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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,728,859 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1,021

1. Glycosylation of closely spaced acceptor sites in human glycoproteins - Shrimal, Shiteshu; Gilmore, Reid
Asparagine-linked glycosylation of proteins by the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) occurs when acceptor sites or sequons (N-x≠P-T/S) on nascent polypeptides enter the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Metazoan organisms assemble two isoforms of the OST that have different catalytic subunits (STT3A or STT3B) and partially non-overlapping cellular roles. Potential glycosylation sites move past the STT3A complex, which is associated with the translocation channel, at the protein synthesis elongation rate. Here, we investigated whether close spacing between acceptor sites in a nascent protein promotes site skipping by the STT3A complex. Biosynthetic analysis of four human glycoproteins revealed that closely spaced sites are...

2. The nebulin SH3 domain is dispensable for normal skeletal muscle structure but is required for effective active load bearing in mouse - Yamamoto, Daniel L.; Vitiello, Carmen; Zhang, Jianlin; Gokhin, David S.; Castaldi, Alessandra; Coulis, Gerald; Piaser, Fabio; Filomena, Maria Carmela; Eggenhuizen, Peter J.; Kunderfranco, Paolo; Camerini, Serena; Takano, Kazunori; Endo, Takeshi; Crescenzi, Marco; Luther, Pradeep K. L.; Lieber, Richard L.; Chen, Ju; Bang, Marie-Louise
Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a congenital myopathy with an estimated incidence of 1∶50,000 live births. It is caused by mutations in thin filament components, including nebulin, which accounts for about 50% of the cases. The identification of NM cases with nonsense mutations resulting in loss of the extreme C-terminal SH3 domain of nebulin suggests an important role of the nebulin SH3 domain, which is further supported by the recent demonstration of its role in IGF-1-induced sarcomeric actin filament formation through targeting of N-WASP to the Z-line. To provide further insights into the functional significance of the nebulin SH3 domain in...

3. A functional siRNA screen identifies genes modulating angiotensin II-mediated EGFR transactivation - George, Amee J.; Purdue, Brooke W.; Gould, Cathryn M.; Thomas, Daniel W.; Handoko, Yanny; Qian, Hongwei; Quaife-Ryan, Gregory A.; Morgan, Kylie A.; Simpson, Kaylene J.; Thomas, Walter G.; Hannan, Ross D.
The angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to mediate cellular growth, however, the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been resolved. To address this, we performed a functional siRNA screen of the human kinome in human mammary epithelial cells that demonstrate a robust AT1R–EGFR transactivation. We identified a suite of genes encoding proteins that both positively and negatively regulate AT1R–EGFR transactivation. Many candidates are components of EGFR signalling networks, whereas others, including TRIO, BMX and CHKA, have not been previously linked to EGFR transactivation. Individual knockdown of TRIO, BMX or CHKA attenuated tyrosine phosphorylation...

4. Dynamic mitochondrial–nuclear redistribution of the immunophilin FKBP51 is regulated by the PKA signaling pathway to control gene expression during adipocyte differentiation - Toneatto, Judith; Guber, Sergio; Charó, Nancy L.; Susperreguy, Sebastián; Schwartz, Jessica; Galigniana, Mario D.; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela
Glucocorticoids play an important role in adipogenesis through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that forms a heterocomplex with Hsp90•Hsp70 and one high molecular weight immunophilin, either FKBP51 or FKBP52. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes are induced to differentiate, FKBP51 expression progressively increases, whereas FKBP52 decreases, and Hsp90, Hsp70, p23 and Cyp40 remain unchanged. Interestingly, FKBP51 rapidly translocates from mitochondria to the nucleus where it is retained upon its interaction with chromatin and the nuclear matrix. FKBP51 nuclear localization is transient, and after 48 hours it cycles back to mitochondria. Importantly, this dynamic FKBP51 mitochondrial–nuclear shuttling depends on PKA signaling, because its inhibition by PKI...

5. Cardiac ryanodine receptor activation by a high Ca2+ store load is reversed in a reducing cytoplasmic redox environment - Hanna, Amy D.; Lam, Alex; Thekkedam, Chris; Gallant, Esther M.; Beard, Nicole A.; Dulhunty, Angela F.

