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MIT Open Access Articles
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 16,101
Reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S[subscript 1] state of C[subscript 2]H[subscript 2]. II. The S[subscript 1] rovibrational manifold and the effects of isomerization - Changala, P. Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H.; Stanton, John F.; Merer, Anthony J.; Field, Robert W.
Reduced dimension variational calculations have been performed for the rovibrational level structure of the S[subscript 1] state of acetylene. The state exhibits an unusually complicated level structure, for various reasons. First, the potential energy surface has two accessible conformers, trans and cis. The cis conformer lies about 2700 cm[superscript −1] above the trans, and the barrier to cis-trans isomerization lies about 5000 cm[superscript −1] above the trans minimum. The trans vibrations ν[subscript 4] (torsion) and ν[subscript 6] (asym. bend) interact very strongly by Darling-Dennison and Coriolis resonances, such that their combination levels and overtones form polyads with unexpected structures. Both...
A 2-terminal perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell enabled by a silicon tunnel junction - Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Bailie, Colin D.; Johlin, Eric C.; Hoke, Eric T.; Akey, Austin J.; Nguyen, William H.; McGehee, Michael D.; Buonassisi, Tonio
With the advent of efficient high-bandgap metal-halide perovskite photovoltaics, an opportunity exists to make perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. We fabricate a monolithic tandem by developing a silicon-based interband tunnel junction that facilitates majority-carrier charge recombination between the perovskite and silicon sub-cells. We demonstrate a 1 cm[superscript 2] 2-terminal monolithic perovskite/silicon multijunction solar cell with a V [subscript OC] as high as 1.65 V. We achieve a stable 13.7% power conversion efficiency with the perovskite as the current-limiting sub-cell, and identify key challenges for this device architecture to reach efficiencies over 25%.
Poly(A)-tail profiling reveals an embryonic switch in translational control - Subtelny, Alexander Orest; Eichhorn, Stephen William; Chen, Grace; Sive, Hazel L.; Bartel, David
Poly(A) tails enhance the stability and translation of most eukaryotic messenger RNAs, but difficulties in globally measuring poly(A)-tail lengths have impeded greater understanding of poly(A)-tail function. Here we describe poly(A)-tail length profiling by sequencing (PAL-seq) and apply it to measure tail lengths of millions of individual RNAs isolated from yeasts, cell lines, Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, mouse liver, and zebrafish and frog embryos. Poly(A)-tail lengths were conserved between orthologous mRNAs, with mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins and other ‘housekeeping’ proteins tending to have shorter tails. As expected, tail lengths were coupled to translational efficiencies in early zebrafish and frog embryos. However, this...
Synthetic shuffling and in vitro selection reveal the rugged adaptive fitness landscape of a kinase ribozyme - Bartel, David; Curtis, Edward A.
The relationship between genotype and phenotype is often described as an adaptive fitness landscape. In this study, we used a combination of recombination, in vitro selection, and comparative sequence analysis to characterize the fitness landscape of a previously isolated kinase ribozyme. Point mutations present in improved variants of this ribozyme were recombined in vitro in more than 10[superscript 14] different arrangements using synthetic shuffling, and active variants were isolated by in vitro selection. Mutual information analysis of 65 recombinant ribozymes isolated in the selection revealed a rugged fitness landscape in which approximately one-third of the 91 pairs of positions analyzed...
lincRNAs: Genomics, Evolution, and Mechanisms - Ulitsky, Igor; Bartel, David
Long intervening noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are transcribed from thousands of loci in mammalian genomes and might play widespread roles in gene regulation and other cellular processes. This Review outlines the emerging understanding of lincRNAs in vertebrate animals, with emphases on how they are being identified and current conclusions and questions regarding their genomics, evolution and mechanisms of action.
