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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2.996.292 recursos)

Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.230

  1. Epigenetic modifiers reduce inflammation and modulate macrophage phenotype during endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury

    Thangavel, Jayakumar; Samanta, Saheli; Rajasingh, Sheeja; Barani, Bahar; Xuan, Yu-Ting; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Rajasingh, Johnson
    Acute lung injury (ALI) during sepsis is characterized by bilateral alveolar infiltrates, lung edema and respiratory failure. Here, we examined the efficacy the DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-Aza 2-deoxycytidine (Aza), the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA), as well as the combination therapy of Aza and TSA (Aza+TSA) provides in the protection of ALI. In LPS-induced mouse ALI, post-treatment with a single dose of Aza+TSA showed substantial attenuation of adverse lung histopathological changes and inflammation. Importantly, these protective effects were due to substantial macrophage phenotypic changes observed in LPS-stimulated macrophages treated with Aza+TSA as compared with untreated LPS-induced...

  2. Endothelial MMP14 is required for endothelial-dependent growth support of human airway basal cells

    Ding, Bi-Sen; Gomi, Kazunori; Rafii, Shahin; Crystal, Ronald G.; Walters, Matthew S.
    Human airway basal cells are the stem (or progenitor) population of the airway epithelium, and play a central role in anchoring the epithelium to the basement membrane. The anatomic position of basal cells allows for potential paracrine signaling between them and the underlying non-epithelial stromal cells. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that endothelial cells support growth of basal cells during co-culture through vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-mediated signaling. Building on these findings, we found, by RNA sequencing analysis, that basal cells expressed multiple fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligands (FGF2, FGF5, FGF11 and FGF13) and that only...

  3. Robust hematopoietic progenitor cell commitment in the presence of a conflicting cue

    Shah, Najaf A.; Levesque, Marshall J.; Raj, Arjun; Sarkar, Casim A.
    Hematopoietic lineage commitment is regulated by cytokines and master transcription factors, but it remains unclear how a progenitor cell chooses a lineage in the face of conflicting cues. Through transcript counting in megakaryocyte–erythroid progenitors undergoing erythropoiesis, we show that the expression levels of the pro-erythropoiesis transcription factor EKLF (also known as KLF1) and receptor EpoR are inversely correlated with their pro-megakaryopoiesis counterparts, FLI-1 and TpoR (also known as MPL). Notably, as progenitors commit to the erythrocyte lineage, EpoR is upregulated and TpoR is strongly downregulated, thus boosting the potency of the pro-erythropoiesis cue erythropoietin and effectively eliminating the activity of...

  4. The Exocyst at a Glance

    Wu, Bin; Guo, Wei
    The exocyst is an octameric protein complex that is implicated in the tethering of secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane prior to SNARE-mediated fusion. Spatial and temporal control of exocytosis through the exocyst has a crucial role in a number of physiological processes, such as morphogenesis, cell cycle progression, primary ciliogenesis, cell migration and tumor invasion. In this Cell Science at a Glance poster article, we summarize recent works on the molecular organization, function and regulation of the exocyst complex, as they provide rationales to the involvement of this complex in such a diverse array of cellular processes.

  5. Identification of RNF168 as a PML nuclear body regulator

    Shire, Kathy; Wong, Andrew I.; Tatham, Michael H.; Anderson, Oliver F.; Ripsman, David; Gulstene, Stephanie; Moffat, Jason; Hay, Ronald T.; Frappier, Lori
    Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein forms the basis of PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs), which control many important processes. We have screened an shRNA library targeting ubiquitin pathway proteins for effects on PML NBs, and identified RNF8 and RNF168 DNA-damage response proteins as negative regulators of PML NBs. Additional studies confirmed that depletion of either RNF8 or RNF168 increased the levels of PML NBs and proteins, whereas overexpression induced loss of PML NBs. RNF168 partially localized to PML NBs through its UMI/MIU1 ubiquitin-interacting region and associated with NBs formed by any PML isoform. The association of RNF168 with PML NBs resulted...

