Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 4.276

  1. Pumping in oxygen

    Winston, Brian
    Coverage of so called Islamic State (IS), as with the reporting of the jihadi threat in the “war against terror” in general, continues to be confused, even in the hands of the most effective practitioners. The extremists' loss of control over their caliphate is not being ignored but the story is being constantly obfuscated by a lingering determination to buy into a frame of terror exactly echoing their hyperbolic rhetoric.

  2. Traitors or toadies? [The BBC: myth of a public service, by Mills, Tom (Verso, pp266, £16.99)]

    Winston, Brian
    From 1934 until 1984 that bastion of journalist integrity, the national treasure that is the BBC, had MI5 vet all editorially sensitive job candidates for possible subversive opinions and connections (for example, in the 1930s, the Relief Committee for Victims of German Fascism). The BBC demanded that the department do this with such enthusiasm that the spooks more than once complained of the workload. Unreliables finished up (as Mark Hollingsworth and Richard Norton-Taylor reported in 1988) with “a buff folder with a round red sticker, stamped with the legend SECRET and a symbol which looked like a Christmas tree”. I have...

  3. Time for a cover-up

    Winston, Brian
    The most boring headline imaginable according, supposedly, to Claud Cockburn, is: “Small earthquake in Chile, not many dead.” I want to suggest an update: “Futile jihadi attack in (insert); not many dead.” For, not to be too Swiftian about this and with all due honour to those who have perished and with deepest of condolences to those who knew and loved them, not many dead is what we have. Since January of last year in Europe there have been, depending how you count, between five and 10 attacks identified as Islamist. The tolls have been 206 murdered and 728 injured (including...

  4. Animal and human emotion: concepts and methodologies

    Correia Caeiro, Catia
    The human-dog relationship is particularly interesting for the study of emotions. The underlying concepts need to be made explicit and methods need to be adapted to the characteristics of the species studied as well as the shortcomings of the human experimenter’s perception.

  5. Indigenous self-determination: the root of state resistance

    Melling, Graham
    States have long expressed some resistance towards granting the right of self-determination to identifiable groups of people within their boundaries. This includes the granting of the right to minorities and to indigenous groups. One of the ways in which this reluctance reveals itself is in States‟ resistance to the granting of recognition of “peoples” to certain groups. States, it would seem, draw the erroneous conclusion that recognition of groups as “peoples” under international law will inexorably lead to such “peoples” asserting a right to self-determination and with that an unfettered ability to secede from the state. However states‟ fear of indigenous secession has no realistic basis. Yet states continually...

  6. British action in Libya: the lawful protection of nationals abroad?

    Melling, Graham
    The forcible protection of one states‟ own nationals on another state‟s territory is one which stretches the boundaries of the broader, inherent right of self-defence available to states under international law. Known as the „protection of nationals abroad‟ this doctrine is one which remains, at best, highly controversial. This Article examines the lawfulness of action taken by British forces when they rescued and evacuated British nationals prior to Libya descending into civil war. It also considers the extent to which action by British forces fits within the highly controversial paradigm of „protection of nationals abroad‟.

  7. Mass spectroscopic characterization of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleoprotein and elucidation of the role of phosphorylation in RNA binding by using surface plasmon resonance

    Chen, Hongying; Gill, Andrew C.; Dove, Brian K.; Emmett, Stevan R.; Kemp, C. Fred; Ritchie, Mark A.; Dee, Michael; Hiscox, Julian A.
    Phosphorylation of the coronavirus nucleoprotein (N protein) has been predicted to play a role in RNA binding. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the kinetics of RNA binding between nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated infectious bronchitis virus N protein with nonviral and viral RNA by surface plasmon resonance (Biacore). Mass spectroscopic analysis of N protein identified phosphorylation sites that were proximal to RNA binding domains. Kinetic analysis, by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that nonphosphorylated N protein bound with the same affinity to viral RNA as phosphorylated N protein. However, phosphorylated N protein bound to viral RNA with a higher binding affinity than...