6. The PAR complex controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of F-actin and the MTOC in directionally migrating leukocytes - Crespo, Carolina Lage; Vernieri, Claudio; Keller, Philipp J.; Garrè, Massimiliano; Bender, Jeffrey R.; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Pardi, Ruggero

7. The Arf family G protein Arl1 is required for secretory granule biogenesis in Drosophila - Torres, Isabel L.; Rosa-Ferreira, Cláudia; Munro, Sean
The small G protein Arf like 1 (Arl1) is found at the Golgi complex, and its GTP-bound form recruits several effectors to the Golgi including GRIP-domain-containing coiled-coil proteins, and the Arf1 exchange factors Big1 and Big2. To investigate the role of Arl1, we have characterised a loss-of-function mutant of the Drosophila Arl1 orthologue. The gene is essential, and examination of clones of cells lacking Arl1 shows that it is required for recruitment of three of the four GRIP domain golgins to the Golgi, with Drosophila GCC185 being less dependent on Arl1. At a functional level, Arl1 is essential for formation...

8. Dynamin triple knockout cells reveal off target effects of commonly used dynamin inhibitors - Park, Ryan J.; Shen, Hongying; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Xinran; Ferguson, Shawn M.; De Camilli, Pietro
Dynamin, which is encoded by three genes in mammals, is a GTPase implicated in endocytic membrane fission. Dynamin 1 and 3 are predominantly expressed in brain, whereas dynamin 2 is ubiquitously expressed. With the goal of assessing the impact of the lack of dynamin on cell physiology, we previously generated and characterized dynamin 1 and 2 double knockout (DKO) fibroblasts. These DKO cells were unexpectedly viable in spite of a severe impairment of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. As low-level expression of the dynamin 3 gene in these cells could not be excluded, we have now engineered dynamin 1, 2 and 3 triple...

9. Centromeric motion facilitates the mobility of interphase genomic regions in fission yeast - Kim, Kyoung-Dong; Tanizawa, Hideki; Iwasaki, Osamu; Corcoran, Christopher J.; Capizzi, Joseph R.; Hayden, James E.; Noma, Ken-ichi
Dispersed genetic elements, such as retrotransposons and Pol-III-transcribed genes, including tRNA and 5S rRNA, cluster and associate with centromeres in fission yeast through the function of condensin. However, the dynamics of these condensin-mediated genomic associations remains unknown. We have examined the 3D motions of genomic loci including the centromere, telomere, rDNA repeat locus, and the loci carrying Pol-III-transcribed genes or long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in live cells at as short as 1.5-second intervals. Treatment with carbendazim (CBZ), a microtubule-destabilizing agent, not only prevents centromeric motion, but also reduces the mobility of the other genomic loci during interphase. Further analyses demonstrate...

10. Drosophila importin-7 functions upstream of the Elmo signaling module to mediate the formation and stability of muscle attachments - Liu, Ze Cindy; Odell, Nadia; Geisbrecht, Erika R.
Establishment and maintenance of stable muscle attachments is essential for coordinated body movement. Studies in Drosophila have pioneered a molecular understanding of the morphological events in the conserved process of muscle attachment formation, including myofiber migration, muscle–tendon signaling, and stable junctional adhesion between muscle cells and their corresponding target insertion sites. In both Drosophila and vertebrate models, integrin complexes play a key role in the biogenesis and stability of muscle attachments through the interactions of integrins with extracellular matrix (ECM) ligands. We show that Drosophila importin-7 (Dim7) is an upstream regulator of the conserved Elmo–Mbc→Rac signaling pathway in the formation...

11. Activation of the Ca2+-sensing receptor induces deposition of tight junction components to the epithelial cell plasma membrane - Jouret, François; Wu, Jingshing; Hull, Michael; Rajendran, Vanathy; Mayr, Bernhard; Schöfl, Christof; Geibel, John; Caplan, Michael J.
The Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and plays essential roles in divalent ion homeostasis and cell differentiation. Because extracellular Ca2+ is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions (TJs), we hypothesized that the CaSR participates in regulating TJ assembly. We first assessed the expression of the CaSR in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at steady state and following manipulations that modulate TJ assembly. Next, we examined the effects of CaSR agonists and antagonists on TJ assembly. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that endogenous CaSR is located at the basolateral pole of MDCK cells. Stable transfection of...

