Reefs shift from net accretion to net erosion along a natural environmental gradient - Silbiger, Nyssa J.; Guadayol, Oscar; Thomas, Florence I. M.; Donahue, Megan J.
Coral reefs persist in an accretion-erosion balance and ocean acidification resulting from anthropogenic CO2 emissions threatens to shift this balance in favor of net reef erosion. Corals and calcifying algae, largely responsible for reef accretion, are vulnerable to environmental changes associated with ocean acidification, but the direct effects of lower pH on reef erosion has received less attention, particularly in the context of known drivers of bioerosion and natural variability. This study examines the balance between reef accretion and erosion along a well-characterized natural environmental gradient in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i using experimental blocks of coral skeleton. Comparing before and after...
Patterns in temporal variability of temperature, oxygen and pH along an environmental gradient in a coral reef - Guadayol, Oscar; Silbiger, Nyssa J.; Donahue, Megan J.; Thomas, Florence I. M.
Spatial and temporal environmental variability are important drivers of ecological processes at all scales. As new tools allow the in situ exploration of individual responses to fluctuations, ecologically meaningful ways of characterizing environmental variability at organism scales are needed. We investigated the fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of high-frequency temporal variability in temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and pH experienced by benthic organisms in a shallow coastal coral reef. We used a spatio-temporal sampling design, consisting of 21 short-term time-series located along a reef flat-to-reef slope transect, coupled to a long-term station monitoring water column changes. Spectral analyses revealed sharp gradients in variance...
Evaluation of the main achievements of cohesion policy programmes and projects over the longer term in 15 selected regions (from 1989-1993 programme period to the present) - Bachtler, John; Begg, Iain; Polverari, Laura; Charles, David
Against a background of inconclusive evidence of the results of EU Cohesion policy since 1989, the aim of this study has been to evaluate the main achievements of EU Cohesion policy programmes and projects and their effectiveness and utility over the longer term in 15 selected regions of the EU15. Specifically, the main objectives of the study were twofold: (i) to examine the achievements of all programmes co-financed by the ERDF and, where applicable, the Cohesion Fund, which have been implemented in the 15 selected regions from 1989 to 2012 (regional programmes and national programmes implemented in the regions); and...
An assessment of Multilevel Governance in Cohesion Policy, 2007-2013 - Tödtling-Schönhofer, Herta; Radzyner, Alice; Frangenheim, Alexandra; Bachtler, John; Mendez, Carlos; Charles, David; Granqvist, Kaisa
This study offers a thorough overview of Multi-Level Governance in Cohesion Policy in the current programming period of 2007-2013 by examining the evolution of the concept in terms of its definition and conceptual framework, analysing the current processes of implementing Multi-Level Governance in the EU27, as well as describing the advantages and disadvantages of partnerships in policy-making. Moreover, the study aims to formulate strategic and operational recommendations in the context of the preparation of the 2014- 2020 programming period
The involvement of Japanese MNEs in the Indonesian automotive cluster - Irawati, Dessy; Charles, David
The Indonesian Government has applied a form of cluster policy in the automotive sector drawing upon multinational enterprises (MNEs) to develop the dynamic capabilities of the industry. Cluster policies are seen by the government as a way to enhance competencies within the automotive cluster in Indonesia, particularly the work organisation for flexible production systems and skills, as well as building up the global-local production networks. Case studies of Toyota and Honda in Indonesia examine the international transfer of technology seen through the perspective of work organisation, in order to assess whether sophisticated Japanese production management technology has been successfully transplanted...
Plant closure and institutional modernisation: Siemens microelectronics in the North East - Charles, David; Benneworth, Paul
The Siemens plant in North Tyneside, England gave the pretext for a range of local agencies to act together, to modernise part of the regional institutional infrastructure. This improvement meant that when the investment closed, and technological, organisational and skill modernisation by the firm in the region ceased, the region continued to experience the benefits from the temporary presence of the investment. This paper uses the case of Siemens to problematise the conventional understanding of the ephemerality of branch-plant investments to understand how they can usefully contribute to the modernisation of peripheral industrial regions within the UK.
Are we realizing our potential? Joining up science and technology policy in the English regions - Charles, David; Benneworth, Paul
Science policy in England is determined within a governance system in which regional interests and perspectives are over‐looked in favour of short term national excellence. Regional policies and the creation of the new Regional Development Agencies both are critically dependent on central government decisions over the spatial location of R&D spending. The scientific governance system lacks a mechanism to ensure that science policy works to improve regional competitiveness and scientific performance; thus, regional differences and strengths are overlooked by Whitehall departments in favour of the most vocal and well-networked representatives from a limited number of companies. Uneven scientific development with...
