Configuraciones para el abastecimiento sustentable de alimentos - Vilalta-perdomo, Eliseo Luis
La teoría y la práctica en cadenas de suministro alimentario siguen una visión economicista donde las discusiones acerca sobre sustentabilidad se enfocan a nivel global. No se contemplan los retos a nivel local, en particular el rol de las microempresas.
Tres configuraciones serán visitadas (mercadeo directo, cadena de suministro y red de suministro). Una cuarta será propuesta donde las expectativas de los microempresarios pueden encontrar eco (comunidades de abastecimiento).
Conformational studies on substituted ε-caprolactams by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy - Gruber, Tobias; Thompson, Amber L.; Odell, Barbara; Bombicz, Petra; Schofield, Christopher J.
The synthesis and conformational analysis of ε-caprolactams containing a –COOMe group at the C-6 position is described. The influence of different C-2, C-6 and N substituents on ring conformation was studied using X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. The results provide evidence that all the analysed caprolactams adopt a chair type conformation with a planar lactam. In the 6-substituted caprolactam, the –COOMe residue prefers to reside in an equatorial position, but can be induced to occupy an axial orientation by the introduction of a bulky tert-butyloxycarbonyl (BOC) group on the lactam nitrogen or by C-2/C-3 ring desaturation. The BOC protected caprolactam...
Evaluation of laser range-finder mapping for agricultural spraying vehicles - Moreno, Francisco-Angel; Cielniak, Grzegorz; Duckett, Tom
In this paper, we present a new application of laser range-finder sensing to agricultural spraying vehicles. The current generation of spraying vehicles use automatic controllers to maintain the height of the sprayer booms above the crop. However, these control systems are typically based on ultrasonic sensors mounted on the booms, which limits the accuracy of the measurements and the response of the controller to changes in the terrain, resulting in a sub-optimal spraying process. To overcome these limitations, we propose to use a laser scanner, attached to the front of the sprayer’s cabin, to scan the ground surface in front...
Experimental and numerical investigation of fuel-air mixing in a radial swirler slot of a dry low emission gas turbine combustor - Agbonzikilo, Festus; Owen, Ieuan; Stewart, Jill; Sadasivuni, Suresh Kumar; Riley, Mike; Sanderson, Victoria
This paper presents the results of an investigation in which the fuel/air mixing process in a single slot within the radial swirler of a dry low emission (DLE) combustion system is explored using air/air mixing. Experimental studies have been carried out on an atmospheric test facility in which the test domain is a large-scale representation of a swirler slot from a Siemens proprietary DLE combustion system. Hot air with a temperature of 300 °C is supplied to the slot, while the injected fuel gas is simulated using air jets with temperatures of about 25 °C. Temperature has been used as a scalar...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension: a current perspective on established and emerging molecular genetic defects - Machado, Rajiv D.; Southgate, Laura; Eichstaedt, Christina A.; Aldred, Micheala A.; Austin, Eric D.; Best, D. Hunter; Chung, Wendy K.; Benjamin, Nicola; Elliott, C. Gregory; Eyries, Mélanie; Fischer, Christine; Gräf, Stefan; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Humbert, Marc; Keiles, Steven B.; Loyd, James E.; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Newman, John H.; Soubrier, Florent; Trembath, Richard C.; Viales, Rebecca Rodríguez; Grünig, Ekkehard
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an often fatal disorder resulting from several causes including heterogeneous genetic defects. While mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) gene are the single most common causal factor for hereditary cases, pathogenic mutations have been observed in approximately 25% of idiopathic PAH patients without a prior family history of disease. Additional defects of the transforming growth factor beta pathway have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. Specifically, studies have confirmed activin A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1), endoglin (ENG), and members of the SMAD family as contributing to PAH both with and without...
Multimode VIS–NIR transmission through silver coated hollow optical waveguides - Griffiths, Jonathan David; Dowding, Colin; Kirk, Antony
Multimode transmission of continuous wave 633 nm radiation and 1064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG pulses using silver coated hollow core optical waveguides (HCWs) with bore diameters of 700 μm and 1000 μm is reported. The effect of launch conditions, input beam polarization and waveguide bore diameter on the pulse energy transmission and potential for focussing the beam effectively at the HCW exit is detailed. An optimal launch f-number range of 155–165 is identified for minimizing the exit angle.