  6. Mitf is a master regulator of the v-ATPase, forming a control module for cellular homeostasis with v-ATPase and TORC1

    Zhang, Tianyi; Zhou, Qingxiang; Ogmundsdottir, Margret Helga; Möller, Katrin; Siddaway, Robert; Larue, Lionel; Hsing, Michael; Kong, Sek Won; Goding, Colin Ronald; Palsson, Arnar; Steingrimsson, Eirikur; Pignoni, Francesca
    The v-ATPase is a fundamental eukaryotic enzyme that is central to cellular homeostasis. Although its impact on key metabolic regulators such as TORC1 is well documented, our knowledge of mechanisms that regulate v-ATPase activity is limited. Here, we report that the Drosophila transcription factor Mitf is a master regulator of this holoenzyme. Mitf directly controls transcription of all 15 v-ATPase components through M-box cis-sites and this coordinated regulation affects holoenzyme activity in vivo. In addition, through the v-ATPase, Mitf promotes the activity of TORC1, which in turn negatively regulates Mitf. We provide evidence that Mitf, v-ATPase and TORC1 form a...

  7. Analysis of ER–mitochondria contacts using correlative fluorescence microscopy and soft X-ray tomography of mammalian cells

    Elgass, Kirstin D.; Smith, Elizabeth A.; LeGros, Mark A.; Larabell, Carolyn A.; Ryan, Michael T.
    Mitochondrial fission is important for organelle transport, quality control and apoptosis. Changes to the fission process can result in a wide variety of neurological diseases. In mammals, mitochondrial fission is executed by the GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1; encoded by DNM1L), which oligomerizes around mitochondria and constricts the organelle. The mitochondrial outer membrane proteins Mff, MiD49 (encoded by MIEF2) and MiD51 (encoded by MIEF1) are involved in mitochondrial fission by recruiting Drp1 from the cytosol to the organelle surface. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules have been shown to wrap around and constrict mitochondria before a fission event. Up to...

  8. Access of torsinA to the inner nuclear membrane is activity dependent and regulated in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Goodchild, Rose E.; Buchwalter, Abigail L.; Naismith, Teresa V.; Holbrook, Kristen; Billion, Karolien; Dauer, William T.; Liang, Chun-Chi; Dear, Mary Lynn; Hanson, Phyllis I.
    TorsinA (also known as torsin-1A) is a membrane-embedded AAA+ ATPase that has an important role in the nuclear envelope lumen. However, most torsinA is localized in the peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen where it has a slow mobility that is incompatible with free equilibration between ER subdomains. We now find that nuclear-envelope-localized torsinA is present on the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and ask how torsinA reaches this subdomain. The ER system contains two transmembrane proteins, LAP1 and LULL1 (also known as TOR1AIP1 and TOR1AIP2, respectively), that reversibly co-assemble with and activate torsinA. Whereas LAP1 localizes on the INM, we show...

  9. Akt signaling dynamics in individual cells

    Gross, Sean M.; Rotwein, Peter
    The protein kinase Akt (for which there are three isoforms) is a key intracellular mediator of many biological processes, yet knowledge of Akt signaling dynamics is limited. Here, we have constructed a fluorescent reporter molecule in a lentiviral delivery system to assess Akt kinase activity at the single cell level. The reporter, a fusion between a modified FoxO1 transcription factor and clover, a green fluorescent protein, rapidly translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to Akt stimulation. Because of its long half-life and the intensity of clover fluorescence, the sensor provides a robust readout that can be tracked...

  10. Activated microglia cause reversible apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells, inducing their cell death by phagocytosis

    Hornik, Tamara C.; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C.
    Some apoptotic processes, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, are potentially reversible and do not necessarily lead to cell death. However, phosphatidylserine exposure can induce phagocytosis of a cell, resulting in cell death by phagocytosis: phagoptosis. Phagoptosis of neurons by microglia might contribute to neuropathology, whereas phagoptosis of tumour cells by macrophages might limit cancer. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which BV-2 microglia killed co-cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells that were either undifferentiated or differentiated into neuronal cells. We found that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide rapidly phagocytosed PC12 cells. Activated microglia caused reversible phosphatidylserine exposure on and reversible caspase activation in PC12...