12. Flow-dependent cellular mechanotransduction in atherosclerosis - Conway, Daniel E.; Schwartz, Martin A.
Atherosclerosis depends on risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, smoking, hypertension and diabetes. Although these risk factors are relatively constant throughout the arterial circulation, atherosclerotic plaques occur at specific sites where flow patterns are disturbed, with lower overall magnitude and complex changes in speed and direction. Research over the past few decades has provided new insights into the cellular mechanisms of force transduction and how mechanical effects act in concert with conventional risk factors to mediate plaque formation and progression. This Commentary summarizes our current understanding of how mechanotransduction pathways synergize with conventional risk factors in atherosclerosis. We attempt to integrate...

13. Restricted mitochondrial protein acetylation initiates mitochondrial autophagy - Webster, Bradley R.; Scott, Iain; Han, Kim; Li, Jian H.; Lu, Zhongping; Stevens, Mark V.; Malide, Daniela; Chen, Yong; Samsel, Leigh; Connelly, Patricia S.; Daniels, Mathew P.; McCoy, J. Philip; Combs, Christian A.; Gucek, Marjan; Sack, Michael N.
Because nutrient-sensing nuclear and cytosolic acetylation mediates cellular autophagy, we investigated whether mitochondrial acetylation modulates mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). Knockdown of GCN5L1, a component of the mitochondrial acetyltransferase machinery, diminished mitochondrial protein acetylation and augmented mitochondrial enrichment of autophagy mediators. This program was disrupted by SIRT3 knockdown. Chronic GCN5L1 depletion increased mitochondrial turnover and reduced mitochondrial protein content and/or mass. In parallel, mitochondria showed blunted respiration and enhanced ‘stress-resilience’. Genetic disruption of autophagy mediators Atg5 and p62 (also known as SQSTM1), as well as GCN5L1 reconstitution, abolished deacetylation-induced mitochondrial autophagy. Interestingly, this program is independent of the mitophagy E3-ligase Parkin (also...

14. RME-8 coordinates the activity of the WASH complex with the function of the retromer SNX dimer to control endosomal tubulation - Freeman, Caroline L.; Hesketh, Geoffrey; Seaman, Matthew N. J.
Retromer is a vital element of the endosomal protein sorting machinery and comprises two subcomplexes that operate together to sort membrane proteins (cargo) and tubulate membranes. Tubules are formed by a dimer of sorting nexins, a key component of which is SNX1. Cargo selection is mediated by the VPS35–VPS29–VPS26 trimer, which additionally recruits the WASH complex through VPS35 binding to the WASH complex subunit FAM21. Loss of function of the WASH complex leads to dysregulation of endosome tubulation, although it is unclear how this occurs. Here, we show that FAM21 also binds to the SNX1-interacting DNAJ protein RME-8. Loss of...

15. A non-canonical role for Rgnef in promoting integrin-stimulated focal adhesion kinase activation - Miller, Nichol L. G.; Lawson, Christine; Kleinschmidt, Elizabeth G.; Tancioni, Isabelle; Uryu, Sean; Schlaepfer, David D.
Rgnef (also known as p190RhoGEF or ARHGEF28) is a Rho guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) that binds focal adhesion kinase (FAK). FAK is recruited to adhesions and activated by integrin receptors binding to matrix proteins, such as fibronectin (FN). Canonical models place Rgnef downstream of integrin–FAK signaling in regulating Rho GTPase activity and cell movement. Herein, we establish a new, upstream role for Rgnef in enhancing FAK localization to early peripheral adhesions and promoting FAK activation upon FN binding. Rgnef-null mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibit defects in adhesion formation, levels of FAK phosphotyrosine (pY)-397 and FAK localization to peripheral adhesions upon re-plating...