Synthesis and biological evaluation of hybrid acridine-HSP90 ligand conjugates as telomerase inhibitors - Roe, S.; Gunaratnam, M.; Spiteri, C.; Sharma, Pallavi; Alharthy, R. D.; Neidle, S.; Moses, J. E.
The synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of bifunctional acridine-HSP90 inhibitor ligands as telomerase inhibitors is herein described. Four hybrid acridine-HSP90 inhibitor conjugates were prepared using a click-chemistry approach, and subsequently shown to display comparable results to the established telomerase inhibitor BRACO-19 in the TRAP-LIG telomerase assay. The conjugates also demonstrated significant cyctotoxity against a number of cancer cell lines, in the sub-μM range.
Toward a psychology of surrogate decision making - Tunney, Richard J.; Ziegler, Fenja V.
In everyday life, many of the decisions that we make are made on behalf of other people. A growing body of research suggests that we often, but not always, make different decisions on behalf of other people than the other person would choose. This is problematic in the practical case of legally designated surrogate decision makers, who may not meet the substituted judgment standard. Here, we review evidence from studies of surrogate decision making and examine the extent to which surrogate decision making accurately predicts the recipient’s wishes, or if it is an incomplete or distorted application of the surrogate’s...
An essay on the agricultural production organization in former communist countries - Rizov, Marian
This paper reviews and interprets existing information and transaction costs theories of firm organization
and entrepreneur’s role in order to provide a consistent explanation of the farm-sector dynamics in
former communist countries. Important determinants of farm restructuring are economic factors, such
as relative productivity of existing human and physical capital in different organizations, risk, terms
of trade, transition specific distortions, and factor intensity of agricultural production. To a large extent,
however, the phenomenon of various new enterprises being established represents not just general
economic and policy conditions but also a diverse population of economic agents.
The price of EU accession: An insight into the Bulgarian real estate market - Rizov, Marian
Accession of Bulgaria to the European Union is expected to result in increases in the
prices of all types of real estate, these changes are expected to differ across the segments of the
national real estate market. Real estate prices have been inXuenced primarily by local demand,
government policies and the perception that EU accession is promoting investment. It is likely that
prices of Xats will further differentiate, themarket for ofWce space will stabilize, demand from retail
sector will strengthen the market for urban development sites, provision of infrastructure will
importantly inXuence prices in holiday resorts and industrial estates, and agricultural land prices
will initially upsurge.
Rural development under the European CAP: the role of diversity - Rizov, Marian
Achieving optimal diversity at community level is a key in solving the rural development problem.
In this essay rural development at community level and the impact of Common Agricultural Policy
(CAP) reforms are analyzed in the framework of privately provided public goods models. It is shown
that CAP support redistribution inducing diversification of community activities across households can
potentially have important positive impact on rural development and household welfare.
Corporate capital structure and how soft budget constraints may affect it - Rizov, Marian
This survey paper examines existing theories of capital structure and
related empirical tests with the aim to derive theoretical as well empirically
testable predictions about the implications of the soft budget constraint for
corporate capital structure. We show that the soft budget constraint syndrome is
relevant for a variety of institutional environments, from central planning to capitalist
economic systems, and consider features of company financing patterns in
various institutional contexts. Special attention is paid to emerging and transition
economies where, with the development of financial markets, companies reduce
their financial dependence on the state and begin to borrow from a variety of
sources. However, due to the persistence of...
Institutions, reform policies, and productivity growth in agriculture: Evidence from former communist countries - Rizov, Marian
There are important differences among former communist countries in performance of their
agricultural sectors that are commonly attributed to variation in inherent institutions and reform
policy choices. In this paper the link between institutions, reforms and (labour) productivity growth
in agriculture is analysed within an augmented neo-classical growth model framework derived from
a production function. For the empirical analysis panel data over the transition period (1990–2001)
were used that cover 15 former communist countries, applying a GMM-IV estimator. Estimation results
strongly support the view that the shift to individual land use, measuring farm restructuring, as well as
the overall economic reforms, supported by democratic institutions, have positively...
