Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 3.744

  1. Sequential effects in olympic synchronized diving scores

    Kramer, R.S.S
    When judging performances in a sequence, the current score is often influenced by the preceding score. Where athletes are perceived to be similar, a judgement is assimilated towards the previous one. However, if judges focus on the differences between the two athletes, this will result in a contrasting influence on their scores. Here, I investigate sequential effects during synchronized diving events at the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games. Although previous research found assimilation in scores of gymnasts, the current data showed contrast effects-current scores benefited from following a poor performance but were at a disadvantage if they followed a high-scoring...

  2. Fraudulent ID using face morphs: experiments on human and automatic recognition

    Robertson, D. J.; Kramer, R. S. S.; Burton, A. M.
    Matching unfamiliar faces is known to be difficult, and this can give an opportunity to those engaged in identity fraud. Here we examine a relatively new form of fraud, the use of photo-ID containing a graphical morph between two faces. Such a document may look sufficiently like two people to serve as ID for both. We present two experiments with human viewers, and a third with a smartphone face recognition system. In Experiment 1, viewers were asked to match pairs of faces, without being warned that one of the pair could be a morph. They very commonly accepted a morphed...

  3. Integrated flight/thrust vectoring control for jet-powered unmanned aerial vehicles with ACHEON propulsion

    Cen, Zhaohui; Smith, Tim; Stewart, Paul; Stewart, Jill
    As a new alternative to tilting rotors or turbojet vector mechanical oriented nozzles, ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle) has enormous advantages because it is free of moving elements and highly effective for Vertical/Short-Take-Off and Landing (V/STOL) aircraft. In this paper, an integrated flight/ thrust vectoring control scheme for a jet powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with an ACHEON nozzle is proposed to assess its suitability in jet aircraft flight applications. Firstly, a simplified Thrust-Vectoring (TV) population model is built based on CFD simulation data and parameter identification. Secondly, this TV propulsion model is embedded as a jet actuator for a benchmark fixed-wing ‘Aerosonde’ UAV,...

  4. A survey of the impact of owning a service dog on quality of life for individuals with physical and hearing disability: a pilot study

    Hall, Sophie S.; MacMichael, Jessica; Turner, Amy; Mills, Daniel S.
    Background Quality of life refers to a person’s experienced standard of health, comfort and happiness and is typically measured using subjective self-report scales. Despite increasing scientific interest in the value of dogs to human health and the growing demand for trained service dogs, to date no research has reported how service dogs may affect client perceptions of quality of life. Method We compared quality of life scores on the 16 item Flanagan quality of life scale from individuals who owned a trained service dog with those who were eligible to receive a dog, but did not yet have one (waiting list control). Data...

  5. Deep reinforcement learning for conversational robots playing games

    Cuayahuitl, Heriberto
    Deep reinforcement learning for interactive multimodal robots is attractive for endowing machines with trainable skill acquisition. But this form of learning still represents several challenges. The challenge that we focus in this paper is effective policy learning. To address that, in this paper we compare the Deep Q-Networks (DQN) method against a variant that aims for stronger decisions than the original method by avoiding decisions with the lowest negative rewards. We evaluated our baseline and proposed algorithms in agents playing the game of Noughts and Crosses with two grid sizes (3x3 and 5x5). Experimental results show evidence that our proposed...

  6. Wing resonances in a new dead-leaf-mimic katydid (Tettigoniidae: Pterochrozinae) from the Andean cloud forests

    Baker, Andrew Alexander; Sarria, Fabio; Morris, Glenn K.; Jonsson, Thorin; Montealegre-Z, Fernando
    Day-camouflaged leaf-mimic katydids Typophyllum spp. have a remarkable way of evading predators as male and female forewings appear as bite-damaged leaves complete with necrotic spots. As in all other katydids, males produce sound signals to attract females by rubbing their forewings together. The biophysical properties of these special leaf-like forewings remain obscure. Here we study the wing mechanics and resonances of Typophyllum spurioculis, a new species of leaf-mimic katydid with a broad distribution in the Andes from Western Ecuador to the middle Central Cordillera in Colombia. This species performs an unusual laterally directed aposematic display, showing orange spots that simulate...

