Method and apparatus for proton computed tomography - Allinson, Nigel; Evans, Phil; Poludniowski, Gavin
A method of reconstructing a 3-dimensional image in a proton transmission computerised tomography (CT) apparatus is disclosed. The method comprises the creation of a reconstruction matrix. The matrix is created by directing a plurality of particles to traverse the object; and for each particle, measuring the trajectory and energy of each particle before and after it has traversed the object; for each particle, calculating the water-equivalent path length within the object; and for each particle, calculating the positions at which it entered and exited the object; and adding the water-equivalent path length, entry and exit positions to the reconstruction matrix....
Supervised pharmacy student-led medication review in primary care for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled pilot study - Adams, R. P.; Barton, G.; Bhattacharya, D.; Grassby, P. F.; Holland, R.; Howe, A.; Norris, N.; Shepstone, L.; Wright, D. J.
Objective: To pilot and feasibility-test supervised final
year undergraduate pharmacy student-led medication
reviews for patients with diabetes to enable definitive
Method: Third year pharmacy students were recruited
from one UK School of Pharmacy and trained to review
patient’s medical records and provide face-to-face
consultations under supervision while situated within
the patient’s medical practice. Patients with type 2
diabetes were recruited by postal invitation letter from
their medical practice and randomised via automated
system to intervention or usual care. Diabetes-related
clinical data, quality of life, patient reported beliefs,
adherence and satisfaction with medicines information
were collected with validated tools at baseline and
6 months postintervention. The process for collecting
resource utilisation data was tested. Stakeholder
Proton tracking for medical imaging and dosimetry - Taylor, J T; Allport, P P; Casse, G L; Allinson, N M; Smith, N A; Tsurin, I; Esposito, Michela; Kacperek, A; Nieto-Camero, J; Price, T; Waltham, Chris
For many years, silicon micro-strip detectors have been successfully used as tracking detectors for particle and nuclear physics experiments. A new application of this technology is to the field of particle therapy, where radiotherapy is carried out by use of charged particles such as protons or carbon ions. Such a treatment has been shown to have advantages over standard x-ray radiotherapy and as a result of this, many new centres offering particle therapy are currently under construction—including two in the U.K.. The characteristics of a new silicon micro-strip detector based system for this application will be presented. The array uses...
Impact of pharmacists’ intervention on identification and management of drug-drug interactions in an intensive care setting - Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Lim, Kim Nai; Anwar, Mudassir; Belagodu Sridhar, Sathvik; Ahmadi, Keivan; Yuan, Adelyn Wei Li; Mokhtar Ahmad, Kamarunnesa
The primary and secondary objectives of this study were to identify and assess the risks associated with the occurrence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and to determine the value of pharmacists' interventions in the management of clinically significant DDIs, respectively.
A prospective, case-control study was carried out on patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and involved a review of patients' medication chart daily by the pharmacist and the clinical parameters. All identified DDIs were carefully analysed in order to provide recommendations on the management of clinically significant DDIs.
The majority of DDIs were categorised as Type-C severity level (n = 305,...
Professionalism in pharmacy: a continual societal and intellectual challenge - Ahmadi, Keivan; Ahmad Hassali, Mohamed Azmi
In early January 2012, a shocking news for the pharmacists and a sad report for the nation struck Malaysia. Two pharmacists were found involved in transferring psychotropic medications out of hospitals and smuggling them into the black market.1 Subsequently, the ministry of health decided to table “The Pharmacy Bill 2012” in the parliament to empower the ministry to take stiffer penalties on pharmaceutical offenders.2
The question should be how such offences could happen rather than asking what should be the punishment for those who commit such transgressions. The approach should be a diagnostic attempt to find out the cause, motivation, and...
Malaysian pharmacy educators’ view of the role of non-pharmacy trained educators in teaching pharmacy students - Ahmadi, Keivan; Anwar, Mudassir; Ahmad Hassali, Mohamed Azmi
The common statement “…Pharmacy students should only be taught by pharmacists…” is a norm among many pharmacy educators in countries such as Malaysia. It is not, per se, a confronting statement but could indicate alarming attitudes not favorable to the current pharmacy education framework.
Pharmacy education in the third millennium is transformed to contain and reflect on the innovations of the modernization era in which, globalization in health education, public health, development of the new facets of professionalization and professionalism, interprofessional and interdisciplinary teaching and learning activities are among the most talked about topics.1-6
Interestingly, these innovative ideas are the result of...
Supervised pharmacy student-led medication review in primary care for patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled pilot study - Adams, R. P.; Barton, G.; Bhattacharya, D.; Grassby, Paul; Holland, R.; Howe, A.; Norris, N.; Shepstone, L.; Wright, D. J.
Objective: To pilot and feasibility-test supervised final year undergraduate pharmacy student-led medication reviews for patients with diabetes to enable definitive trial design. Method: Third year pharmacy students were recruited from one UK School of Pharmacy and trained to review patient's medical records and provide face-to-face consultations under supervision while situated within the patient's medical practice. Patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited by postal invitation letter from their medical practice and randomised via automated system to intervention or usual care. Diabetes-related clinical data, quality of life, patient reported beliefs, adherence and satisfaction with medicines information were collected with validated tools...
