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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,750,487 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1,049

1. RalA promotes a direct exocyst–Par6 interaction to regulate polarity in neuronal development - Das, Amlan; Gajendra, Sangeetha; Falenta, Katarzyna; Oudin, Madeleine J.; Peschard, Pascal; Feng, Shanshan; Wu, Bin; Marshall, Christopher J.; Doherty, Patrick; Guo, Wei; Lalli, Giovanna
Cell polarization is essential for neuronal development in both the embryonic and postnatal brain. Here, using primary cultures, in vivo postnatal electroporation and conditional genetic ablation, we show that the Ras-like small GTPase RalA and its effector, the exocyst, regulate the morphology and polarized migration of neural progenitors derived from the subventricular zone, a major neurogenic niche in the postnatal brain. Active RalA promotes the direct binding between the exocyst subunit Exo84 and the PDZ domain of Par6 through a non-canonical PDZ-binding motif. Blocking the Exo84–Par6 interaction impairs polarization in postnatal neural progenitors and cultured embryonic neurons. Our results provide...

2. Frs2α and Shp2 signal independently of Gab to mediate FGF signaling in lens development - Li, Hongge; Tao, Chenqi; Cai, Zhigang; Hertzler-Schaefer, Kristina; Collins, Tamica N.; Wang, Fen; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Gotoh, Noriko; Zhang, Xin
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling requires a plethora of adaptor proteins to elicit downstream responses, but the functional significances of these docking proteins remain controversial. In this study, we used lens development as a model to investigate Frs2α and its structurally related scaffolding proteins, Gab1 and Gab2, in FGF signaling. We show that genetic ablation of Frs2α alone has a modest effect, but additional deletion of tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 causes a complete arrest of lens vesicle development. Biochemical evidence suggests that this Frs2α–Shp2 synergy reflects their epistatic relationship in the FGF signaling cascade, as opposed to compensatory or parallel functions...

3. Integrins promote cytokinesis through the RSK signaling axis - Mathew, Shomita S.; Nieves, Bethsaida; Sequeira, Sharon; Sambandamoorthy, Savitha; Pumiglia, Kevin; Larsen, Melinda; LaFlamme, Susan E.
Cytokinesis is the final stage in cell division. Although integrins can regulate cytokinesis, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate that integrin-regulated ERK (extracellular signal-related kinase) and RSK (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) signaling promotes successful cytokinesis. Inhibiting the activation of ERK and RSK in CHO cells by a mutation in the integrin β1 cytoplasmic tail or with pharmacological inhibitors results in the accumulation of cells with midbodies and the formation of binucleated cells. Activation of ERK and RSK signaling by the expression of constitutively active RAF1 suppresses the mutant phenotype in a RSK-dependent manner. Constitutively...

4. Cullin 5 destabilizes Cas to inhibit Src-dependent cell transformation - Teckchandani, Anjali; Laszlo, George S.; Simó, Sergi; Shah, Khyati; Pilling, Carissa; Strait, Alexander A.; Cooper, Jonathan A.
Phosphorylation-dependent protein ubiquitylation and degradation provides an irreversible mechanism to terminate protein kinase signaling. Here, we report that mammary epithelial cells require cullin-5–RING–E3-ubiquitin-ligase complexes (Cul5-CRLs) to prevent transformation by a Src–Cas signaling pathway. Removal of Cul5 stimulates growth-factor-independent growth and migration, membrane dynamics and colony dysmorphogenesis, which are all dependent on the endogenous tyrosine kinase Src. Src is activated in Cul5-deficient cells, but Src activation alone is not sufficient to cause transformation. We found that Cul5 and Src together stimulate degradation of the Src substrate p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate). Phosphorylation stimulates Cas binding to the Cul5-CRL adaptor protein SOCS6 and consequent...