  7. Aspects of social imperative: The sustainable historic environment in the developing world.

    Whelan, Deborah
    Heritage in post-apartheid South Africa, as with many post-colonial territories is highly politicised and contested (Coombes 2003, Tomaselli & Mpofu 1997, De Jong 2008). It tends, on occasion to the irrational, and endeavours at times to celebrate the non-existent in order to reinforce political agendas. In addition, the diversity of cultures, ethnic groups, religions and languages make objective and inclusive heritage identification and its management complex. Colonial heritages particularly, are seriously at risk: whilst this is to be expected, mitigation to minimalise risk is vital in order to retain authenticity and contextual integrity. It is thus that perhaps the most...

  8. Testimonio and torture in the North of Ireland

    White, Lisa
    Drawing upon the language of ‘testimonio’ which has emerged from human rights activism in Latin America, the paper explores the narrative experiences of former detainees who ‘went public’ with accounts of state brutality and torture relating to the conflict in the North of Ireland. It takes a multidisciplinary approach to examine the extent to which narratives of state violence can be understood as a form of resistance. Drawing directly from the findings of a series of interviews with Republican former detainees, the paper also comments upon the complicated feelings of ‘ownership’ of those whose personal experiences of state violence have...

  9. Evidence of direct reciprocity, but not of indirect and generalized reciprocity, in the grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques (Macacasylvanus)

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura
    Reciprocity is one of the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the exchange of social behaviors, such as grooming, in animals. Reciprocity assumes that individuals act as the donor and recipient of grooming and switch roles over time to balance the benefits and costs of this behavior. Three main patterns of reciprocity may follow a grooming given: (1) direct reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to the former donor; (2) indirect reciprocity, where another individual returns the grooming to the former donor; and (3) generalized reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to another individual. While...

  10. "My father wasn’t really interested in machinery”: New perspectives on the modernisation of agriculture in 20th century Lincolnshire.

    Hunt, Abigail
    This article explores the emergence of modern agriculture in twentieth century Lincolnshire as represented by the shift from threshing drums to combine harvesters and from real horse power to motor horse power. It attempts to historically resituate the emergence of modern agriculture in the county, demonstrating that change did not uniformly take place across the county just before, during, or immediately after World War Two. It also offers a new perspective on a well-covered historical topic; that of the human experience of modernisation as told by the people who bore witness to a monumental shift in methods of agricultural production.

  11. "My father wasn’t really interested in machinery”: New perspectives on the modernisation of agriculture in 20th century Lincolnshire.

    Hunt, Abigail
    This article explores the emergence of modern agriculture in twentieth century Lincolnshire as represented by the shift from threshing drums to combine harvesters and from real horse power to motor horse power. It attempts to historically resituate the emergence of modern agriculture in the county, demonstrating that change did not uniformly take place across the county just before, during, or immediately after World War Two. It also offers a new perspective on a well-covered historical topic; that of the human experience of modernisation as told by the people who bore witness to a monumental shift in methods of agricultural production.

  12. The concept of waste as understood in lean construction

    Sarhan, Saad
    This blog explains the concept of waste as understood in lean construction

  13. 2008 Agricultural History Annual Meeting University of Nevada, USA

    Hunt, Abigail
    This article reviewed the 2008 Agricultural History Annual Meeting University of Nevada, USA

  14. Raising levels of student satisfaction with assessment and feedback: reflecting on the staff experience of an ambitious change management programme

    Benton, Helen Marie; Everett, Sally; Hunt, Abigail
    An exploration of the impact of an ambitious programme of changes in assessment and feedback in the Business School. This research explored the change in student satisfaction, but also the experience of academic and administrative staff during the time of change.

  15. Patricio: cambio religioso y político en la Britania e Irlanda post-romana

    Wood, Jamie
    Patrick has long been celebrated as the apostle to the Irish, responsible for bringing Christianity from Britain to Ireland for the first time during the fifth century. Due to the numerous hagiographical and mythical tales that have built up around Patrick over the centuries, as well as his importance as a symbol of Irish national identity, it can be extremely difficult to disentangle fact from fiction. Recent work has sought increasingly to move away from the mythical accretions to the story of Patrick and instead to contextualise him historically, in terms of the social and political contexts in which he...

