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MIT Open Access Articles

Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 27.606

  1. Multi-model study of mercury dispersion in the atmosphere: vertical and interhemispheric distribution of mercury species

    Bieser, Johannes; Slemr, Franz; Ambrose, Jesse; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Brooks, Steve; Dastoor, Ashu; DeSimone, Francesco; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Geyer, Beate; Gratz, Lynne E.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Jaffe, Daniel; Kelley, Paul; Lin, Che-Jen; Jaegle, Lyatt; Matthias, Volker; Ryjkov, Andrei; Travnikov, Oleg; Weigelt, Andreas; Luke, Winston; Ren, Xinrong; Zahn, Andreas; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Yun; Pirrone, Nicola; Selin, Noelle E; Song, Shaojie
    Atmospheric chemistry and transport of mercury play a key role in the global mercury cycle. However, there are still considerable knowledge gaps concerning the fate of mercury in the atmosphere. This is the second part of a model intercomparison study investigating the impact of atmospheric chemistry and emissions on mercury in the atmosphere. While the first study focused on ground-based observations of mercury concentration and deposition, here we investigate the vertical and interhemispheric distribution and speciation of mercury from the planetary boundary layer to the lower stratosphere. So far, there have been few model studies investigating the vertical distribution of...

  2. Chemical cycling and deposition of atmospheric mercury in polar regions: review of recent measurements and comparison with models

    Angot, Hélène; Dastoor, Ashu; De Simone, Francesco; Gårdfeldt, Katarina; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Langer, Sarka; Magand, Olivier; Mastromonaco, Michelle N.; Nordstrøm, Claus; Pfaffhuber, Katrine A.; Pirrone, Nicola; Ryjkov, Andrei; Skov, Henrik; Sprovieri, Francesca; Steffen, Alexandra; Toyota, Kenjiro; Travnikov, Oleg; Yang, Xin; Dommergue, Aurélien; Selin, Noelle E; Song, Shaojie
    Mercury (Hg) is a worldwide contaminant that can cause adverse health effects to wildlife and humans. While atmospheric modeling traces the link from emissions to deposition of Hg onto environmental surfaces, large uncertainties arise from our incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes (oxidation pathways, deposition, and re-emission). Atmospheric Hg reactivity is exacerbated in high latitudes and there is still much to be learned from polar regions in terms of atmospheric processes. This paper provides a synthesis of the atmospheric Hg monitoring data available in recent years (2011-2015) in the Arctic and in Antarctica along with a comparison of these observations with...

  3. ACEt: An R Package for Estimating Dynamic Heritability and Comparing Twin Models

    Pitkäniemi, Janne; Silventoinen, Karri; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; He, Liang
    Estimating dynamic effects of age on the genetic and environmental variance components in twin studies may contribute to the investigation of gene-environment interactions, and may provide more insights into more accurate and powerful estimation of heritability. Existing parametric models for estimating dynamic variance components suffer from various drawbacks such as limitation of predefined functions. We present ACEt, an R package for fast estimating dynamic variance components and heritability that may change with respect to age or other moderators. Building on the twin models using penalized splines, ACEt provides a unified framework to incorporate a class of ACE models, in which...

  4. Strong-field tidal distortions of rotating black holes. III. Embeddings in hyperbolic three-space

    Penna, Robert F.; Hughes, Scott A; O'Sullivan, Stephen Gerard
    In previous work, we developed tools for quantifying the tidal distortion of a black hole’s event horizon due to an orbiting companion. These tools use techniques which require large mass ratios (companion mass μ much smaller than black hole mass M), but can be used for arbitrary bound orbits and for any black hole spin. We also showed how to visualize these distorted black holes by embedding their horizons in a global Euclidean three-space, E^{3}. Such visualizations illustrate interesting and important information about horizon dynamics. Unfortunately, we could not visualize black holes with spin parameter a_{*}>sqrt[3]/2≈0.866: such holes cannot be...

  5. Controlled liquid entrapment over patterned sidewalls in confined geometries

    Gupta, Ankur; Lee, Hyundo; Doyle, Patrick S
    Liquid entrapment over patterned surfaces has applications in diagnostics, oil recovery, and printing processes. Here we study the process of oil displacement upon sequential injection of water over a photopatterned structure in a confined geometry. By varying the amplitude and frequency of triangular and sinusoidal patterns, we are able to completely remove oil or trap oil in varying amounts. We present a theoretical model based on geometrical arguments that successfully predicts the criterion for liquid entrapment and provides insights into the parameters that govern the physical process.

  6. Durable network coded distributed storage

    Abdrashitov, Vitaly; Medard, Muriel
    In distributed cloud storages fault tolerance is maintained by regenerating the lost coded data from the surviving clouds. Recent studies suggest using maximum distance separable (MDS) network codes in cloud storage systems to allow efficient and reliable recovery after node faults. MDS codes are designed to use a substantial number of repair nodes and rely on centralized management and a static fully connected network between the nodes. However, in highly dynamic environments, like edge caching in communication networks or peer-to-peer networks, availability of the nodes and the communication links is very volatile. In these scenarios MDS codes functionality is limited....