5. In vivo cell biology in zebrafish – providing insights into vertebrate development and disease - Vacaru, Ana M.; Unlu, Gokhan; Spitzner, Marie; Mione, Marina; Knapik, Ela W.; Sadler, Kirsten C.
Over the past decades, studies using zebrafish have significantly advanced our understanding of the cellular basis for development and human diseases. Zebrafish have rapidly developing transparent embryos that allow comprehensive imaging of embryogenesis combined with powerful genetic approaches. However, forward genetic screens in zebrafish have generated unanticipated findings that are mirrored by human genetic studies: disruption of genes implicated in basic cellular processes, such as protein secretion or cytoskeletal dynamics, causes discrete developmental or disease phenotypes. This is surprising because many processes that were assumed to be fundamental to the function and survival of all cell types appear instead to...

6. Rab8a and Rab8b are essential for several apical transport pathways but insufficient for ciliogenesis - Sato, Takashi; Iwano, Tomohiko; Kunii, Masataka; Matsuda, Shinji; Mizuguchi, Rumiko; Jung, Yongwook; Hagiwara, Haruo; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Harada, Reiko; Harada, Akihiro
The small GTP-binding protein Rab8 is known to play an essential role in intracellular transport and cilia formation. We have previously demonstrated that Rab8a is required for localising apical markers in various organisms. Rab8a has a closely related isoform, Rab8b. To determine whether Rab8b can compensate for Rab8a, we generated Rab8b-knockout mice. Although the Rab8b-knockout mice did not display an overt phenotype, Rab8a and Rab8b double-knockout mice exhibited mislocalisation of apical markers and died earlier than Rab8a-knockout mice. The apical markers accumulated in three intracellular patterns in the double-knockout mice. However, the localisation of basolateral and/or dendritic markers of the...

7. Injury-triggered Akt phosphorylation of Cx43: a ZO-1-driven molecular switch that regulates gap junction size - Dunn, Clarence A.; Lampe, Paul D.
The proteins that form vertebrate gap junctions, the connexins, are highly regulated and have short (<2 hour) half-lives. Phosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43) affects gap junction assembly, channel gating and turnover. After finding dramatic effects on gap junctions with Akt inhibitors, we created an antibody specific for Cx43 phosphorylated on S373, a potential Akt substrate. We found S373 phosphorylation in cells and skin or heart almost exclusively in larger gap-junctional structures that increased dramatically after wounding or hypoxia. We were able to mechanistically show that Akt-dependent phosphorylation of S373 increases gap junction size and communication by completely eliminating the interaction between Cx43...

8. Live-cell fluorescence imaging reveals high stoichiometry of Grb2 binding to the EGF receptor sustained during endocytosis - Fortian, Arola; Sorkin, Alexander
Activation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) leads to its interaction with Grb2, a dual-function adapter mediating both signaling through Ras and receptor endocytosis. We used time-lapse three-dimensional imaging by spinning disk confocal microscopy to analyze trafficking of EGFR and Grb2 in living HeLa cells stimulated with low, physiological concentrations of EGFR ligands. Endogenous Grb2 was replaced in these cells by Grb2 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). After transient residence in the plasma membrane, Rhodamine-conjugated EGF (EGF–Rh) and Grb2–YFP were rapidly internalized and accumulated in endosomes. Quantitative image analysis revealed that on average two Grb2–YFP molecules were colocalized...

9. The Smad7–Skp2 complex orchestrates Myc stability, impacting on the cytostatic effect of TGF-β - Kim, Tae-Aug; Kang, Jin Muk; Hyun, Ja-Shil; Lee, Bona; Kim, Staci Jakyong; Yang, Eun-Sung; Hong, Suntaek; Lee, Ho-Jae; Fujii, Makiko; Niederhuber, John E.; Kim, Seong-Jin
In most human cancers the Myc proto-oncogene is highly activated. Dysregulation of Myc oncoprotein contributes to tumorigenesis in numerous tissues and organs. Thus, targeting Myc stability could be a crucial step for cancer therapy. Here we report Smad7 as a key molecule regulating Myc stability and activity by recruiting the F-box protein, Skp2. Ectopic expression of Smad7 downregulated the protein level of Myc without affecting the transcription level, and significantly repressed its transcriptional activity, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and tumorigenic activity. Furthermore, Smad7 enhanced ubiquitylation of Myc through direct interaction with Myc and recruitment of Skp2. Ablation of...