Standard Thermodynamic Functions of Tripeptides N-Formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalaninol and N-Formyl-L-Methionyl-L-Leucyl-L-Phenylalanine Methyl Ester - Markin, Alexey V.; Markhasin, Evgeny; Sologubov, Semen S.; Smirnova, Natalia N.; Griffin, Robert Guy
The heat capacities of tripeptides N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol (N-f-MLF-OH) and N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (N-f-MLF-OMe) were measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry over the temperature range from T = (6 to 350) K. The tripeptides were stable over this temperature range, and no phase change, transformation, association, or thermal decomposition was observed. The standard thermodynamic functions: molar heat capacity C[subscript p,m], enthalpy H(T) – H(0), entropy S(T), and Gibbs energy G(T) – H(0) of peptides were calculated over the range from T = (0 to 350) K. The low-temperature (T ≤ 50 K) heat capacities dependencies were analyzed using the Debye’s and the...
Changes in Cell Morphology Are Coordinated with Cell Growth through the TORC1 Pathway - Goranov, Alexi I.; Gulati, Amneet; Dephoure, Noah; Takahara, Terunao; Maeda, Tatsuya; Gygi, Steven P.; Manalis, Scott R.; Amon, Angelika B.; Goranov, Alexi I.
Growth rate is determined not only by extracellular cues such as nutrient availability but also by intracellular processes. Changes in cell morphology in budding yeast, mediated by polarization of the actin cytoskeleton, have been shown to reduce cell growth.
Here we demonstrate that polarization of the actin cytoskeleton inhibits the highly conserved Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) pathway. This downregulation is suppressed by inactivation of the TORC1 pathway regulatory Iml1 complex, which also regulates TORC1 during nitrogen starvation. We further demonstrate that attenuation of growth is important for cell recovery after conditions of prolonged polarized growth.
Our results indicate that extended...
Tight Coordination of Protein Translation and Heat Shock Factor 1 Activation Supports the Anabolic Malignant State - Santagata, S.; Mendillo, M. L.; Subramanian, A.; Perley, C. C.; Roche, S. P.; Wong, B.; Narayan, R.; Kwon, H.; Golub, T. R.; Porco, J. A.; Whitesell, L.; Tang, Yun-chi; Koeva, Martina I.; Amon, Angelika B.; Lindquist, Susan
The ribosome is centrally situated to sense metabolic states, but whether its activity, in turn, coherently rewires transcriptional responses is unknown. Here, through integrated chemical-genetic analyses, we found that a dominant transcriptional effect of blocking protein translation in cancer cells was inactivation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a multifaceted transcriptional regulator of the heat-shock response and many other cellular processes essential for anabolic metabolism, cellular proliferation, and tumorigenesis. These analyses linked translational flux to the regulation of HSF1 transcriptional activity and to the modulation of energy metabolism. Targeting this link with translation initiation inhibitors such as rocaglates deprived cancer...
Charged-to-neutral correlation at forward rapidity in Au + Au collisions at √s[subscript NN] = 200 GeV - Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandacz, A.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; Stevens, Justin; van Nieuwenhuizen, Gerrit Jan
Event-by-event fluctuations of the multiplicities of inclusive charged particles and photons at forward rapidity in Au+Au collisions at √s[subscript NN] = 200 GeV have been studied. The dominant contribution to such fluctuations is expected to come from correlated production of charged and neutral pions. We search for evidence of dynamical fluctuations of different physical origins. Observables constructed out of moments of multiplicities are used as measures of fluctuations. Mixed events and model calculations are used as base lines. Results are compared to the dynamical net-charge fluctuations measured in the same acceptance. A nonzero statistically significant signal of dynamical fluctuations is...
Intended and unintended consequences of democracy promotion assistance to Georgia after the Rose Revolution - Driscoll, J.; Hidalgo, Fernando Daniel
What are the political consequences of democratization assistance to regimes transitioning from authoritarian rule? By exploiting the downstream effects of a field experiment designed to encourage citizen monitoring of Georgia’s 2008 parliamentary elections, we evaluate the political consequences of one type of democracy promotion aid. The intervention increased citizen activism, but it also had the unanticipated effect of suppressing overall voter turnout by approximately 5%. We hypothesize that the civic education campaign was interpreted as a sign of increased political attention to a selected voting precinct, which suppressed opposition turnout. Two additional experiments provide additional evidence for the hypothesis.
