Sunday, May 24, 2015

 

 



Soy un nuevo usuario

Olvidé mi contraseña

Entrada usuarios

Lógica Matemáticas Astronomía y Astrofísica Física Química Ciencias de la Vida
Ciencias de la Tierra y Espacio Ciencias Agrarias Ciencias Médicas Ciencias Tecnológicas Antropología Demografía
Ciencias Económicas Geografía Historia Ciencias Jurídicas y Derecho Lingüística Pedagogía
Ciencia Política Psicología Artes y Letras Sociología Ética Filosofía
 

rss_1.0 Recursos de colección

PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,823,233 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1,108

1. The endocytic activity of the flagellar pocket in Trypanosoma brucei is regulated by an adjacent phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase - Demmel, Lars; Schmidt, Katy; Lucast, Louise; Havlicek, Katharina; Zankel, Armin; Koestler, Tina; Reithofer, Viktoria; de Camilli, Pietro; Warren, Graham
Phosphoinositides are spatially restricted membrane signaling molecules. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] – a phosphoinositide that is highly enriched in, and present throughout, the plasma membrane – has been implicated in endocytosis. Trypanosoma brucei has one of the highest known rates of endocytosis, a process it uses to evade the immune system. To determine whether phosphoinositides play a role in endocytosis in this organism, we have identified and characterized one of the enzymes that is responsible for generating PI(4,5)P2. Surprisingly, this phosphoinositide was found to be highly concentrated in the flagellar pocket, the only site of endocytosis and exocytosis in this organism....

2. Different roles of cadherins in the assembly and structural integrity of the desmosome complex - Lowndes, Molly; Rakshit, Sabyasachi; Shafraz, Omer; Borghi, Nicolas; Harmon, Robert M.; Green, Kathleen J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Nelson, W. James
Adhesion between cells is established by the formation of specialized intercellular junctional complexes, such as desmosomes. Desmosomes contain isoforms of two members of the cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins, desmocollins (Dsc) and desmogleins (Dsg), but their combinatorial roles in desmosome assembly are not understood. To uncouple desmosome assembly from other cell–cell adhesion complexes, we used micro-patterned substrates of Dsc2aFc and/or Dsg2Fc and collagen IV; we show that Dsc2aFc, but not Dsg2Fc, was necessary and sufficient to recruit desmosome-specific desmoplakin into desmosome puncta and produce strong adhesive binding. Single-molecule force spectroscopy showed that monomeric Dsc2a, but not Dsg2, formed Ca2+-dependent...

3. CPEB1 promotes differentiation and suppresses EMT in mammary epithelial cells - Grudzien-Nogalska, Ewa; Reed, Brent C.; Rhoads, Robert E.
Downregulation of CPEB1, a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein, in a mouse mammary epithelial cell line (CID-9) causes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), based on several criteria. First, CPEB1 knockdown decreases protein levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin but increases those of vimentin and Twist1. Second, the motility of CPEB1-depleted cells is increased. Third, CID-9 cells normally form growth-arrested, polarized and three-dimensional acini upon culture in extracellular matrix, but CPEB1-deficient CID-9 cells form nonpolarized proliferating colonies lacking a central cavity. CPEB1 downregulates Twist1 expression by binding to its mRNA, shortening its poly(A) tract and repressing its translation. CID-9 cultures contain both myoepithelial and luminal epithelial...

4. MicroRNA-30a regulates zebrafish myogenesis through targeting the transcription factor Six1 - O'Brien, Jenean H.; Hernandez-Lagunas, Laura; Artinger, Kristin Bruk; Ford, Heide L.
Precise spatiotemporal regulation of the SIX1 homeoprotein is required to coordinate vital tissue development, including myogenesis. Whereas SIX1 is downregulated in most tissues following embryogenesis, it is re-expressed in numerous cancers, including tumors derived from muscle progenitors. Despite crucial roles in development and disease, the upstream regulation of SIX1 expression has remained elusive. Here, we identify the first direct mechanism for Six1 regulation in embryogenesis, through microRNA30a (miR30a)-mediated repression. In zebrafish somites, we show that miR30a and six1a and six1b (hereafter six1a/b) are expressed in an inverse temporal pattern. Overexpression of miR30a leads to a reduction in six1a/b levels, and...

