Students and their data - Elliott, Marcus
A lightning presentation given at the LACE SoLAR Flare event at the Open University on 24 October 2014 to show
Study of the dislocation and the changes of the vessels before diabetic retinopathy - Leontidis, Georgios; Hunter, Andrew; Al-Diri, Bashir
One of the main challenges remains the understanding of the
diabetes effect in hemodynamic functionality (blood flow,
oxygen perfusion etc.) and vascular geometric adaptation
before the first lesions of diabetic retinopathy appear. Crucial and Important part is the study of the progress of diabetes through the screening program. Multiple images of the same
patient are useful in order to understand the progress by
comparing these images either by taking vascular
measurements or/and using registration algorithms.
A rights-based approach to climate change governance - Turner, Stephen J.
This paper will consider the potential for the introduction of a rights-based approach to global environmental governance and its specific application to the future development of the climate change regime. It is based on over 10 years of research in the field of environmental rights and its relationship with global environmental governance. In particular it is based on the analysis and conclusions of the recently published book, Stephen J. Turner, ‘A Global Environmental Right’ (Routledge, 2014).
The paper will discuss the potential benefits of applying a rights-based approach to decision-making, founded on the premise that all actors, whether state or non-state,...
A reformed global legal architecture for corporate responsibility - Turner, Stephen J.
This paper considers key features within the legal architecture of all jurisdictions that utilise the ‘corporation’ as a primary medium for business enterprise. Therefore it highlights the legal frameworks under which ‘corporations’ operate and the pressure that this places upon corporate directors to achieve specific financial outcomes. It then illustrates how this legal architecture can have certain negative effects for other stakeholders such as the environment and communities.
The paper considers the reasons why the law was originally designed in this manner and seeks to demonstrate that this design represents one of the ‘drivers’ of environmental degradation and greenhouse gas emissions,...
Diabetic retinopathy: current and future methods for early screening from a retinal hemodynamic and geometric approach - Leontidis, Georgios; Al-Diri, Bashir; Hunter, Andrew
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major disease and is the number one cause of blindness in the UK. In England alone, 4200 new cases appear every year and 1280 lead to blindness. DR is a result of diabetes mellitus, which affects the retina of the eye and specifically the vessel structure. Elevated levels of glucose cause a malfunction in the cell structure, which affects the vessel wall and, in severe conditions, leads to their breakage. Much research has been carried out on detecting the different stages of DR but not enough versatile research has been carried out on the detection...
Chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents: do parental expectations of their child's intellectual ability match the child's ability? - Godfrey, Emma; Cleare, Anthony; Coddington, Alice; Roberts, Amanda; Weinman, John; Chalder, Trudie
Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the discrepancy between actual and perceived IQ in a sample of
adolescents with CFS compared to healthy controls. We hypothesized that adolescents with CFS and their parent would have higher expectations of the adolescent's intellectual ability than healthy adolescents and their parent. Methods: The sample was 28 CFS patients and 29 healthy controls aged 11–19 years and the parent of each participant. IQ was assessed using the AH4 group test of general intelligence and a self-rating scale which measured
perceived IQ. Results: Parents' perceptions of their children's IQ were significantly higher for individuals with CFS...
Does hypocortisolism predict a poor response to cognitive behavioural therapy in chronic fatigue syndrome? - Roberts, Amanda; Charler, M.-L.; Papadopoulos, A.; Wessely, S.; Chalder, T.; Cleare, A. J.
Background. There is evidence that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have mild hypocortisolism. The
clinical significance of this is unclear. We aimed to determine whether hypocortisolism exerted any effect on the
response of CFS to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).
Method. We measured 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) in 84 patients with Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC)-defined CFS (of whom 64 were free from psychotropic medication) who then received CBT in a
specialist, tertiary out-patient clinic as part of their usual clinical care. We also measured salivary cortisol output
from 0800 to 2000 h in a subsample of 56 psychotropic medication-free patients.
Results. Overall, 39%...