16. Centrosomal protein CEP104 (Chlamydomonas FAP256) moves to the ciliary tip during ciliary assembly - Satish Tammana, Trinadh V.; Tammana, Damayanti; Diener, Dennis R.; Rosenbaum, Joel
The ciliary tip has been implicated in ciliary assembly and disassembly, and signaling, yet information on its protein composition is limited. Using comparative, quantitative proteomics based on the fact that tip proteins will be approximately twice as concentrated in half-length compared with full-length flagella, we have identified FAP256 as a tip protein in Chlamydomonas. FAP256 localizes to the tips of both central pair and outer doublet microtubules (MTs) and it remains at the tip during flagellar assembly and disassembly. Similarly, its vertebrate counterpart, CEP104, localizes on the distal ends of both centrioles of nondividing cells until the mother centriole forms...

17. Fission yeast nucleolar protein Dnt1 regulates G2/M transition and cytokinesis by downregulating Wee1 kinase - Yu, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Meng-ting; Wang, Gao-yuan; Xu, Dan; Keifenheim, Daniel; Franco, Alejandro; Cansado, Jose; Masuda, Hirohisa; Rhind, Nick; Wang, Yamei; Jin, Quan-wen
Cytokinesis involves temporally and spatially coordinated action of the cell cycle, cytoskeletal and membrane systems to achieve separation of daughter cells. The septation initiation network (SIN) and mitotic exit network (MEN) signaling pathways regulate cytokinesis and mitotic exit in the yeasts Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. Previously, we have shown that in fission yeast, the nucleolar protein Dnt1 negatively regulates the SIN pathway in a manner that is independent of the Cdc14-family phosphatase Clp1/Flp1, but how Dnt1 modulates this pathway has remained elusive. By contrast, it is clear that its budding yeast relative, Net1/Cfi1, regulates the homologous MEN signaling...

18. Embryonic ablation of osteoblast Smad4 interrupts matrix synthesis in response to canonical Wnt signaling and causes an osteogenesis-imperfecta-like phenotype - Salazar, Valerie S.; Zarkadis, Nicholas; Huang, Lisa; Norris, Jin; Grimston, Susan K.; Mbalaviele, Gabriel; Civitelli, Roberto
To examine interactions between bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and canonical Wnt signaling during skeletal growth, we ablated Smad4, a key component of the TGF-β–BMP pathway, in Osx1+ cells in mice. We show that loss of Smad4 causes stunted growth, spontaneous fractures and a combination of features seen in osteogenesis imperfecta, cleidocranial dysplasia and Wnt-deficiency syndromes. Bones of Smad4 mutant mice exhibited markers of fully differentiated osteoblasts but lacked multiple collagen-processing enzymes, including lysyl oxidase (Lox), a BMP2-responsive gene regulated by Smad4 and Runx2. Accordingly, the collagen matrix in Smad4 mutants was disorganized, but also hypomineralized. Primary osteoblasts from these mutants...

19. The architectural relationship of components controlling mast cell endocytosis - Cleyrat, Cédric; Darehshouri, Anza; Anderson, Karen L.; Page, Christopher; Lidke, Diane S.; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Wilson, Bridget S.
Eukaryotic cells use multiple routes for receptor internalization. Here, we examine the topographical relationships of clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytic structures on the plasma membranes of leukemia-derived mast cells. The high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) utilizes both pathways, whereas transferrin receptor serves as a marker for the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Both receptors were tracked by live-cell imaging in the presence or absence of inhibitors that established their differential dependence on specific endocytic adaptor proteins. The topology of antigen-bound FcεRI, clathrin, dynamin, Arf6 and Eps15-positive structures were analyzed by 2D and 3D immunoelectron microscopy techniques, revealing their remarkable spatial relationships and...

20. A core hSSB1–INTS complex participates in the DNA damage response - Zhang, Feng; Ma, Teng; Yu, Xiaochun
Human single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (hSSB1) plays an important role in the DNA damage response and the maintenance of genomic stability. It has been shown that the core hSSB1 complex contains hSSB1, INTS3 and C9orf80. Using protein affinity purification, we have identified integrator complex subunit 6 (INTS6) as a major subunit of the core hSSB1 complex. INTS6 forms a stable complex with INTS3 and hSSB1 both in vitro and in vivo. In this complex, INTS6 directly interacts with INTS3. In response to the DNA damage response, along with INTS3 and hSSB1, INTS6 relocates to the DNA damage sites. Moreover, the...

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