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Repository of the University of Hasselt containing publications in the fields of statistics, computer science, information strategies and material from the Institute for behavioural sciences.

Transportation Sciences - Transportation Behaviour

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 289

  1. Development of Land Use Regression Models for PM2.5, PM2.5 Absorbance, PM10 and PMcoarse in 20 European Study Areas; Results of the ESCAPE Project

    Eeftens, Marloes; Beelen, Rob; de Hoogh, Kees; Bellander, Tom; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cirach, Marta; Declercq, Christophe; Dedele, Audrius; Dons, Evi; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Eriksen, Kirsten; Falq, Gregoire; Fischer, Paul; Galassi, Claudia; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; Jerrett, Michael; Keidel, Dirk; Korek, Michal; Lanki, Timo; Lindley, Sarah; Madsen, Christian; Moelter, Anna; Nador, Gizella; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Nonnemacher, Michael; Pedeli, Xanthi; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Patelarou, Evridiki; Quass, Ulrich; Ranzi, Andrea; Schindler, Christian; Stempfelet, Morgane; Stephanou, Euripides; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Varro, Mihaly J.; Vienneau, Danielle; von Klot, Stephanie; Wolf, Kathrin; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard
    Land Use Regression (LUR) models have been used increasingly for modeling small-scale spatial variation in air pollution concentrations and estimating individual exposure for participants of cohort studies. Within the ESCAPE project, concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, and PMcoarse were measured in 20 European study areas at 20 sites per area. GIS-derived predictor variables (e.g., traffic intensity, population, and land-use) were evaluated to model spatial variation of annual average concentrations for each study area. The median model explained variance (R-2) was 71% for PM2.5 (range across study areas 35-94%). Model R-2 was higher for PM2.5 absorbance (median 89%, range 56-97%)...

  2. Travel behaviour in persons with Multiple Sclerosis using travel diaries and GPS tracking technologies

    Neven, An; Janssens, Davy; Alders, Geert; Wets, Geert; Van Wijmeersch, Bart; Feys, Peter
    Background: Persons with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) experience several physical and cognitive problems which can influence their travel behavior. Few data are available about the real participation (restrictions) in daily outdoor activity and travel behaviour. Objective: This pilot study aimed to document, in relation to disease-related disability, which, and how many, activities and trips were daily made by persons with MS, and what transport modes were used. Methods: 36 persons with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS, 1.5-8.0, age 27-63) and 24 healthy controls (age 25-62) were studied, using activity-related travel diaries and GPS tracking devices. Information about overall disability characteristics...

  3. Exploiting graph-theorectic tools for matching and partitioning of agent population in an agent-based model for traffic and transportation applications

    Keren, Daniel; Yasar, Ansar-Ul-Haque; Knapen, Luk; Cho, Sungjin; Bellemans, Tom; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert; Schuster, Assaf; Sharfman, Izchak
    In this position paper, we exploit the tools from the realm of graph theory to matching and portioning problems of agent population in an agent-based model for traffic and transportation applications. We take the agent-based carpooling application as an example scenario. The first problem is matching, which concerns finding the optimal pairing among agents. The second problem is partitioning, which is crucial for achieving scalability and for other problems that can be parallelized by separating the passenger population to subpopulations such that the interaction between different sub-populations is minimal. Since in real-life applications the agent population, as well as their...

  4. Spatial Analysis of Fatal and Injury Crashes in Flanders, Belgium: Application of Geographically Weighted Regression

    Pirdavani, Ali; Brijs, Tom; Bellemans, Tom; Wets, Geert
    Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) are the most widely used models utilized in crash prediction studies. These models illustrate the relationships between the dependent and explanatory variables by estimating fixed global estimates. Since the crash occurrences are often spatially heterogeneous and are affected by many spatial variables, the existence of spatial correlation in the data is examined by means of calculating Moran’s I measures for dependent and explanatory variables. The results indicate the necessity of considering the spatial correlation when developing crash prediction models. The main objective of this research is to develop different Zonal Crash Prediction Models (ZCPMs) within the...