Psychopathy among prisoners in England and Wales - Coid, Jeremy; Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Roberts, Amanda; Moran, Paul; Bebbington, Paul; Brugha, Traolach; Jenkins, Rachel; Farrell, Michael; Lewis, Glyn; Singleton, Nicola; Hare, Robert
Most research into psychopathy among prisoners is based on selected samples. It remains unclear whether prevalences are lower among European populations. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of
psychopathy, and the distribution and correlates of psychopathic traits in a representative national sample of
prisoners. Psychopathy was measured using the revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) in a second stage,
cross-sectional survey of prisoners in England and Wales in 1997 (n=496). Poisson regression analysis was
carried out to examine independent associations between correlates and PCL-R total and factor scores. The
prevalence of categorically diagnosed psychopathy at a cut off of 30 was 7.7% (95%CI 5.2–10.9) in men...
On being holier-than-thou: a critique of Curry Malott's "Pseudo-Marxism and the reformist retreat from revolution" - McGrew, Kenneth
In the May 2011 edition of this journal, Curry Malott contributed an essay review of Jean Anyon‘s Marx and Education (2011). I would summarize Mallot‘s critiques of her book as follows: (1) she didn‘t write the book that he wanted her to write, (2) she didn‘t cite the authors that he wanted her to cite, and (3) her work is anti-Marxist because her take on the literature isn‘t identical to his. While his intention was to expose her book as undermining Marxist analysis even as she sought to support it, Malott‘s essay is actually more successful as an example of...
Learning curves: analysing pace and challenge in four successful puzzle games - Linehan, Conor; Bellord, George; Kirman, Ben; Morford, Zachary H.; Roche, Bryan
The pace at which challenges are introduced in a game has long been identified as a key determinant of both the enjoyment and difficulty experienced by game players, and their ability to learn from game play. In order to understand how to best pace challenges in games, there is great value in analysing games already demonstrated as highly engaging. Play-through videos of four puzzle games (Portal, Portal 2 Co-operative mode, Braid and Lemmings), were observed and analysed using metrics derived from a behavioural psychology understanding of how people solve problems. Findings suggest that; 1) the main skills learned in each...
Psychopathy and offending behaviour: findings from the national survey of prisoners in England and Wales - Roberts, Amanda; Coid, Jeremy W.
There is debate about whether the psychopath’s criminal behaviour is a consequence of abnormal personality traits or a symptom of psychopathy. The aim of this study was to examine independent associations between offending behaviour over the lifetime and psychopathy in a representative sample of male and female offenders. A two-stage survey was carried out among prisoners in all prisons in England and Wales. Psychopathy was measured using the PCL-R in the second stage among 497 male and female prisoners. Independent relationships between the four factors of
psychopathy and lifetime offences were examined using multiple regression. Two models of association were compared...
Study of the retinal vascular changes in the transition from diabetic to diabetic retinopathy eye - Leontidis, Georgios; Hunter, Andrew; Al-Diri, Bashir
An attempt to investigate the vascular changes at the transition from R0 to R1 (non-retinopathy to first stage of
retinopathy) is made in this article. Thirty images from the right eye of fifteen patients were used (one at the year before
retinopathy and one after) and width measurements were taken from six large vessel segments in junctions (three from arteries and three from veins).
Personality disorder and offending behaviour: findings from the national survey of male prisoners in England and Wales - Roberts, Amanda; Coid, Jeremy
Previous studies have related mental disorder and antisocial personality disorder to criminal behaviour, but little is known about the associations with other personality disorders. The aim of this study was to examine independent associations between offending behaviour over the lifetime and personality disorder in a representative sample of male offenders. A two-stage survey was carried out among prisoners in all prisons in England and Wales. DSM-IV personality disorder was measured using SCID-II in the second stage among 391 male prisoners. Independent relationships between personality disorder scores and lifetime offences were examined using multiple regression. Findings demonstrated several independent relationships between...