  7. Corynebacterium glutamicum Metabolic Engineering with CRISPR Interference (CRISPRi)

    Wendisch, Volker F.; Cleto, Sara; Jensen, Jaide; Lu, Timothy K
    Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important organism for the industrial production of amino acids. Metabolic pathways in this organism are usually engineered by conventional methods such as homologous recombination, which depends on rare double-crossover events. To facilitate the mapping of gene expression levels to metabolic outputs, we applied CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) technology using deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) to repress genes in C. glutamicum. We then determined the effects of target repression on amino acid titers. Single-guide RNAs directing dCas9 to specific targets reduced expression of pgi and pck up to 98%, and of pyk up to 97%, resulting in titer enhancement ratios...

  8. S-Store: streaming meets transaction processing

    Meehan, John; Pavlo, Andrew; Tufte, Kristin; Zdonik, Stan; Aslantas, Cansu; Cetintemel, Ugur; Du, Jiang; Kraska, Tim; Maier, David; Tatbul Bitim, Emine Nesime; Madden, Samuel R; Stonebraker, Michael; Wang, Hao
    Stream processing addresses the needs of real-time applications. Transaction processing addresses the coordination and safety of short atomic computations. Heretofore, these two modes of operation existed in separate, stove-piped systems. In this work, we attempt to fuse the two computational paradigms in a single system called S-Store. In this way, S-Store can simultaneously accommodate OLTP and streaming applications. We present a simple transaction model for streams that integrates seamlessly with a traditional OLTP system, and provides both ACID and stream-oriented guarantees. We chose to build S-Store as an extension of H-Store - an open-source, in-memory, distributed OLTP database system. By...

  9. Towards Tight Bounds for the Streaming Set Cover Problem

    Har-Peled, Sariel; Indyk, Piotr; Vakilian, Ali; Mahabadi, Sepideh
    We consider the classic Set Cover problem in the data stream model. For n elements and m sets (m ≥ n) we give a O(1/δ)-pass algorithm with a strongly sub-linear ~O(mn[superscript δ]) space and logarithmic approximation factor. This yields a significant improvement over the earlier algorithm of Demaine et al. [10] that uses exponentially larger number of passes. We complement this result by showing that the tradeoff between the number of passes and space exhibited by our algorithm is tight, at least when the approximation factor is equal to 1. Specifically, we show that any algorithm that computes set cover...

  10. Practical and optimal LSH for angular distance

    Andoni, Alexandr; Laarhoven, Thijs; Indyk, Piotr; Razenshteyn, Ilya; Schmidt, Ludwig
    We show the existence of a Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) family for the angular distance that yields an approximate Near Neighbor Search algorithm with the asymptotically optimal running time exponent. Unlike earlier algorithms with this property (e.g., Spherical LSH (Andoni-Indyk-Nguyen-Razenshteyn 2014) (Andoni-Razenshteyn 2015)), our algorithm is also practical, improving upon the well-studied hyperplane LSH (Charikar 2002) in practice. We also introduce a multiprobe version of this algorithm and conduct an experimental evaluation on real and synthetic data sets.We complement the above positive results with a fine-grained lower bound for the quality of any LSH family for angular distance. Our lower bound...

  11. Nearly-optimal bounds for sparse recovery in generic norms, with applications to k-median sketching

    Woodruff, David P.; Backurs, Arturs; Indyk, Piotr; Razenshteyn, Ilya
    We initiate the study of trade-offs between sparsity and the number of measurements in sparse recovery schemes for generic norms. Specifically for a norm ||·||, sparsity parameter k, approximation factor K > 0, and probability of failure P > 0, we ask: what is the minimal value of m so that there is a distribution over m × n matrices A with the property that for any x, given Ax, we can recover a k-sparse approximation to x in the given norm with probability at least 1 -- P? We give a partial answer to this problem, by showing that...

  12. Approximation Algorithms for Model-Based Compressive Sensing

    Hegde, Chinmay; Indyk, Piotr; Schmidt, Ludwig
    Compressive sensing (CS) states that a sparse signal can be recovered from a small number of linear measurements, and that this recovery can be performed efficiently in polynomial time. The framework of model-based CS (model-CS) leverages additional structure in the signal and provides new recovery schemes that can reduce the number of measurements even further. This idea has led to measurement-efficient recovery schemes for a variety of signal models. However, for any given model, model-CS requires an algorithm that solves the model-projection problem: given a query signal, report the signal in the model that is closest to the query signal....

  13. Recent Developments in the Sparse Fourier Transform: A compressed Fourier transform for big data

    Iwen, Mark; Gilbert, Anna Rebecca; Indyk, Piotr; Schmidt, Ludwig
    The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is a fundamental component of numerous computational techniques in signal processing and scientific computing. The most popular means of computing the DFT is the fast Fourier transform (FFT). However, with the emergence of big data problems, in which the size of the processed data sets can easily exceed terabytes, the "fast" in FFT is often no longer fast enough. In addition, in many big data applications it is hard to acquire a sufficient amount of data to compute the desired Fourier transform in the first place. The sparse Fourier transform (SFT) addresses the big data...

