Characterization of the laser bonding of a linear low density polyethylene film to a polypropylene substrate - Dowding, C. F.; Griffiths, Jonathan David; Lawrence, J.
This work investigates the effectiveness of using a 10.6 μm CO2 marking laser to activate a thermally sensitive adhesive coating on linear low density polyethylene film for the purpose of bonding the film to polypropylene substrate. A potential technical hurdle in the form bubbling has been witnessed and described. Bubbling prevented contact between the two laminates and impinged upon the viability of the bonds produced; film handling improvement is recommended as a solution. The Gaussian profile of the laser in concert with the circular laser spot shape and the traverse strategy of the scans used caused the centre of the...
Selective transcriptional down-regulation of human rhinovirus-induced production of CXCL10 from airway epithelial cells via the MEK1 pathway. - Zaheer, Raza S.; Koetzler, Rommy; Holden, Neil S.; Wiehler, Shahina; Proud, David
Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections can trigger exacerbations of lower airway diseases. Infection of airway epithelial cells induces production of a number of proinflammatory chemokines that may exacerbate airway inflammation, including CXCL10, a chemoattractant for type 1 lymphocytes and NK cells. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells and the BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cell line were used to examine the role of MAPK pathways in HRV-16-induced production of CXCL10. Surprisingly, PD98059 and U0126, two inhibitors of the MEK1/2-ERK MAPK pathway, significantly enhanced HRV-16-induced CXCL10 mRNA and protein. This enhancement was not seen with IFN-beta-induced production of CXCL10. Studies using small interfering RNA...
Corticosteroid-induced gene expression in allergen-challenged asthmatic subjects taking inhaled budesonide. - Kelly, M. M.; King, E. M.; Rider, C. F.; Gwozd, C.; Holden, Neil S.; Eddleston, J.; Zuraw, B.; Leigh, R.; O'Byrne, P. M.; Newton, R.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstone of asthma pharmacotherapy and, acting via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), reduce inflammatory gene expression. While this is often attributed to a direct inhibitory effect of the GR on inflammatory gene transcription, corticosteroids also induce the expression of anti-inflammatory genes in vitro. As there are no data to support this effect in asthmatic subjects taking ICS, we have assessed whether ICS induce anti-inflammatory gene expression in subjects with atopic asthma.
Bronchial biopsies from allergen-challenged atopic asthmatic subjects taking inhaled budesonide or placebo were subjected to gene expression analysis using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR for...
β2-Adrenoceptor agonist-induced RGS2 expression is a genomic mechanism of bronchoprotection that is enhanced by glucocorticoids. - Holden, Neil S.; Bell, Matthew J.; Rider, Christopher F.; King, Elizabeth M.; Gaunt, David D.; Leigh, Richard; Johnson, Malcolm; Siderovski, David P.; Heximer, Scott P.; Giembycz, Mark A.; Newton, Robert
In asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, activation of G(q)-protein-coupled receptors causes bronchoconstriction. In each case, the management of moderate-to-severe disease uses inhaled corticosteroid (glucocorticoid)/long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) combination therapies, which are more efficacious than either monotherapy alone. In primary human airway smooth muscle cells, glucocorticoid/LABA combinations synergistically induce the expression of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2), a GTPase-activating protein that attenuates G(q) signaling. Functionally, RGS2 reduced intracellular free calcium flux elicited by histamine, methacholine, leukotrienes, and other spasmogens. Furthermore, protection against spasmogen-increased intracellular free calcium, following treatment for 6 h with LABA plus corticosteroid, was dependent on RGS2....
Employer responsive provision: workforce development through work‐based learning - White, Tracey
The purpose of this paper, from a work‐based learning practitioner perspective, is to present an insight into some of the challenges, benefits and impacts associated with workforce development and employer responsive provision (ERP). The focus is learning, which is designed to meet an organization's needs and intended for groups of learners to develop their skills, whilst bringing tangible benefits to their organization.
– Focusing upon experiences of managing an employer engagement, action research project, which worked with over 40, small and medium‐sized enterprises and more recently working with three major corporate organisations, this paper provides a personal perspective of engaging...
Promoting paperless approaches to quality assurance and enhancement procedures: a university departmental case study. - Cobham, David; Hargrave, Bruce; Jacques, Kevin; Lewak, John
The paperless office remains an unfulfilled goal for many businesses and organisations. In the Higher Education context the number and diversity of information and IT systems, coupled with a historic expectation of academic freedom and individual practice, has often militated against drives towards paperless quality assurance.