  5. Seoul activity-based model: an application of Feathers solutions to Seoul metropolitan area

    Do Lee, Won; Cho, Sungjin; Bellemans, Tom; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert; Choi, Keechoo; Joh, Chang-Hyeon
    As a case study area, Seoul metropolitan area in Korea, where has been experiencing transportation problems including congestions and emissions, currently needs an alternative policy measure at the individual level, instead of large scale infrastructure constructions. Even though some researches based on an activity-based approach dealing with an individual travel behavior have been conducted in Korea, none of them used a simulation framework. Considering a genuine activity-based transportation demand forecast, there is no better option but to introduce the activity-based simulation framework. Among several activity-based transportation frameworks, Feathers will indeed be applied into the study area because it is the...

  6. An agent-based model to evaluate carpooling at large manufacturing plants

    Bellemans, Tom; Bothe, Sebastian; Cho, Sungjin; Giannotti, Fosca; Janssens, Davy; Knapen, Luk; K??rner, Christine; May, Michael; Nanni, Mirco; Pedreschi, Dino; Stange, Hendrik; Trasarti, Roberto; Yasar, Ansar-Ul-Haque; Wets, Geert
    Carpooling is thought to be part of the solution to resolve traffic congestion in regions where large companies dominate the traffic situation because coordination and matching between commuters is more likely to be feasible in cases where most people work for a single employer. Moreover, carpooling is not very popular for commuting. In order for carpooling to be succesful, an online service for matching commuter profiles is indispensable due to the large community involved. Such service is necessary but not sufficient because carpooling requires rerouting and activity rescheduling along with candidate matching. We advise to introduce services of this kind...

  7. Assessing the Impacts of a Teleworking Policy on Crash Occurrence: The Case of Flanders, Belgium

    Pirdavani, Ali; Brijs, Tom; Bellemans, Tom; Kochan, Bruno; Wets, Geert
    Travel demand management (TDM) consists of a variety of policy measures that affect the effectiveness of transportation systems by changing travel behavior. The primary objective of such TDM strategies is not to improve traffic safety, although their impact on traffic safety should not be neglected. The main purpose of this study is to simulate the traffic safety impact of conducting a teleworking scenario (i.e. 5% of the working population engages in teleworking) in the study area, Flanders, Belgium. Since TDM strategies are usually conducted at a geographically aggregated level, crash prediction models (CPMs) should also be developed at an aggregate...

  8. Integrated health impact assessment of travel behaviour: model exploration and application to a fuel price increase

    Dhondt, Stijn; Kochan, Bruno; Beckx, Carolien; Lefebvre, Wouter; Pirdavani, Ali; Degraeuwe, Bart; Bellemans, Tom; Int Panis, Luc; Macharis, Cathy; Putman, Koen
    Transportation policy measures often aim to change travel behaviour towards more efficient transport. While these policy measures do not necessarily target health, these could have an indirect health effect. We evaluate the health impact of a policy resulting in an increase of car fuel prices by 20% on active travel, outdoor air pollution and risk of road traffic injury. An integrated modelling chain is proposed to evaluate the health impact of this policy measure. An activity-based transport model estimated movements of people, providing whereabouts and travelling kilometres. An emission- and dispersion model provided air quality levels (elemental carbon) and a...

  9. Assessing the Marginal Impact of a Trip on Population Exposure to Air Pollution

    Beckx, C.; Lefebvre, W.; Degraeuwe, B.; Vanhulsel, M.; Dhondt, S.; Kochan, B.; Bellemans, T.; Jansen, S.; Int Panis, L.; De Vlieger, I.
    Purpose: There are different reasons to assume that not every vehicle kilometre yields the same environmental impact. For instance, some vehicle kilometres are driven at high speeds on highways, while others are driven at low speeds in urban environments. This will have an impact on the resulting exhaust missions. Furthermore, the timing of a trip determines its impact on the resulting concentration levels. Pollutants emitted during trips at night will have a larger impact on the ground-level concentrations than emissions exhausted during the day, due to the greater atmospheric stability. And, concerning the impact on exposure, emissions produced in cities...