5. Rapamycin increases mitochondrial efficiency by mtDNA-dependent reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism in Drosophila - Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia; Holmbeck, Marissa A.; Rand, David M.
Downregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by its inhibitor rapamycin is emerging as a potential pharmacological intervention that mimics the beneficial effects of dietary restriction. Modulation of mTOR has diverse effects on mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis, but the role of the mitochondrial genotype in mediating these effects remains unknown. Here, we use novel mitochondrial genome replacement strains in Drosophila to test the hypothesis that genes encoded in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influence the mTOR pathway. We show that rapamycin increases mitochondrial respiration and succinate dehydrogenase activity, decreases H2O2 production and generates distinct shifts in the metabolite profiles of...

6. Procaspase-3 regulates fibronectin secretion and influences adhesion, migration and survival independently of catalytic function - Brentnall, Matthew; Weir, David B.; Rongvaux, Anthony; Marcus, Adam I.; Boise, Lawrence H.
Caspase-3 is an effector caspase that is activated downstream of mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization (MOMP) during apoptosis. However, previous work has demonstrated that caspase-3-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are resistant to mitochondrially mediated cell death and display a delay in the mitochondrial events of apoptosis, including Bax activation, MOMP and release of cytochrome c. Here, we show that caspase-3 regulates fibronectin secretion and impacts on cell morphology, adhesion and migration. Surprisingly, the catalytic activity of caspase-3 is not required for these non-apoptotic functions. Moreover, we found that caspase-3-deficient MEFs are not resistant to death by anoikis and that exogenous fibronectin protects...

7. Isoform 5 of PIPKIγ regulates the endosomal trafficking and degradation of E-cadherin - Schill, Nicholas J.; Hedman, Andrew C.; Choi, Suyong; Anderson, Richard A.
Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs) have distinct cellular targeting, allowing for site-specific synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] to activate specific signaling cascades required for cellular processes. Several C-terminal splice variants of PIPKIγ (also known as PIP5K1C) exist, and have been implicated in a multitude of cellular roles. PI(4,5)P2 serves as a fundamental regulator of E-cadherin transport, and PI(4,5)P2-generating enzymes are important signaling relays in these pathways. We present evidence that the isoform 5 splice variant of PIPKIγ (PIPKIγi5) associates with E-cadherin and promotes its lysosomal degradation. Additionally, we show that the endosomal trafficking proteins SNX5 and SNX6 associate with PIPKIγi5 and...

8. Die another way – non-apoptotic mechanisms of cell death - Tait, Stephen W. G.; Ichim, Gabriel; Green, Douglas R.
Regulated, programmed cell death is crucial for all multicellular organisms. Cell death is essential in many processes, including tissue sculpting during embryogenesis, development of the immune system and destruction of damaged cells. The best-studied form of programmed cell death is apoptosis, a process that requires activation of caspase proteases. Recently it has been appreciated that various non-apoptotic forms of cell death also exist, such as necroptosis and pyroptosis. These non-apoptotic cell death modalities can be either triggered independently of apoptosis or are engaged should apoptosis fail to execute. In this Commentary, we discuss several regulated non-apoptotic forms of cell death...

9. Integrins regulate epithelial cell differentiation by modulating Notch activity - Gómez-Lamarca, M. Jesús; Cobreros-Reguera, Laura; Ibáñez-Jiménez, Beatriz; Palacios, Isabel M.; Martín-Bermudo, María D.
Coordinating exit from the cell cycle with differentiation is crucial for proper development and tissue homeostasis. Failure to do so can lead to aberrant organogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the developmental signals that regulate the switch from cell cycle exit to differentiation. Signals downstream of two key developmental pathways, Notch and Salvador–Warts–Hippo (SWH), and signals downstream of myosin activity regulate this switch during the development of the follicle cell epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. Here, we have identified a fourth player, the integrin signaling pathway. Elimination of integrin function blocks the mitosis-to-endocycle switch and differentiation in posterior...

10. Notch directly regulates the cell morphogenesis genes Reck, talin and trio in adult muscle progenitors - Pézeron, Guillaume; Millen, Kat; Boukhatmi, Hadi; Bray, Sarah
There is growing evidence that activation of the Notch pathway can result in consequences on cell morphogenesis and behaviour, both during embryonic development and cancer progression. In general, Notch is proposed to coordinate these processes by regulating expression of key transcription factors. However, many Notch-regulated genes identified in genome-wide studies are involved in fundamental aspects of cell behaviour, suggesting a more direct influence on cellular properties. By testing the functions of 25 such genes we confirmed that 12 are required in developing adult muscles, consistent with roles downstream of Notch. Focusing on three, Reck, rhea/talin and trio, we verify their...