The complex and sometimes fluid management structures in Higher Education (HE) coupled with the unpredictability of budgets and complex planning processes account in part for a typical melange of information systems, often procured piecemeal, and variable practice in their usage at the local level. Often data has to be exported from one system and massaged...
Population dynamics of cinnabar moth and ragwort in grassland - Crawley, M. J.; Gillman, Michael P.
Population densities of Senecio jacobaea (Compositae) and Tyria jacobaeae (Arctiidae) were studied in mesic grasslands at Silwood Park, Berkshire, 1981-1988. The host plant fluctuated 13-fold in population density; the insect fluctuated 8-fold in adult female density and 9-fold in egg batch density. Realized fecundity of cinnabar moth was density-independent at 3.3 egg batches per female, <67 of potential fecundity based on pupal dissection. Larval survival depended on the ragwort shoot biomass available at oviposition and the mean size and spacing of plants; emigration began earlier from small plants, and density-dependent mortality occurred during dispersal. Survival was low when spring was...
A comparative evaluation of models of cinnabar moth dynamics - Gillman, Michael P.; Crawley, M. J.
1. A complex model of cinnabar moth dynamics proposed by Dempster and Lakhani (1979) with 23 parameters is reduced to a single equation with five parameters, and the behaviour of the reduced model shown to explain most features of the full model. 2. The efficiency of the full model is compared with the reduced model and with two even simpler models (the two parameter discrete logistic and a four parameter model based on a step-function for mortality) in their abilities to describe time series data of cinnabar moth population densities from Weeting Heath. Models with more parameters were not significantly...
The cost of sexual reproduction in ragwort (Senecio jacobaea L.) - Gillman, Michael P.; Crawley, M. J.
Probability of overwinter survival is inversely related to the allocation of resources to sexual reproduction in thepreceding summer. There is a marked similarity between the 2 study sites in the relationship between numbers of flowerheads and rootstock volume. The effect of herbivory on overwinter survival of plants varies with site and timing of feeding. Different herbivores may either exacerbate the effect of sexual reproduction on survival (eg through root feeding), reduce the effect (eg through early consumption of flowers) or have no influence on the effect of sexual reproduction on survival (eg by consumption of flowers later in the season)....
A density-dependent model of Cirsium vulgare population dynamics using field-estimated parameter values - Gillman, Michael P.; Bullock, J. M.; Silvertown, J.; Clear Hill, B.
Two versions of a stage-structured model of Cirsium vulgare population dynamics were developed. Both incorporated density dependence at one stage in the life cycle of the plant. In version 1 density dependence was assumed to operate during germination whilst in version 2 it was included at the seedling stage. Density-dependent parameter values for the model were estimated from annual census data in a factorial grazing experiment. Version 1 of the model produced significant estimates of density dependence under field conditions. The estimated values, when included in a simulation of the dynamics, produced two-point limit cycles under conditions of hard grazing....
Short-term effects and long-term after-effects of fertilizer application on the flowering population of green-winged orchid Orchis morio - Silvertown, Jonathan; Wells, Derek A.; Gillman, Michael P.; Dodd, Mike E.; Robertson, Heather; Lakhani, Ken H.
The green-winged orchid Orchis morio has declined dramatically in England due to loss of habitat through the agricultural improvement of old hay meadows. A range of replicated fertilizer treatments was applied over a six year period to plots in an old hay meadows containing O. morio, to determine short-term and long-term after-effects. The numbers of flowering spikes per plot were counted annually for 23 years, commencing two years before experimental treatment. Inorganic fertilizers returning equivalent amounts of N, P and Mg and 80% of K to that removed in the annual hay crop significantly decreased flowering spike numbers during the...
Assessment of the conservation status of partridges and pheasants in South East Asia - McGowan, Philip; Gillman, Michael P.
The recent compilation of IUCN Action Plans for partridges and pheasants has highlighted the need for locality data to be used in conservation evaluation. Here we used locality data to measure changes in the proportion of localities from which each of 25 South East Asian species has been recorded, changes in their geographic extent and the amount of habitat that is potentially available to them. These are measures that use the data which are most readily available. Single landmass endemics from both montane and lowland forests appear to have fared badly with peacock pheasants Polyplectron and hill-partridges Arborophila suffering particularly...