  10. Improving health through policies that promote active travel: A review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Anto, Josep M.; Brauer, Michael; Briggs, David; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Cavill, Nick; Cooper, Ashley R.; Desqueyroux, Helene; Fruin, Scott; Hoek, Gerard; Panis, Luc Int; Janssen, Nicole; Jerrett, Michael; Joffe, Michael; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; van Kempen, Elise; Kingham, Simon; Kubesch, Nadine; Leyden, Kevin M.; Marshall, Julian D.; Matamala, Jaume; Mellios, Giorgos; Mendez, Michelle; Nassif, Hala; Ogilvie, David; Peiro, Rosana; Perez, Katherine; Rabl, Ari; Ragettli, Martina; Rodriguez, Daniel; Rojas, David; Ruiz, Pablo; Sallis, James F.; Terwoert, Jeroen; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; Tuomisto, Jouni; Zuurbier, Moniek; Lebret, Erik
    Background: Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding further co-benefits. Little is known, however, about the interconnections among effects of policies considered, including potential unintended consequences. Objectives and methods: We review available literature regarding health impacts from policies that encourage active travel in the context of developing health impact assessment (HIA) models to help decision-makers propose better solutions for healthy environments. We identify important components of HIA models...

  11. Cycling: Health Benefits and Risks

    Panis, Luc Int

  12. Ten years of research and policy on particulate matter air pollution in hot spot Flanders

    Buekers, Jurgen; Stassen, Kristien; Panis, Luc Int; Hendrickx, Kim; Torfs, Rudi
    Air pollution is a systemic risk embedded in environmental, political, social and economic systems. Risk assessments on air pollution therefore involve communication between several stakeholders at multiple scale levels. This study focuses on a small part of the risk assessment, evaluating actions or decisions on both policy and research fields using an importance-performance/feasibility analysis as a scoring methodology. Subsequently, results were discussed by researchers and policy makers at a closed workshop to guarantee a safe place for knowledge integration. Learned aspects and new insights are useful for future scenarios on air pollution. This study was performed in Flanders, the European...

  13. Mapping bicycle use and the risk of accidents for commuters who cycle to work in Belgium

    Vandenbulcke, Gregory; Thomas, Isabelle; de Geus, Bas; Degraeuwe, Bart; Torfs, Rudi; Meeusen, Romain; Panis, Luc Int
    This paper explores the spatial patterns of bicycle use for commuting and the risk cyclists run being injured in a road accident when Commuting to work in Belgium. Exploratory data analyses suggest that the observed differences in the use of the bicycle to get to work are strongly linked to the urban hierarchy: commuters are more inclined to cycle in cities and specifically in regional towns (with 25 000 to 120 000 inhabitants). In large cities (more than 200 000 inhabitants), less commuting by bicycle takes place. The relationship between bicycle use and the risk of being seriously injured or...

  14. Exposure assessment of a cyclist to PM10 and ultrafine particles

    Berghmans, Patrick; Bleux, N.; Int Panis, L.; Mishra, Vinit K.; Torfs, R.; Van Poppel, M.
    Estimating personal exposure to air pollution is a crucial component in identifying high-risk populations and situations. It will enable policy makers to determine efficient control strategies. Cycling is again becoming a favorite mode of transport both in developing and in developed countries due to increasing traffic congestion and environmental concerns. in Europe, it is also seen as a healthy sports activity. However, due to high levels of hazardous pollutants in the present day road microenvironment the cyclist might be at a higher health risk due to higher breathing rate and proximity to the vehicular exhaust. In this paper we present...