  14. Reflection removal using ghosting cues

    Krishnan, Dilip; Shih, YiChang; Durand, Frederic; Freeman, William T
    Photographs taken through glass windows often contain both the desired scene and undesired reflections. Separating the reflection and transmission layers is an important but ill-posed problem that has both aesthetic and practical applications. In this work, we introduce the use of ghosting cues that exploit asymmetry between the layers, thereby helping to reduce the ill-posedness of the problem. These cues arise from shifted double reflections of the reflected scene off the glass surface. In double-pane windows, each pane reflects shifted and attenuated versions of objects on the same side of the glass as the camera. For single-pane windows, ghosting cues...

  15. Study of χ[subscript b] meson production in p p collisions at √s = 7 and 8TeV and observation of the decay χ[subscript b] (3P) → Υ (3S)[subscript γ]

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E; Appleby, R. B; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J; Badalov, A.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J V; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E L; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A; Craik, D. C; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D’Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N Y; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. -; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R F; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J.F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A; Minard, M.-N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J; Moron, J.; Morris, A.-B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D; Nguyen, T. D; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O’Hanlon, D. P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M; dos Reis, A. C; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D.M.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D; Soler, F. J P; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. S; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T’Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R; Watson, N. K; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P; Wilson, F. F; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.; Counts, Ian Thomas Hunt; Ilten, Philip J; Williams, Michael
    A study of χ[subscript b] meson production at LHCb is performed on proton–proton collision data, corresponding to 3.0 fb[superscript −1] of integrated luminosity collected at centre-of-mass energies √s = 7 and 8 TeV . The fraction of Υ(nS) mesons originating from χ[subscript b] decays is measured as a function of the Υ transverse momentum in the rapidity range 2.0

  16. TEI 2016 Studio: Inflated Curiosity

    Ou, Jifei; Heibeck, Felix; Ishii, Hiroshi
    This studio introduces methods of making and controlling inflatable fabric. We provide materials and simple fabrication processes that enable designers to rapidly prototype inflatables with simple hinging transformations or texture change. Furthermore, we introduce a customized hardware that enables designers to rapidly prototype inflatable fabric. The goal of this studio is to provide hands-on experiences of designing inflatable fabric as shape-changing materials and research on shape-changing artifacts. Basic knowledge of programming in Arduino is required. Participants should bring their own laptop for the studio.

  17. Measurement of jet charge in dijet events from √s = 8 TeV p p collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Taylor, Frank E
    The momentum-weighted sum of the charges of tracks associated to a jet is sensitive to the charge of the initiating quark or gluon. This paper presents a measurement of the distribution of momentum-weighted sums, called jet charge, in dijet events using 20.3 fb[superscript −1] of data recorded with the ATLAS detector at √s = 8 TeV in pp collisions at the LHC. The jet charge distribution is unfolded to remove distortions from detector effects and the resulting particle-level distribution is compared with several models. The p[subscript T] dependence of the jet charge distribution average and standard deviation are compared to...

  18. Recharging lithium battery research with first-principles methods

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Hautier, Geoffroy; Jain, Anubhav; Ong, Shyue Ping
    Energy storage is a critical hurdle to the success of many clean energy technologies. Batteries with high energy density, good safety, and low cost can enable more efficient vehicles with electrified drive trains, such as hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. They can also provide energy storage for intermittent energy sources, such as wind and solar. Today, and for the foreseeable future, rechargeable lithium batteries deliver the highest energy per unit weight or volume at reasonable cost. Many of the important properties of battery materials can be calculated with fi rst-principles methods, making lithium batteries fertile ground...

  19. The unsustainable rise of the disability rolls in the United States: causes, consequences and policy options

    Autor, David H
    Two ailments limit the effectiveness and threaten the long-term viability of the U.S. Social Security Disability Insurance program (SSDI). First, the program is ineffective in assisting the vast majority of workers with less severe disabilities to reach their employment potential or earn their own way. Second, the program’s expenditures on cash transfers and medical benefits—exceeding $1,500 per U.S. household—are extremely high and growing unsustainably. There is no compelling evidence, however, that the incidence of disabling conditions among the U.S. working age population is rising. This paper discusses the challenges facing the SSDI program, explains how its design has led to...

  20. Concentrating on the Fall of the Labor Share

    Dorn, David; Katz, Lawrence F.; Patterson, Christina; Autor, David H; Van Reenen, John Michael
    The recent fall of labor's share of GDP in numerous countries is well-documented, but its causes are poorly understood. We sketch a "superstar firm" model where industries are increasingly characterized by "winner take most" competition, leading a small number of highly profitable (and low labor share) firms to command growing market share. Building on Autor et al. (2017), we evaluate and confirm two core claims of the superstar firm hypothesis: the concentration of sales among firms within industries has risen across much of the private sector; and industries with larger increases in concentration exhibit a larger decline in labor's share.

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