From technopoles to science cities: characteristics of a new phase of science cities - Charles, David
Science cities are a specific form of technopole, originally conceived of as a planned new city with a concentration of science investment. This concept has evolved through three stages: the planned city of public research labs; the larger new city focused on private sector industrial technology; and a new generation of strategies for existing cities in which science contributes to economic and social strategies. Examples of these third generation strategies include the UK science city programme, Barcelona and Brisbane. The characteristics of these third generation science city strategies are examined in terms of their visions, partnership development, international orientation and...
Selling futures online advertising slots via option contracts - Wang, Jun; Chen, Bowei
Many online advertising slots are sold through bidding mechanisms by publishers and search engines. Highly affected by the dual force of supply and demand, the prices of advertising slots vary significantly over time. This then influences the businesses whose major revenues are driven by online advertising, particularly for publishers and search engines. To address the problem, we propose to sell the future advertising slots via option contracts (also called ad options). The ad option can give its buyer the right to buy the future advertising slots at a prefixed price. The pricing model of ad options is developed in order...
Understanding emotionally relevant situations in primary dental practice. 2. Reported effects of emotionally charged situations - Chapman, H. R.; Chipchase, S. Y.; Bretherton, R.
Background and aims. Dentistry is widely reported to be a stressful profession. There is a limited body of research relating to the coping strategies used by dentists whilst in clinical situations. This study aims to use qualitative methods to explore the full extent of the coping strategies associated with stressful events in primary dental practice.
Method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 dentists within a 50 mile radius of Lincoln. A thematic analysis was conducted on verbatim transcriptions thereby identifying six themes and 35 codes.
Results. Participants described both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies. The strategies used had a variety of outcomes in...
Enriching domain knowledge of the academic-industrial landscape of an engineering doctorate centre: a multiple-sector industrial R&D survey - O’Brien, Jamie; Coleridge, Chris; Chen, Bowei
This paper outlines a survey of industrial-academic R&D activities among over 650 technology enterprises in the UK. The project was driven by the EPSRC Engineering Doctorate (EngD) Centre in Virtual Environments, Imaging and Visualisation (VEIV), a collaborative centre of excellence based at University College London’s Department of Computer Science. Over 70 doctoral students have entered the standard EngD programme, most being co-funded by an industry partner, which constitute a diverse portfolio of technology enterprises, non-profit bodies and engineering services.
The EngD is devised to address a clear need to well-trained engineers in these technologies, including in construction and building management...
To personalize or not: a risk management perspective - Zhang, Weinan; Wang, Jun; Chen, Bowei; Zhao, Xiaoxue
Personalization techniques have been widely adopted in many recommender systems. However, experiments on real-world datasets show that for some users in certain contexts, personalized recommendations do not necessarily perform better than recommendations that rely purely on popularity. Broadly, this can be interpreted by the fact that the parameters of a personalization model are usually estimated from sparse data; the resulting personalized prediction, despite of its low bias, is often volatile. In this paper, we study the problem further by investigating into the ranking of recommendation lists. From a risk management and portfolio retrieval perspective, there is no difference between the...
An empirical study of reserve price optimisation in real-time bidding - Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Jun; Chen, Bowei; Mason, Peter; Seljan, Sam
In this paper, we report the first empirical study and live test of the reserve price optimisation problem in the context of Real-Time Bidding (RTB) display advertising from an operational environment. A reserve price is the minimum that the auctioneer would accept from bidders in auctions, and in a second price auction it could potentially uplift the auctioneer's revenue by charging winners the reserve price instead of the second highest bids. As such it has been used for sponsored search and been well studied in that context. However, comparing with sponsored search and contextual advertising, this problem in the RTB...
A dynamic pricing model for unifying programmatic guarantee and real-time bidding in display advertising - Chen, Bowei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Jun
There are two major ways of selling impressions in display advertising. They are either sold in spot through auction mechanisms or in advance via guaranteed contracts. The former has achieved a significant automation via real-time bidding (RTB); however, the latter is still mainly done over the counter through direct sales. This paper proposes a mathematical model that allocates and prices the future impressions between real-time auctions and guaranteed contracts. Under conventional economic assumptions, our model shows that the two ways can be seamless combined programmatically and the publisher's revenue can be maximized via price discrimination and optimal allocation. We consider...