  15. Integration of population mobility in the evaluation of air quality measures on local and regional scales

    Dhondt, S.; BECKX, Carolien; Degraeuwe, B.; Lefebvre, W.; KOCHAN, Bruno; BELLEMANS, Tom; INT PANIS, Luc; Macharis, C.; Putman, K.
    By focussing on air pollutant concentration levels only, the variation in population mobility is not taken into account when assessing the exposure. Transportation policies have an impact on both concentration levels and mobility patterns. The impact of a fuel price increase policy on population exposure to elemental carbon (EC) was evaluated and compared to the base scenario (current situation), taking into account time-activity patterns - including time in commute. We assessed the effect on exposure of both the change in concentrations and whereabouts. The decrease in exposure due to the fuel price increase using residential information only was limited to...

  16. Presentation and evaluation of an integrated model chain to respond to traffic- and health-related policy questions

    Lefebvre, W.; Degrawe, B.; Beckx, C.; Vanhulsel, M.; Kochan, B.; Bellemans, T.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Janssen, S.; de Vlieger, I.; Int Panis, L.; Dhondt, S.
    There is often a large discrepancy between the questions raised by policy makers and the responses offered by scientists. Current modeling approachesdo not answer some of the typical questions that decision-makers face, as they do not provide solutions to policy-makers dealing with concrete political negotiation and decisions. In this paper, we try to bridge the gap by creating an integrated model chain that can respond to such concrete policy questions. The paper describes a model chain consisting of an activity-based transport-model, a road traffic emission model, a bi-gaussian atmospheric dispersion model and a concentration measurement interpolation model. Subsequently results are...

  17. Strat??gies pour d??finir des valeurs "de r??f??rence"

    Dewolf, M.C.; Van den Heuvel, R.; Int Panis, L.; Scheers, H.; Charlet, F.

  18. Negative effects of ultrafine particle exposure during forced exercise on the expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the hippocampus of rats

    Bos, I.; De Boever, P.; Int Panis, L.; Sarre, S.; Meeusen, R.
    Exercise improves cognitive function, and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) plays a key role in this process. We recently reported that particulate matter (PM) exposure negatively contributed to the exercise-induced increase in human serum BDNF concentration. Furthermore, PM exposure is associated with neuroinflammation and cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) during a single bout of forced exercise on the expression of inflammatory (IL1α, IL1β, TNF, IL6, NOS2, NOS3) and oxidative stress (NFE2L2)-related genes, as well as BDNF in the brain of rats. Four groups (n=6/group) of Wistar rats were...

  19. Changed gene expression in brains of mice exposed to traffic in a highway tunnel

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Buekers, Jurgen; Emmerechts, Jan; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Meeusen, Romain; Van Poppel, Martine; Nemery, Benoit; Van Poppel, M.; Nawrot, Tim; Int Panis, Luc
    Context: Air pollution has been suggested to have an impact on the brain. Objective: The objective was to assess the expression of inflammation-related genes in the brains of mice that had been exposed for 5 days to a well-characterized traffic-polluted environment,i.e. a highway tunnel. Materials and methods: Twenty C57BL6 mice were randomly allocated to four groups of five animals. Two groups were placed in the tunnel for 5 days(mean PM 2.5, 55.1 μg/m3, mean elemental carbon, EC 13.9 μg/m3) in cages with or without filter, two control groups were housed outside the tunnel. Animals were assessed within 24 hours after...

  20. PM2.5 and NOx from traffic: human health impacts, external costs and policy implications from the Belgian perspective

    Michiels, Hans; Mayeres, Inge; Int Panis, Luc; De Nocker, Luc; Deutsch, Felix; Lefebvre, Wouter
    This article employs an optimized impact pathway approach to marginal external health costs that relies on high-resolution dispersion models calibrated for Belgium and the surrounding areas. Per tonne, the MEHC PM2.5 is found to be many times larger than MEHC NOx, which is currently negative. Further, the impact of Belgian PM2.5 emissions in the immediate area of generation is significantly larger than the impact on more distant areas; the opposite is true for NOx. The MEHCs of both pollutants are predicted to increase in the coming years. Further analysis of the impacts of PM2.5 and NOx reveals that, on average,...

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