Prevalence and correlates of psychopathic traits in the household population of Great Britain - Coid, Jeremy; Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Roberts, Amanda; Hare, Robert D.
There are no previous surveys of psychopathy and psychopathic traits in representative general population samples using standardized instruments. This study aimed to measure prevalence and correlates of psychopathic
traits, based on a two-phase survey using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) in 638 individuals, 16–74 years, in households in England, Wales and Scotland. The weighted prevalence of psychopathy was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–1.6) at a cut score of 13, similar to the noncriminal/nonpsychiatric sample described in the manual of the PCL: SV. Psychopathy scores correlated with: younger age, male gender; suicide attempts, violent behavior, imprisonment and homelessness; drug dependence; histrionic,...
‘Vaping’ profiles and preferences: an online survey of electronic cigarette users - Dawkins, Lynne; Turner, John; Roberts, Amanda; Soar, Kirstie
Aims: To characterize e-cigarette use, users and effects in a sample of Electronic Cigarette Company (TECC) and
TotallyWicked E-Liquid (TWEL) users. Design and setting: Online survey hosted at the University of East London with
links from TECC/TWEL websites from September 2011 to May 2012. Measurements: Online questionnaire.
Participants: One thousand three hundred and forty-seven respondents from 33 countries (72% European), mean age
43 years, 70% male, 96% Causacian, 44% educated to degree level or above. Findings: Seventy-four percent of
participants reported not smoking for at least a few weeks since using the e-cigarette and 70% reported reduced urge
to smoke. Seventy-two percent of participants used a...
Lost in translation? Building science and innovation city strategies in Australia and the UK - Couchman, Paul K.; McLoughlin, Ian; Charles, David
With the development of the ‘knowledge economy' in many advanced industrial nations, there has been a growing interest in regional innovation systems and the role that universities might play in these.
One result has been the demarcation by government actors of specific spaces for the creation, transfer and transformation of knowledge. Such spaces have been given various names, such as ‘smart regions', ‘science cities' and ‘innovation corridors'. Whilst the associated policy rhetoric has much in common with the earlier interest in science and technology parks there are also clear distinguishing differences. More recent policy initiatives have sought to foster industry clusters...
Innovative clusters: drivers of national innovation systems - Hertog, Pim den; Bergman, Edward M.; Charles, David; Remoe, Svend
The growth potential of countries increasingly depends on the effectiveness of their innovation systems in creating, diffusing and using knowledge. A large share of market-based or informal knowledge flows occur within industrial clusters that can be seen as reduced-form innovation systems. Policies to stimulate innovation at national and local levels must both build on and contribute to the dynamics of innovative clusters. This book presents a series of papers written by policy makers and academic experts in the field, that demonstrate why and how this can be done in different national contexts
Technology and competition in the international telecommunications industry - Charles, David; Monk, Peter; Scibberas, Ed
The book examines the effects of economies of scale and scope and the effects of manufacturing technologies on the competitiveness of firms in the telecommunication subscriber equipment industry. Case studies are drawn from the UK, France, Germany, Japan and the US.
Glucocorticoids inhibit IL-1beta-induced GM-CSF expression at multiple levels: roles for the ERK pathway and repression by MKP-1. - Newton, Robert; King, Elizabeth M.; Gong, Wei; Rider, Christopher F.; Staples, Karl J.; Holden, Neil S.; Bergmann, Martin W.
In the present study, IL (interleukin)-1beta increased GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) expression from pulmonary A549 cells and primary HBE (human bronchial epithelial) cells. These responses were repressed by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone, allowing the use of A549 cells as a relevant model. IL-1beta induced GM-CSF release into the culture medium by 6 h and in cell lysates (cytosolic) at 2 h. These effects were profoundly inhibited by dexamethasone, yet IL-1beta-induced GM-CSF mRNA and unspliced nRNA (nuclear RNA; a surrogate of transcription rate) were modestly inhibited by dexamethasone at times up to 2 h. Although this indicates an effect on protein synthesis,...