  16. A multiplicative human steering control model

    Martinez-Garcia, Miguel; Gordon, Timothy
    A non-linear, yet simple, multiplicative human-control model is developed by studying the statistical properties of human subjects’ motor response to a visual input; statistical analysis of the magnitude of the steering angle, from subjects performing a tracking task with a steering wheel, shows that the data is consistent with a log-normal distribution. Thus the possibility of modelling human-control as a multiplicative process, that replicates the statistical properties found in the human-operator is considered. The proposed multiplicative controller is contrasted with real data and with the Crossover Model. This research has potential applications in a wide range of fields, from human...

  17. Social enterprise ecosystems: a case study of the Danube Delta region of Romania

    Els, Georgiana; Kane, Kevin
    This chapter seeks to critically explain the optimal conditions that enable social enterprise activities to materialize, grow and blossom into sustainable organisations. The core notion and key to understanding the necessary framework for these developments is the concept of a social enterprise ‘ecosystem’. The case explores the knowledge and understandings of the actors who constitute the social enterprises and ecosystem elements in order to uncover how the integrated support network of nodes and connections that constitute the ecosystem is formed. The practical issues, influences and sources of innovation involved in creating social enterprise ecosystems are explored by examination of the...

  18. Assessment of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis with gastric lavage aspirates in children in sub-Saharan Africa: a prospective descriptive study

    Bates, Matthew; O'Grady, Justin; Maeurer, Markus; Tembo, John; Chilukutu, Lophina; Chabala, Chishala; Kasonde, Richard; Mulota, Peter; Mzyece, Judith; Chomba, Mumba; Mukonda, Lukundo; Mumba, Maxwell; Kapata, Nathan; Rachow, Andrea; Clowes, Petra; Hoelscher, Michael; Mwaba, Peter; Zumla, Alimuddin
    BACKGROUND Rapid and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children remains challenging because of difficulties in obtaining sputum samples and the paucibacillary nature of the disease. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is useful for rapid diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis with sputum and nasopharyngeal samples. We assessed this assay for the detection of tuberculosis and multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis with gastric lavage aspirate (GLA) samples in children admitted to hospital. METHODS We did a prospective study to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay with GLA samples for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis and MDR tuberculosis in new paediatric...

  19. Advances in tuberculosis diagnostics: the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and future prospects for a point-of-care test

    Lawn, Stephen D.; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Piatek, Amy; Alexander, Heather; Marais, Ben J.; Cuevas, Luis E.; McHugh, Timothy D.; Zijenah, Lynn; Kapata, Nathan; Abubakar, Ibrahim; McNerney, Ruth; Hoelscher, Michael; Memish, Ziad A.; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Kim, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Schito, Marco; Zumla, Alimuddin
    Rapid progress has been made in the development of new diagnostic assays for tuberculosis in recent years. New technologies have been developed and assessed, and are now being implemented. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay, which enables simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance, was endorsed by WHO in December, 2010. This assay was specifically recommended for use as the initial diagnostic test for suspected drug-resistant or HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis. By June, 2012, two-thirds of countries with a high tuberculosis burden and half of countries with a high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis burden had incorporated the assay into their national tuberculosis...

  20. Tuberculosis comorbidity with communicable and non-communicable diseases: integrating health services and control efforts

    Marais, Ben J.; Loennroth, Knut; Lawn, Stephen D.; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Mwaba, Peter; Glaziou, Philippe; Bates, Matthew; Colagiuri, Ruth; Zijenah, Lynn; Swaminathan, Soumya; Memish, Ziad A.; Pletschette, Michel; Hoelscher, Michael; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hasan, Rumina; Zafar, Afia; Pantaleo, Guiseppe; Craig, Gill; Kim, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Schito, Marco; Zumla, Alimuddin
    Recent data for the global burden of disease reflect major demographic and lifestyle changes, leading to a rise in noncommunicable diseases. Most countries with high levels of tuberculosis face a large comorbidity burden from both non-communicable and communicable diseases. Traditional disease-specific approaches typically fail to recognise common features and potential synergies in integration of care, management, and control of non-communicable and communicable diseases. In resource-limited countries, the need to tackle a broader range of overlapping comorbid diseases is growing. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS persist as global emergencies. The lethal interaction between tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in adults, children, and pregnant women...

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