  11. Assembly and maintenance of the flagellum attachment zone filament in Trypanosoma brucei

    Zhou, Qing; Hu, Huiqing; He, Cynthia Y.; Li, Ziyin
    Adhesion of motile flagella to the cell body in Trypanosoma brucei requires a filamentous cytoskeletal structure termed the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ). Despite its essentiality, the complete molecular composition of the FAZ filament and its roles in FAZ filament assembly remain poorly understood. By localization-based screening, we here identified a new FAZ protein, which we called FAZ2. Knockdown of FAZ2 disrupted the FAZ filament, destabilized multiple FAZ filament proteins and caused a cytokinesis defect. We also showed that FAZ2 depletion destabilized another new FAZ filament protein and several flagellum and cytoskeleton proteins. Furthermore, we identified CC2D and KMP11 as FAZ2...

  12. CALHM1 ion channel elicits amyloid-β clearance by insulin-degrading enzyme in cell lines and in vivo in the mouse brain

    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Zhao, Haitian; Blanc, Lionel; Ruiz, Santiago; Marambaud, Philippe
    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide accumulation in the brain. CALHM1, a cell-surface Ca2+ channel expressed in brain neurons, has anti-amyloidogenic properties in cell cultures. Here, we show that CALHM1 controls Aβ levels in vivo in the mouse brain through a previously unrecognized mechanism of regulation of Aβ clearance. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches in cell lines, we found that CALHM1 ion permeability and extracellular Ca2+ were required for the Aβ-lowering effect of CALHM1. Aβ level reduction by CALHM1 could be explained by an increase in extracellular Aβ degradation by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), extracellular secretion of which was...

  13. Differing roles of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases during mouse oocyte maturation

    Hou, Xiaojing; Zhang, Liang; Han, Longsen; Ge, Juan; Ma, Rujun; Zhang, Xuesen; Moley, Kelle; Schedl, Tim; Wang, Qiang
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) modulate energy homeostasis in multiple tissues and cell types, under various nutrient conditions, through phosphorylation of the α subunit (PDHE1α, also known as PDHA1) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. However, the roles of PDKs in meiotic maturation are currently unknown. Here, by undertaking knockdown and overexpression analysis of PDK paralogs (PDK1–PDK4) in mouse oocytes, we established the site-specificity of PDKs towards the phosphorylation of three serine residues (Ser232, Ser293 and Ser300) on PDHE1α. We found that PDK3-mediated phosphorylation of Ser293-PDHE1α results in disruption of meiotic spindle morphology and chromosome alignment and decreased total ATP levels,...

  14. A role for F-BAR protein Rga7p during cytokinesis in S. pombe

    Arasada, Rajesh; Pollard, Thomas D.
    F-BAR proteins are known to participate in cytokinesis, but their mechanisms are not well understood. Here we investigated Rga7p, an Schizosaccharomyces pombe F-BAR protein with a RhoGAP domain. Localization of Rga7p to the cytokinetic cleavage furrow depends on its F-BAR domain, actin filaments, the formins Cdc12p and For3p, and the presence of a contractile ring. Rga7p is not required for the constriction of the contractile ring but does participate in the transport of a β-glucan synthetase (Bgs4p) from the late Golgi compartments to plasma membrane that is adjacent to the contractile ring. Cells without Rga7p moved Bgs4p normally from the...

  15. Epiboly generates the epidermal basal monolayer and spreads the nascent mammalian skin to enclose the embryonic body

    Panousopoulou, Eleni; Hobbs, Carl; Mason, Ivor; Green, Jeremy B. A.; Formstone, Caroline J.
    Epiboly is a morphogenetic process that is employed in the surface ectoderm of anamniotes during gastrulation to cover the entire embryo. We propose here that mammals also utilise this process to expand the epidermis and enclose the body cavity and spinal cord with a protective surface covering. Our data supports a model whereby epidermal spreading is driven by the primary establishment of the epidermal basal progenitor monolayer through radial cell intercalation of a multi-layered epithelium towards the basal lamina. By using a suspension organotypic culture strategy, we find that this process is fibronectin-dependent and autonomous to the skin. The radial...