11. Fam118B, a newly identified component of Cajal bodies, is required for Cajal body formation, snRNP biogenesis and cell viability - Li, Yujing; Fong, Ka-wing; Tang, Mengfan; Han, Xin; Gong, Zihua; Ma, Wenbin; Hebert, Michael; Songyang, Zhou; Chen, Junjie
Cajal bodies are specialized and dynamic compartments in the nucleus that are involved in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Because of the dynamic and varied roles of Cajal bodies, it is of great interest to identify the components of Cajal bodies to better understand their functions. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify proteins that colocalize with coilin, the marker protein of Cajal bodies. In this study, we identified and characterized Fam118B as a newly discovered component of Cajal bodies. Fam118B is widely expressed in a variety of cell lines derived from various origins. Overexpression of Fam118B changes...

12. Angiogenic sprouting is regulated by endothelial cell expression of Slug - Welch-Reardon, Katrina M.; Ehsan, Seema M.; Wang, Kehui; Wu, Nan; Newman, Andrew C.; Romero-Lopez, Monica; Fong, Ashley H.; George, Steven C.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hughes, Christopher C. W.
The Snail family of zinc-finger transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved proteins that control processes requiring cell movement. Specifically, they regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) where an epithelial cell severs intercellular junctions, degrades basement membrane and becomes a migratory, mesenchymal-like cell. Interestingly, Slug expression has been observed in angiogenic endothelial cells (EC) in vivo, suggesting that angiogenic sprouting may share common attributes with EMT. Here, we demonstrate that sprouting EC in vitro express both Slug and Snail, and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of either inhibits sprouting and migration in multiple in vitro angiogenesis assays. We find that expression of MT1-MMP, but not of...

13. The requirement for Cdc48/p97 in nuclear protein quality control degradation depends on the substrate and correlates with substrate insolubility - Gallagher, Pamela S.; Clowes Candadai, Sarah V.; Gardner, Richard G.
Cdc48, known as p97 or valosin-containing protein (VCP) in mammals, is an abundant AAA-ATPase that is essential for many ubiquitin-dependent processes. One well-documented role for Cdc48 is in facilitating the delivery of ubiquitylated misfolded endoplasmic reticulum proteins to the proteasome for degradation. By contrast, the role for Cdc48 in misfolded protein degradation in the nucleus is unknown. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, degradation of misfolded proteins in the nucleus is primarily mediated by the nuclear-localized ubiquitin-protein ligase San1, which ubiquitylates misfolded nuclear proteins for proteasomal degradation. Here, we find that, although Cdc48 is involved in the degradation of some...

14. The p75 neurotrophin receptor evades the endolysosomal route in neuronal cells, favouring multivesicular bodies specialised for exosomal release - Escudero, Claudia A.; Lazo, Oscal M.; Galleguillos, Carolina; Parraguez, Jose I.; Lopez-Verrilli, Maria A.; Cabeza, Carolina; Leon, Luisa; Saeed, Uzma; Retamal, Claudio; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Marzolo, Maria-Paz; Carter, Bruce D.; Court, Felipe A.; Bronfman, Francisca C.
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75, also known as NGFR) is a multifaceted signalling receptor that regulates neuronal physiology, including neurite outgrowth, and survival and death decisions. A key cellular aspect regulating neurotrophin signalling is the intracellular trafficking of their receptors; however, the post-endocytic trafficking of p75 is poorly defined. We used sympathetic neurons and rat PC12 cells to study the mechanism of internalisation and post-endocytic trafficking of p75. We found that p75 internalisation depended on the clathrin adaptor protein AP2 and on dynamin. More surprisingly, p75 evaded the lysosomal route at the level of the early endosome, instead accumulating in...

15. Specific recycling receptors are targeted to the immune synapse by the intraflagellar transport system - Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Masi, Giulia; Onnis, Anna; Galgano, Donatella; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Pazour, Gregory J.; Baldari, Cosima T.
T cell activation requires sustained signaling at the immune synapse, a specialized interface with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) that assembles following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement by major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound peptide. Central to sustained signaling is the continuous recruitment of TCRs to the immune synapse. These TCRs are partly mobilized from an endosomal pool by polarized recycling. We have identified IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, as a central regulator of TCR recycling to the immune synapse. Here, we have investigated the interplay of IFT20 with the Rab GTPase network that controls...