Voluntary unemployment and left-dominated social policy academia - Dunn, Andrew
This article summarises the main arguments and research findings from my book - 'Rethinking Unemployment and the Work Ethic'. I argue that left-dominated social policy academia has failed to answer some important questions. I criticise social policy writing about unemployed benefit claimants and present evidence from my four empirical research projects, which all delivered findings consistent with the view that many unemployed people prefer living on benefits to undertaking jobs that would increase their income, but which they consider unattractive.
The 'Times' of Caryl Churchill's theatre - Adiseshiah, Siân
This chapter establishes the political and cultural contexts for the plays of Caryl Chuchill. It discusses political events and the development of left movements and debates from the 1970s to the first decade of the twenty-first century.
Constantine: unconquered emperor, Christian victor - Stephenson, Paul
Constantine: Unconquered Emperor, Christian Victor is a masterly survey of the life and enduring legacy of the greatest and most unjustly ignored of the later Roman emperors – from a richly gifted young British historian.
In 312, Constantine – one of four Roman emperors ruling a divided empire – marched on Rome to establish his sole control of its western half. On the eve of the decisive battle, at Rome’s Milvian Bridge, he had a vision. A cross appeared to him in the sky with an exhortation, generally translated as ‘By this sign conquer’. Inscribing the cross on the shields...
Spiking neural network for visual pattern recognition - Liu, Daqi; Yue, Shigang
Most of visual pattern recognition algorithms try to emulate the mechanism of visual pathway within the human brain. Regarding of classic face recognition task, by using the spatiotemporal information extracted from Spiking neural network (SNN), batch learning rule and on-line learning rule stand out from their competitors. However, the former one simply considers the average pattern within the class, and the latter one just relies on the nearest relevant single pattern. In this paper, a novel learning rule and its SNN framework has been proposed. It considers all relevant patterns in the local domain around the undetermined sample rather than...
Reducing motion blurring associated with temporal summation in low light scenes for image quality enhancement - Zahi, Gabriel; Yue, Shigang
In order to see under low light conditions nocturnal insects rely on neural strategies based on combinations of spatial and temporal summations. Though these summation techniques when modelled are effective in improving the quality of low light images, using the temporal summation in scenes where image velocity is high only come at a cost of motion blurring in the output scenes. Most recent research has been towards reducing motion blurring in scenes where motion is caused by moving objects rather than effectively reducing motion blurring in scenes where motion is caused by moving cameras. This makes it impossible to implement...
Open access in humanities and social sciences: visions for the future of publishing - Eve, Martin Paul; Willinsky, John; Coble, Zach; Ho, Adrian
For this month’s column, the editors are gearing up for the Library Publishing Forum, which will be held March 29–30, 2015, at Portland State University in Portland, Oregon. We have interviewed the forum’s keynote speakers, Martin Paul Eve and John Willinsky, who will share their vision of open access in the humanities and social sciences as well as their thoughts on future developments.
What determines the direction of microsaccades? - Hermens, Frouke; Walker, Robin
During visual fixation, our eyes are not entirely still. Instead, small eye movements, such as microsaccades, can be observed. We here investigate what determines the direction and frequency of these microsaccades, as this information might help to clarify what purpose they serve. The relative contribution of three possible factors was examined: (1) the orienting of covert attention, (2) the spatial distribution of possible target locations, and (3) whether monocular or binocular microsaccades are considered. The orienting of covert attention and the distribution of possible target locations had a relatively weak effect on microsaccade rates and directions. In contrast, the classification...
Do you look where I look? Attention shifts and response preparation following dynamic social cues - Hermens, Frouke; Walker, Robin
Studies investigating the effects of observing a gaze shift in another person often apply static images of a person with an averted gaze, while measuring response times to a peripheral target. Static images, however, are unlike how we normally perceive gaze shifts of others. Moreover, response times might only reveal the effects of a cue on covert attention and might fail to uncover cueing effects on overt attention or response preparation. We therefore extended the standard paradigm and measured cueing effects for ore realistic, dynamic cues (video clips),while comparing response times, saccade direction errors and saccade trajectories. Three cues were...
Eye movements in surgery: A literature review - Hermens, Frouke; Flin, Rhona; Ahmed, Irfan
With recent advances in eye tracking technology, it is now possible to track surgeons’ eye movements while engaged in a surgical task or when surgical residents practice their surgical skills. Several studies have compared eye movements of surgical experts and novices, developed techniques to assess surgical skill on the basis of eye movements, and examined the role of eye movements in surgical training. We here provide an overview of these studies with a focus on the methodological aspects. We conclude that the different studies of eye movements in surgery suggest that the
recording of eye movements may be beneficial both for...