10. Phosphorylation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF41 by the kinase Par-1b is required for epithelial cell polarity - Lewandowski, Katherine T.; Piwnica-Worms, Helen
The establishment and maintenance of cell polarity is an essential property governing organismal homeostasis, and loss of polarity is a common feature of cancer cells. The ability of epithelial cells to establish apical-basal polarity depends on intracellular signals generated from polarity proteins, such as the Par-1 family of proteins, as well as extracellular signals generated through cell contacts with the extracellular matrix (ECM). The Par-1 family has a well-established role in regulating cell–cell contacts in the form of tight junctions by phosphorylating Par-3. In addition, Par-1 has been shown to impact on cell–ECM interactions by regulating laminin receptor localization and...

11. Photobleaching imprinting microscopy: seeing clearer and deeper - Gao, Liang; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Liu, Yan; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.
We present a generic sub-diffraction-limited imaging method – photobleaching imprinting microscopy (PIM) – for biological fluorescence imaging. A lateral resolution of 110 nm was measured, more than a twofold improvement over the optical diffraction limit. Unlike other super-resolution imaging techniques, PIM does not require complicated illumination modules or specific fluorescent dyes. PIM is expected to facilitate the conversion of super-resolution imaging into a routine lab tool, making it accessible to a much broader biological research community. Moreover, we show that PIM can increase the image contrast of biological tissue, effectively extending the fundamental depth limit of multi-photon fluorescence microscopy.

12. Golgi enlargement in Arf-depleted yeast cells is due to altered dynamics of cisternal maturation - Bhave, Madhura; Papanikou, Effrosyni; Iyer, Prasanna; Pandya, Koushal; Jain, Bhawik Kumar; Ganguly, Abira; Sharma, Chandrakala; Pawar, Ketakee; Austin, Jotham; Day, Kasey J.; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Glick, Benjamin S.; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu
Regulation of the size and abundance of membrane compartments is a fundamental cellular activity. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, disruption of the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) gene yields larger and fewer Golgi cisternae by partially depleting the Arf GTPase. We observed a similar phenotype with a thermosensitive mutation in Nmt1, which myristoylates and activates Arf. Therefore, partial depletion of Arf is a convenient tool for dissecting mechanisms that regulate Golgi structure. We found that in arf1Δ cells, late Golgi structure is particularly abnormal, with the number of late Golgi cisternae being severely reduced. This effect can be explained by selective changes in...

13. Actin network disassembly powers dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes - Talman, Arthur M.; Chong, Ryan; Chia, Jonathan; Svitkina, Tatyana; Agaisse, Hervé
Several bacterial pathogens hijack the actin assembly machinery and display intracellular motility in the cytosol of infected cells. At the cell cortex, intracellular motility leads to bacterial dissemination through formation of plasma membrane protrusions that resolve into vacuoles in adjacent cells. Here, we uncover a crucial role for actin network disassembly in dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes. We found that defects in the disassembly machinery decreased the rate of actin tail turnover but did not affect the velocity of the bacteria in the cytosol. By contrast, defects in the disassembly machinery had a dramatic impact on bacterial dissemination. Our results suggest...

14. Phosphorylation regulates VCIP135 function in Golgi membrane fusion during the cell cycle - Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Honghao; Wang, Yanzhuang
The Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells consists of stacks that are often laterally linked into a ribbon-like structure. During cell division, the Golgi disassembles into tubulovesicular structures in the early stages of mitosis and reforms in the two daughter cells by the end of mitosis. Valosin-containing protein p97–p47 complex-interacting protein, p135 (VCIP135), an essential factor involved in p97-mediated membrane fusion pathways, is required for postmitotic Golgi cisternae regrowth and Golgi structure maintenance in interphase. However, how VCIP135 function is regulated in the cell cycle remains unclear. Here, we report that VCIP135 depletion by RNA interference results in Golgi fragmentation. VCIP135...