Segmentation by single and combined features involves different contextual influences - Alberti, C. F.; Pavan, A.; Campana, G.; Casco, C.
Orientation discrimination of a texture line having orientation different from that of static background lines is facilitated when the lines are aligned along their orientation axis and when their separation is small (Experiment 1a). The facilitation by alignment remains when motion is added to the target (Experiment 1b). However, when the motion rather than the orientation has to be judged, alignment reduces sensitivity (d') regardless of whether the target has orientation the same as (iso-oriented) or different from background elements (Experiment 2). The inhibitory effect of alignment is confirmed when subjects have to discriminate the motion direction of an iso-oriented...
University students use, awareness and prevalence of prescription stimulants in a UK student population and the influence of personality - Pennington, Kyla
Cognitive enhancement though the use of prescription stimulants is thought to be on the rise particularly in certain settings such as university campuses (Ragan et al., 2013, Neuropharmacology, 64, 588-595). However, much of the empirical evidence for this comes from American student populations. This study presents the findings from a pilot study which aimed to investigate the awareness and beliefs concerning cognitive enhancement in a cross-sectional UK student population.
The study reported consisted of 113 students from multiple UK university institutions (mean age 20.72 (SD 2.01); 38M, 75F) studying subjects across arts, science and the social sciences. An online questionnaire,...
Weak acid and alkali stress regulate phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Mollapour, Mehdi; Phelan, Oohn P.; Millson, Stefan H.; Piper, Peter W.; Cooke, Frank T.
Weak organic acids are used as food preservatives to inhibit the growth of spoilage yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Long-term adaptation to weak acids requires the increased expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter Pdr12p, which catalyses the active efflux of the weak acids from the cytosol; however, very little is known about the signalling events immediately following application of weak acid stress. We have investigated the effects of weak acids on two stress-responsive signalling molecules, PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns(4,5)P2, which in S. cerevisiae are synthesized by Fab1p and Mss4p respectively. At low extracellular pH, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and acetic acid all...
Principles and problems of the electrophoretic mobility shift assay - Holden, Neil S.; Tacon, Claire E.
The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) is classically used to detect DNA binding proteins, the tenet of the EMSA is that DNA with protein bound, migrates through a polyacrylamide gel more slowly than the corresponding free unbound DNA.
The classical EMSA protocol has 4 major steps: 1) The isolation of proteins from cells. Since the vast majority of active DNA binding proteins are present within the nucleus, a sequential membrane lysis protocol is used which yields purified nuclear protein. 2) Manufacture and radiolabelling of the DNA probe. Phosphorous 32 ((32)P) is attached to the 5' ends of the DNA probe through...
Nitric oxide inhibits human rhinovirus-induced transcriptional activation of CXCL10 in airway epithelial cells - Koetzler, Rommy; Zaheer, Raza S.; Wiehler, Shahina; Holden, Neil S.; Giembycz, Mark A.; Proud, David
Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections trigger exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits HRV replication in human airway epithelial cells and suppresses HRV-induced epithelial production of several cytokines and chemokines.
We sought to delineate the mechanisms by which NO inhibits HRV-induced epithelial production of CXCL10, a chemoattractant for type 1 T cells and natural killer cells.
Primary human bronchial epithelial cells or cells of the BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cell line were exposed to HRV-16 in the presence or absence of the NO donor 3-(2-hydroxy-2-nitroso-1-propylhydrazino)-1-propanamine (PAPA NONOate). A cGMP analogue and an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase were...
Qualitative risk assessment to support a policy decision on partially eviscerated (effilé) poultry production - James, Christian; Daramola, Bukola; Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Purnell, Graham
Partially-eviscerated (also described as effilé, effileé, roped, partly eviscerated, partially drawn, wire drawn or Boston drawn) poultry are produced by removing the intestines from the poultry carcass but leaving the heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, crop, proventriculus and gizzard inside the body cavity (as defined in Regulation (EC) 543/2008). Regulation (EC) 853/2004 allows production of partially-eviscerated poultry, provided it is authorised by the competent authority.
The overall aim of this project was to carry out a risk assessment of partially-eviscerated (effilé) poultry production (poultry with the heart, liver, kidneys, crop, proventriculus and gizzard left inside the body cavity) with a view to...
Co-operative higher education - Winn, Joss
A keynote talk for the Reimagining the University conference, University of Gloucestershire, 17-18th October 2014.