  16. Ca2+ is a key factor in α-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity

    Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H. R.; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Negoda, Alexander; Cremades, Nunilo; Klenerman, David; Dobson, Christopher M.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Pavlov, Evgeny V.; Gandhi, Sonia; Abramov, Andrey Y.
    Aggregation of α-synuclein leads to the formation of oligomeric intermediates that can interact with membranes to form pores. However, it is unknown how this leads to cell toxicity in Parkinson's disease. We investigated the species-specific effects of α-synuclein on Ca2+ signalling in primary neurons and astrocytes using live neuronal imaging and electrophysiology on artificial membranes. We demonstrate that α-synuclein induces an increase in basal intracellular Ca2+ in its unfolded monomeric state as well as in its oligomeric state. Electrophysiology of artificial membranes demonstrated that α-synuclein monomers induce irregular ionic currents, whereas α-synuclein oligomers induce rare discrete channel formation events. Despite...

  17. Screen-based identification and validation of four new ion channels as regulators of renal ciliogenesis

    Slaats, Gisela G.; Wheway, Gabrielle; Foletto, Veronica; Szymanska, Katarzyna; van Balkom, Bas W. M.; Logister, Ive; Den Ouden, Krista; Keijzer-Veen, Mandy G.; Lilien, Marc R.; Knoers, Nine V.; Johnson, Colin A.; Giles, Rachel H.
    To investigate the contribution of ion channels to ciliogenesis, we carried out a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based reverse genetics screen of all ion channels in the mouse genome in murine inner medullary collecting duct kidney cells. This screen revealed four candidate ion channel genes: Kcnq1, Kcnj10, Kcnf1 and Clcn4. We show that these four ion channels localize to renal tubules, specifically to the base of primary cilia. We report that human KCNQ1 Long QT syndrome disease alleles regulate renal ciliogenesis; KCNQ1-p.R518X, -p.A178T and -p.K362R could not rescue ciliogenesis after Kcnq1-siRNA-mediated depletion in contrast to wild-type KCNQ1 and benign KCNQ1-p.R518Q, suggesting...

  18. Rab32 is essential for maintaining functional acidocalcisomes, and for growth and infectivity of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Niyogi, Sayantanee; Jimenez, Veronica; Girard-Dias, Wendell; de Souza, Wanderley; Miranda, Kildare; Docampo, Roberto
    The contractile vacuole complex (CVC) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, collects and expels excess water as a mechanism of regulatory volume decrease after hyposmotic stress; it also has a role in cell shrinking after hyperosmotic stress. Here, we report that, in addition to its role in osmoregulation, the CVC of T. cruzi has a role in the biogenesis of acidocalcisomes. Expression of dominant-negative mutants of the CVC-located small GTPase Rab32 (TcCLB.506289.80) results in lower numbers of less-electron-dense acidocalcisomes, lower content of polyphosphate, lower capacity for acidocalcisome acidification and Ca2+ uptake that is driven by the vacuolar...

  19. SEA you later alli-GATOR – a dynamic regulator of the TORC1 stress response pathway

    Dokudovskaya, Svetlana; Rout, Michael P.
    Cells constantly adapt to various environmental changes and stresses. The way in which nutrient and stress levels in a cell feed back to control metabolism and growth are, unsurprisingly, extremely complex, as responding with great sensitivity and speed to the ‘feast or famine, slack or stress’ status of its environment is a central goal for any organism. The highly conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) controls eukaryotic cell growth and response to a variety of signals, including nutrients, hormones and stresses, and plays the key role in the regulation of autophagy. A lot of attention has been paid recently...

  20. Autocrine VEGF maintains endothelial survival through regulation of metabolism and autophagy

    Domigan, Courtney K.; Warren, Carmen M.; Antanesian, Vaspour; Happel, Katharina; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Lee, Sunyoung; Krall, Abigail; Duan, Lewei; Torres-Collado, Antoni X.; Castellani, Lawrence W.; Elashoff, David; Christofk, Heather R.; van der Bliek, Alexander M.; Potente, Michael; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa
    Autocrine VEGF is necessary for endothelial survival, although the cellular mechanisms supporting this function are unknown. Here, we show that – even after full differentiation and maturation – continuous expression of VEGF by endothelial cells is needed to sustain vascular integrity and cellular viability. Depletion of VEGF from the endothelium results in mitochondria fragmentation and suppression of glucose metabolism, leading to increased autophagy that contributes to cell death. Gene-expression profiling showed that endothelial VEGF contributes to the regulation of cell cycle and mitochondrial gene clusters, as well as several – but not all – targets of the transcription factor FOXO1....

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