Measurements of Double-Polarized Compton Scattering Asymmetries and Extraction of the Proton Spin Polarizabilities - Martel, P. P.; Miskimen, R.; Aguar-Bartolome, P.; Ahrens, J.; Akondi, C. S.; Annand, J. R. M.; Arends, H. J.; Barnes, W.; Beck, R.; Borisov, N.; Braghieri, A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Cherepnya, S.; Collicott, C.; Costanza, S.; Denig, A.; Dieterle, M.; Downie, E. J.; Fil’kov, L. V.; Garni, S.; Glazier, D. I.; Gradl, W.; Gurevich, G.; Hall Barrientos, P.; Hamilton, D.; Hornidge, D.; Howdle, D.; Huber, G. M.; Jude, T. C.; Kaeser, A.; Kashevarov, V. L.; Keshelashvili, I.; Kondratiev, R.; Korolija, M.; Krusche, B.; Lazarev, A.; Lisin, V.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mancell, J.; Manley, D. M.; Meyer, W.; Middleton, D. G.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Nefkens, B. M. K.; Neganov, A.; Nikolaev, A.; Oberle, M.; Ortega Spina, H.; Ostrick, M.; Ott, P.; Otte, P. B.; Oussena, B.; Pedroni, P.; Polonski, A.; Polyansky, V.; Prakhov, S.; Rajabi, A.; Reicherz, G.; Rostomyan, T.; Sarty, A.; Schrauf, S.; Schumann, S.; Sikora, M. H.; Starostin, A.; Steffen, O.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strub, T.; Supek, I.; Thiel, M.; Tiator, L.; Thomas, A.; Unverzagt, M.; Usov, Y.; Watts, D. P.; Witthauer, L.; Werthmüller, D.; Wolfes, M.; Bernstein, Adam
The spin polarizabilities of the nucleon describe how the spin of the nucleon responds to an incident polarized photon. The most model-independent way to extract the nucleon spin polarizabilities is through polarized Compton scattering. Double-polarized Compton scattering asymmetries on the proton were measured in the Δ(1232) region using circularly polarized incident photons and a transversely polarized proton target at the Mainz Microtron. Fits to asymmetry data were performed using a dispersion model calculation and a baryon chiral perturbation theory calculation, and a separation of all four proton spin polarizabilities in the multipole basis was achieved. The analysis based on a...
A Mathematical Model of Murine Metabolic Regulation by Leptin: Energy Balance and Defense of a Stable Body Weight - Tam, Joshua; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.
We have developed a physiologically based mathematical model, with parameters derived from published experimental data, to simulate the regulatory effects of the leptin pathway on murine energy homeostasis. Model outcomes are consistent with data reported in the literature and reproduce key characteristics of the energy regulatory system, including compensatory responses that counteract changes in body weight and the failure of this ability when the leptin pathway is disrupted. Our model revealed the possibility of multiple steady states for body weight. It also provided a unified theoretical framework for two historically antagonistic hypotheses regarding body weight regulation (“set-point” versus “settling point”)....
Constructing Consequences for Noncompliance: The Case of Academic Laboratories - Huising, R.; Silbey, Susan S.
We examine academic research laboratories as examples of intractable governance sites. These spaces often elude regulatory warnings and rules because of the professional status of faculty members, the opacity of scientific work to outsiders, and loose coupling of policy and practice in organizations. We describe one university’s efforts to create a system for managing laboratory health, safety, and environmental hazards, thereby constraining conventional faculty habit to ignore administrative and legal procedures. We demonstrate the specific struggles safety managers face in creating system responsiveness, that is, feedback to re-channel noncompliant laboratory practices. We show how faculty members are buffered from the...
Organizational Challenges to Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance: A New Common Sense about Regulation - Silbey, Susan S.
