the Na+/K+ATPase - Hoxhaj, Gerta; Najafov, Ayaz; Toth, Rachel; Campbell, David G.; Prescott, Alan R.; MacKintosh, Carol
Here, we describe a phosphorylation-based reverse myristoyl switch for mammalian ZNRF2, and show that this E3 ubiquitin ligase and its sister protein ZNRF1 regulate the Na+/K+ pump (Na+/K+ATPase). N-myristoylation localizes ZNRF1 and ZNRF2 to intracellular membranes and enhances their activity. However, when ZNRF2 is phosphorylated in response to agonists including insulin and growth factors, it binds to 14-3-3 and is released into the cytosol. On membranes, ZNRF1 and ZNRF2 interact with the Na+/K+ATPase α1 subunit via their UBZ domains, while their RING domains interact with E2 proteins, predominantly Ubc13 that, together with Uev1a, mediates formation of Lys63-ubiquitin linkages. ZNRF1 and...
Increased retinoic acid levels through ablation of Cyp26b1 determine the processes of embryonic skin barrier formation and peridermal development - Okano, Junko; Lichti, Ulrike; Mamiya, Satoru; Aronova, Maria; Zhang, Guofeng; Yuspa, Stuart H.; Hamada, Hiroshi; Sakai, Yasuo; Morasso, Maria I.
The process by which the periderm transitions to stratified epidermis with the establishment of the skin barrier is unknown. Understanding the cellular and molecular processes involved is crucial for the treatment of human pathologies, where abnormal skin development and barrier dysfunction are associated with hypothermia and perinatal dehydration. For the first time, we demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) levels are important for periderm desquamation, embryonic skin differentiation and barrier formation. Although excess exogenous RA has been known to have teratogenic effects, little is known about the consequences of elevated endogenous retinoids in skin during embryogenesis. Absence of cytochrome P450, family...
Dystrophin-compromised sarcoglycan-δ-knockout diaphragm requires full wild-type embryonic stem cell reconstitution for correction - Vitale, Joseph M.; Schneider, Joel S.; Beck, Amanda J.; Zhao, Qingshi; Chang, Corey; Gordan, Richard; Michaels, Jennifer; Bhaumik, Mantu; Fraidenraich, Diego
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-2F (LGMD-2F) is an incurable degenerative muscle disorder caused by a mutation in the sarcoglycan-δ (SGδ)-encoding gene (SGCD in humans). The lack of SGδ results in the complete disruption of the sarcoglycan complex (SGC) in the skeletal and cardiac muscle within the larger dystrophin–glycoprotein complex (DGC). The long-term consequences of SG ablation on other members of the DGC are currently unknown. We produced mosaic mice through the injection of wild-type (WT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into SGδ-knockout (KO) blastocysts. ESC-derived SGδ was supplied to the sarcolemma of 18-month-old chimeric muscle, which resulted in the restoration of the SGC....
The IplA Ca2+ channel of Dictyostelium discoideum is necessary for chemotaxis mediated through Ca2+, but not through cAMP, and has a fundamental role in natural aggregation - Lusche, Daniel F.; Wessels, Deborah; Scherer, Amanda; Daniels, Karla; Kuhl, Spencer; Soll, David R.
During aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum, nondissipating, symmetrical, outwardly moving waves of cAMP direct cells towards aggregation centers. It has been assumed that the spatial and temporal characteristics of the front and back of each cAMP wave regulate both chemokinesis and chemotaxis. However, during the period preceding aggregation, cells acquire not only the capacity to chemotax in a spatial gradient of cAMP, but also in a spatial gradient of Ca2+. The null mutant of the putative IplA Ca2+ channel gene, iplA−, undergoes normal chemotaxis in spatial gradients of cAMP and normal chemokinetic responses to increasing temporal gradients of cAMP, both generated...
Involvement of actin polymerization in podosome dynamics - Luxenburg, Chen; Winograd-Katz, Sabina; Addadi, Lia; Geiger, Benjamin
Podosomes, which are formed by different monocyte derivatives, are small adhesion structures whose coordinated dynamics and cytoskeletal reorganization drive their motile and invasive features. Using live-cell microscopy, we explored the temporal molecular steps of the de novo assembly and disassembly of podosomes in cultured osteoclasts. We demonstrate here that the earliest visible step in podosome assembly is the local accumulation of the plaque protein paxillin, along with cortactin, which stabilizes actin networks, followed by robust polymerization of actin filaments and their association with α-actinin. Only then is a local increase in integrin β3 levels apparent in the podosome ring domain....