15. 14-3-3θ facilitates plasma membrane delivery and function of mechanosensitive connexin 43 hemichannels - Batra, Nidhi; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Burra, Sirisha; Jiang, Jean X.
Intracellular signaling in osteocytes activated by mechanical loading is important for bone formation and remodeling. These signaling events are mediated by small modulators released from Cx43 hemichannels (HC). We have recently shown that integrin α5 senses the mechanical stimulation and induces the opening of Cx43 HC; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that both Cx43 and integrin α5 interact with 14-3-3θ, and this interaction is required for the opening of Cx43 HC upon mechanical stress. The absence of 14-3-3θ prevented the interaction between Cx43 and integrin α5, and blocked HC opening. Furthermore, it decreased the transport of...

16. S-adenosylmethionine limitation induces p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and triggers cell cycle arrest in G1 - Lin, Da-Wei; Chung, Benjamin P.; Kaiser, Peter
The primary methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is important for a plethora of cellular pathways including methylation of nucleic acids, proteins, and the 5′ cap structure of mRNAs, as well as biosynthesis of phospholipids and polyamines. In addition, because it is the cofactor for chromatin methylation, SAM is an important metabolite for the establishment and maintenance of epigenetic marks. Here, we demonstrate that cells halt proliferation when SAM levels become low. Cell cycle arrest occurs primarily in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and is accompanied by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (MAPK14) and subsequent phosphorylation of...

17. Protein kinase Darkener of apricot and its substrate EF1γ regulate organelle transport along microtubules - Serpinskaya, Anna S.; Tuphile, Karine; Rabinow, Leonard; Gelfand, Vladimir I.
Regulation of organelle transport along microtubules is important for proper distribution of membrane organelles and protein complexes in the cytoplasm. RNAi-mediated knockdown in cultured Drosophila S2 cells demonstrates that two microtubule-binding proteins, a unique isoform of Darkener of apricot (DOA) protein kinase, and its substrate, translational elongation factor EF1γ, negatively regulate transport of several classes of membrane organelles along microtubules. Inhibition of transport by EF1γ requires its phosphorylation by DOA on serine 294. Together, our results indicate a new role for two proteins that have not previously been implicated in regulation of the cytoskeleton. These results further suggest that the...

18. Paracrine-rescued lobulogenesis in chimeric outgrowths comprising progesterone-receptor-null mammary epithelium and redirected wild-type testicular cells - Bruno, Robert D.; Boulanger, Corinne A.; Rosenfield, Sonia M.; Anderson, Lisa H.; Lydon, John P.; Smith, Gilbert H.
We have previously shown that non-mammary and tumorigenic cells can respond to the signals of the mammary niche and alter their cell fate to that of mammary epithelial progenitor cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that paracrine signals from mammary epithelial cells expressing progesterone receptor (PR) are dispensable for redirection of testicular cells, and that re-directed wild-type testicular-derived mammary cells can rescue lobulogenesis of PR-null mammary epithelium by paracrine signaling during pregnancy. We injected PR-null epithelial cells mixed with testicular cells from wild-type adult male mice into cleared fat-pads of recipient mice. The testicular cells were redirected in vivo to...

19. eNOS-derived nitric oxide regulates endothelial barrier function through VE-cadherin and Rho GTPases - Di Lorenzo, Annarita; Lin, Michelle I.; Murata, Takahisa; Landskroner-Eiger, Shira; Schleicher, Michael; Kothiya, Milankumar; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Yu, Jun; Huang, Paul L.; Sessa, William C.

20. Interaction of 4.1G and cGMP-gated channels in rod photoreceptor outer segments - Cheng, Christiana L.; Molday, Robert S.
In photoreceptors, the assembly of signaling molecules into macromolecular complexes is important for phototransduction and maintaining the structural integrity of rod outer segments (ROSs). However, the molecular composition and formation of these complexes are poorly understood. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, 4.1G was identified as a new interacting partner for the cyclic-nucleotide gated (CNG) channels in ROSs. 4.1G is a widely expressed multifunctional protein that plays a role in the assembly and stability of membrane protein complexes. Multiple splice variants of 4.1G were cloned from bovine retina. A smaller splice variant of 4.1G selectively interacted with CNG channels not associated...

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