At the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, following an escalating series of global financial and economic crises, we hear renewed calls for government regulation as a necessary, if not entirely sufficient, safeguard against the excesses of exuberant capitalism. At the same time as some policy advocates urge increased regulation, opponents claim that it is not capitalism nor the market that is the cause of these crises; instead, they argue, government regulation not only dampens market efficiencies and retards economic growth but encourages the predatory and fraudulent practices responsible for the recent Great Recession.
Among Animals - Ritvo, Harriet
The tendency to see humans as special and separate influences even practices like scientific taxonomy which explicitly place them among other animals. The animal-related scholarship that has emerged throughout the humanities and social sciences often reveals analogous tensions. Animal topics have similarly inspired historians, including environmental historians, but historical perspectives have become somewhat marginalised within the field labeled 'animal studies'.
Significant Reduction of Lattice Thermal Conductivity by the Electron-Phonon Interaction in Silicon with High Carrier Concentrations: A First-Principles Study - Liao, Bolin; Qiu, Bo; Zhou, Jiawei; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang; Huberman, Samuel C.
The electron-phonon interaction is well known to create major resistance to electron transport in metals and semiconductors, whereas fewer studies are directed to its effect on phonon transport, especially in semiconductors. We calculate the phonon lifetimes due to scattering with electrons (or holes), combine them with the intrinsic lifetimes due to the anharmonic phonon-phonon interaction, all from first principles, and evaluate the effect of the electron-phonon interaction on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicon. Unexpectedly, we find a significant reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity at room temperature as the carrier concentration goes above 10[superscript 19] cm[superscript −3] (the reduction reaches...
First Direct Limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with Electric Charge Less than e/6 - Agnese, R.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nelson, H.; Nelson, R. H.; Ogburn, R. W.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.; Anderson, Adam Jonathan; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Leder, Alexander Friedrich
While the standard model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than e/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers finds no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between e/6 and e/200.
GX 9+9: VARIABILITY OF THE X-RAY ORBITAL MODULATION - Harris, Robert J.; Levine, Alan M.; Durant, Martin; Kong, Albert K. H.; Charles, Phil; Shahbaz, Tariq
Results of observations of the Galactic bulge X-ray source GX 9+9 by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) and Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer are presented. The ASM results show that the 4.19 hr X-ray periodicity first reported by Hertz and Wood in 1987 was weak or not detected for most of the mission prior to late 2004, but then became strong and remained strong for approximately two years after which it weakened considerably. When the modulation at the 4.19 hr period is strong, it appears in folded light curves as an intensity dip over lsim30% of...
THE PHOTOIONIZED ACCRETION DISK IN HER X-1 - Ji, Li; Schulz, Norbert S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Marshall, Herman Lee; Kallman, T.
We present an analysis of several high-resolution Chandra grating observations of the X-ray binary pulsar Her X-1. With a total exposure of 170 ks, the observations are separated by years and cover three combinations of orbital and superorbital phases. Our goal is to determine distinct properties of the photoionized emission and its dependence on phase-dependent variations of the continuum. We find that the continua can be described by a partial covering model which above 2 keV is consistent with recent results from Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer studies and at low energies is consistent with recent XMM-Newton and BeppoSAX studies. Besides...
THE X-RAY SPECTRUM OF A PLANETARY NEBULA AT HIGH RESOLUTION: - Yu, Young Sam; Nordon, Raanan; Kastner, Joel H.; Houck, John C.; Behar, Ehud; Soker, Noam
We present the results of the first X-ray gratings spectroscopy observations of a planetary nebula (PN)—the X-ray-bright, young BD +30°3639. We observed BD +30°3639 for a total of ~300 ks with the Chandra X-ray Observatory's Low Energy Transmission Gratings in combination with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (LETG/ACIS-S). The LETG/ACIS-S spectrum of BD +30°3639 is dominated by H-like resonance lines of O VIII and C VI and the He-like triplet line complexes of Ne IX and O VII. Other H-like resonance lines, such as N VII, and lines of highly-ionized Fe are weak or absent. Continuum emission is evident over...