16. Nutrient-driven O-GlcNAc cycling – think globally but act locally - Harwood, Katryn R.; Hanover, John A.
Proper cellular functioning requires that cellular machinery behave in a spatiotemporally regulated manner in response to global changes in nutrient availability. Mounting evidence suggests that one way this is achieved is through the establishment of physically defined gradients of O-GlcNAcylation (O-linked addition of N-acetylglucosamine to serine and threonine residues) and O-GlcNAc turnover. Because O-GlcNAcylation levels are dependent on the nutrient-responsive hexosamine signaling pathway, this modification is uniquely poised to inform upon the nutritive state of an organism. The enzymes responsible for O-GlcNAc addition and removal are encoded by a single pair of genes: both the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and the...

17. Non-muscle Mlck is required for β-catenin- and FoxO1-dependent downregulation of Cldn5 in IL-1β-mediated barrier dysfunction in brain endothelial cells - Beard, Richard S.; Haines, Ricci J.; Wu, Kevin Y.; Reynolds, Jason J.; Davis, Stephanie M.; Elliott, John E.; Malinin, Nikolay L.; Chatterjee, Victor; Cha, Byeong J.; Wu, Mack H.; Yuan, Sarah Y.
Aberrant elevation in the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) contributes to neuroinflammatory diseases. Blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a hallmark phenotype of neuroinflammation. It is known that IL-1β directly induces BBB hyperpermeability but the mechanisms remain unclear. Claudin-5 (Cldn5) is a tight junction protein found at endothelial cell–cell contacts that are crucial for maintaining brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMVEC) integrity. Transcriptional regulation of Cldn5 has been attributed to the transcription factors β-catenin and forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), and the signaling molecules regulating their nuclear translocation. Non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMlck, encoded by the Mylk gene) is...

18. α-Catenin cytomechanics – role in cadherin-dependent adhesion and mechanotransduction - Barry, Adrienne K.; Tabdili, Hamid; Muhamed, Ismaeel; Wu, Jun; Shashikanth, Nitesh; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Yap, Alpha S.; Gottardi, Cara J.; de Rooij, Johan; Wang, Ning; Leckband, Deborah E.
The findings presented here demonstrate the role of α-catenin in cadherin-based adhesion and mechanotransduction in different mechanical contexts. Bead-twisting measurements in conjunction with imaging, and the use of different cell lines and α-catenin mutants reveal that the acute local mechanical manipulation of cadherin bonds triggers vinculin and actin recruitment to cadherin adhesions in an actin- and α-catenin-dependent manner. The modest effect of α-catenin on the two-dimensional binding affinities of cell surface cadherins further suggests that force-activated adhesion strengthening is due to enhanced cadherin–cytoskeletal interactions rather than to α-catenin-dependent affinity modulation. Complementary investigations of cadherin-based rigidity sensing also suggest that, although...

19. A cascade of ER exit site assembly that is regulated by p125A and lipid signals - Klinkenberg, David; Long, Kimberly R.; Shome, Kuntala; Watkins, Simon C.; Aridor, Meir
The inner and outer layers of COPII mediate cargo sorting and vesicle biogenesis. Sec16A and p125A (officially known as SEC23IP) proteins interact with both layers to control coat activity, yet the steps directing functional assembly at ER exit sites (ERES) remain undefined. By using temperature blocks, we find that Sec16A is spatially segregated from p125A-COPII-coated ERES prior to ER exit at a step that required p125A. p125A used lipid signals to control ERES assembly. Within p125A, we defined a C-terminal DDHD domain found in phospholipases and PI transfer proteins that recognized PA and phosphatidylinositol phosphates in vitro and was targeted...

20. Regulation of Src trafficking and activation by the endocytic regulatory proteins MICAL-L1 and EHD1 - Reinecke, James B.; Katafiasz, Dawn; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve
Localization of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src to the cell periphery is required for its activation and to mediate focal adhesion turnover, cell spreading and migration. Inactive Src localizes to a perinuclear compartment and the movement of Src to the plasma membrane is mediated by endocytic transport. However, the precise pathways and regulatory proteins that are responsible for SRC transport are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that Src partially colocalizes with the endocytic regulatory protein MICAL-L1 (molecule interacting with CasL-like protein 1) in mammalian cells. Furthermore, MICAL-L1 is required for growth-factor- and integrin-induced Src activation and transport to the cell...

Página de resultados:
 

Busque un recurso