Armenian architects and 'other' revivalism - Wharton, Alyson
This chapter charts the work of Armenian architects working in different spaces and time, analysing their engagement with the stylistic approach of revivalism. It looks to the example of Leon Nafilian, an Armenian architect who graduated from the Beaux-Arts in Paris and his revivalist works in early twentieth-century Istanbul, Paris, Cairo and Yerevan. It compares with the case of Leon Guregian, an Armenian educated in Italy and his works for early twentieth-century international expositions. It also looks to the better-known examples of Nigogos and Serkis Balyan, who were the Parisian-educated architects to the Ottoman sultans in the nineteenth century. These...
Higher attaining but emotionally brittle: why we need to assess how school marketing policies affect students - Norris, Stuart
The entrenching of competitive values within the public-market field of secondary education has led to the formation of academically focused institutions whose budgets and reputations are based on gaining large numbers of students who have the best chance of attaining highly in public examinations. Although parents have become savvier about their consumer rights, and as regards the use of advertisements that schools produce, the medium and long term impact of the deployment of the majority of marketisation tools on students has yet to be assessed. A consequence of this over-marketing process may be that some students prove to be less...
Protective role for type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors against ischemic brain damage - Moyanova, S. G.; Mastroiacovo, F.; Kortenska, L. V.; Mitreva, R. G.; Fardone, E.; Santolini, I.; Sobrado, M.; Battaglia, G.; Bruno, V.; Nicoletti, F.; Ngomba, R. T.
We examined the influence of type 4 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu4) receptors on ischemic brain damage using the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in mice and the endothelin-1 (Et-1) model of transient focal ischemia in rats. Mice lacking mGlu4 receptors showed a 25 to 30 increase in infarct volume after MCAO as compared with wild-type littermates. In normal mice, systemic injection of the selective mGlu4 receptor enhancer, N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropabchromen-1a-caboxamide (PHCCC; 10 mg/kg, subcutaneous, administered once 30 minutes before MCAO), reduced the extent of ischemic brain damage by 35 to 45. The drug was inactive in mGlu4 receptor knockout mice. In...
Protective role for type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptors against spike and wave discharges in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy - Ngomba, R. T.; Santolini, I.; Biagioni, F.; Molinaro, G.; Simonyi, A.; Van Rijn, C. M.; D'Amore, V.; Mastroiacovo, F.; Olivieri, G.; Gradini, R.; Ferraguti, F.; Battaglia, G.; Bruno, V.; Puliti, A.; Van Luijtelaar, G.; Nicoletti, F.
Eight-month old WAG/Rij rats, which developed spontaneous occurring absence seizures, showed a reduced function of mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the thalamus, as assessed by in vivo measurements of DHPG-stimulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, in the presence of the mGlu5 antagonist MPEP as compared to age-matched non-epileptic control rats. These symptomatic 8-month old WAG/Rij rats also showed lower levels of thalamic mGlu1Î± receptors than age-matched controls and 2-month old (pre-symptomatic) WAG/Rij rats, as detected by immunoblotting. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the reduced expression of mGlu1 receptors found in symptomatic WAG/Rij rats was confined to an area of the...
Cinnabarinic acid, an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, activates type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors - Fazio, F.; Lionetto, L.; Molinaro, G.; Bertrand, H.O.; Acher, F.; Ngomba, R.T.; Notartomaso, S.; Curini, M.; Rosati, O.; Scarselli, P.; Di Marco, R.a; Battaglia, G.; Bruno, V.; Simmaco, M.; Pin, J.P.; Nicoletti, F.; Goudet, C.
Cinnabarinic acid is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway that meets the structural requirements to interact with glutamate receptors. We found that cinnabarinic acid acts as a partial agonist of type 4 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu4) receptors, with no activity at other mGlu receptor subtypes. We also tested the activity of cinnabarinic acid on native mGlu4 receptors by examining 1) the inhibition of cAMP formation in cultured cerebellar granule cells; 2) protection against excitotoxic neuronal death in mixed cultures of cortical cells; and 3) protection against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice after local infusion into the external globus pallidus. In...
Anxiety-like behavior of prenatally stressed rats is associated with a selective reduction of glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus - Marrocco, J.; Mairesse, J.; Ngomba, R.T.; Silletti, V.; Van Camp, G.; Bouwalerh, H.; Summa, M.; Pittaluga, A.; Nicoletti, F.; Maccari, S.; Morley-Fletcher, S.
Abnormalities of synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus represent an integral part of the altered programming triggered by early life stress. Prenatally restraint stressed (PRS) rats develop long-lasting biochemical and behavioral changes, which are the expression of an anxious/depressive-like phenotype. We report here that PRS rats showed a selective impairment of depolarization- or kainate-stimulated glutamate and 3HD-aspartate release in the ventral hippo campus, a region encoding memories related to stress and emotions. GABA release was un affected in PRS rats. As a consequence of reduced glutamate release, PRS rats were also highly resistant to kainate-induced seizures. Abnormalities of glutamate...
CB1 agonists, locally applied to the cortico-thalamic circuit of rats with genetic absence epilepsy, reduce epileptic manifestations - Citraro, R.; Russo, E.; Ngomba, R.T.; Nicoletti, F.; Scicchitano, F.; Whalley, B.J.; Calignano, A.; De Sarro, G.
Drugs that modulate the endocannabinoid system and endocannabinoids typically play an anticonvulsant role although some proconvulsant effects have been reported both in humans and animal models. Moreover, no evidence for a role of the cannabinoid system in human absence epilepsy has been found although limited evidence of efficacy in relevant experimental animal models has been documented. This study aims to characterize the role of cannabinoids in specific areas of the cortico-thalamic network involved in oscillations that underlie seizures in a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy, the WAG/Rij rat. We assessed the effects of focal injection of the endogenous cannabinoid,...