  8. Conservation of biological properties of the CD40 ligand, CD154 in a non-mammalian vertebrate

    Tregaskes, Clive A.; Glansbeek, Harrie L.; Gill, Andrew C.; Hunt, Lawrence G.; Burnside, Joan; Young, John R.
    Signals delivered by the CD40 ligand, CD154, have crucial roles in immune responses in mammals, being required for development of germinal centres, maturation of T-dependent antibody responses, and generation of B-cell memory. To determine whether these functions were conserved in a non-mammalian species, a putative chicken CD154 cDNA was used to make an oligomeric fusion protein, and to raise monoclonal antibodies. The antibodies detected surface expression on activated T-cells. The fusion protein detected expression of a receptor on B-cells, thrombocytes and macrophages. Biological effects of the fusion protein included induction of NO synthesis in a macrophage cell line, enhancement of...

  9. Calcium binding activity of the epidermal growth factor-like domains of the apicomplexan microneme protein EtMIC4

    Periz, Javier; Gill, Andrew C.; Knott, Vroni; Handford, Penny A.; Tomley, Fiona M.
    Microneme proteins are secreted from apicomplexan parasites during invasion of host cells and they play crucial roles in parasite–host cell adhesion. EtMIC4 is a 240 kDa transmembrane protein from Eimeria tenella that contains 31 tandemly arranged epidermal growth factor (EGF), like repeats within its extracellular domain. The majority of these repeats have calcium binding (cb) consensus sequences. Little is known about cbEGFs in apicomplexan parasites but their presence in microneme proteins suggests that they may contribute to parasite–host interactions. To investigate the potential role of cbEGFs we have expressed and correctly refolded a cbEGF triplet from EtMIC4 (cbEGF7–9) and demonstrated...

  10. Synthesis and structural characterization of a mimetic membrane-anchored prion protein

    Hicks, Matthew R.; Gill, Andrew C.; Bath, Imanpreet K.; Rullay, Atvinder K.; Sylvester, Ian D.; Crout, David H.; Pinheiro, Teresa J. T.
    During pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) an abnormal form (PrPSc) of the host encoded prion protein (PrPC) accumulates in insoluble fibrils and plaques. The two forms of PrP appear to have identical covalent structures, but differ in secondary and tertiary structure. Both PrPC and PrPSc have glycosylphospatidylinositol (GPI) anchors through which the protein is tethered to cell membranes. Membrane attachment has been suggested to play a role in the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, but the majority of in vitro studies of the function, structure, folding and stability of PrP use recombinant protein lacking the GPI anchor. In order...

  11. A novel, resistance-linked ovine PrP variant and its equivalent mouse variant modulate the in vitro cell-free conversion of rPrP to PrPres

    Kirby, Louise; Goldmann, Wilfred; Houston, Fiona; Gill, Andrew C.; Manson, Jean C.
    Prion diseases are associated with the conversion of the normal cellular prion protein, PrPc, to the abnormal, disease-associated form, PrPSc. This conversion can be mimicked in vitro by using a cell-free conversion assay. It has recently been shown that this assay can be modified to use bacterial recombinant PrP as substrate and mimic the in vivo transmission characteristics of rodent scrapie. Here, it is demonstrated that the assay replicates the ovine polymorphism barriers of scrapie transmission. In addition, the recently identified ovine PrP variant ARL168Q, which is associated with resistance of sheep to experimental BSE, modulates the cell-free conversion of...

  12. The microneme proteins EtMIC4 and EtMIC5 of Eimeria tenella form a novel, ultra-high molecular mass protein complex that binds target host cells

    Periz, Javier; Gill, Andrew C.; Hunt, Lawrence; Brown, Philip; Tomley, Fiona M.
    Eimeria tenella, in common with other parasitic protozoa of the phylum Apicomplexa, invades host cells using an actinomyosin-powered “glideosome” complex and requires the secretion of adhesive proteins from the microneme organelles onto the parasite surface. Microneme proteins of E. tenella include EtMIC4, a transmembrane protein that has multiple thrombospondin type I domains and calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like domains in its extracellular domain, and EtMIC5, a soluble protein composed of 11 tandemly repeated domains that belong to the plasminogen-apple-nematode superfamily. We show here that EtMIC4 and EtMIC5 interact to form an oligomeric, ultrahigh molecular mass protein complex. The complex was purified...

  13. Mini-SLAM: minimalistic visual SLAM in large-scale environments based on a new interpretation of image similarity

    Andreasson, Henrik; Duckett, Tom; Lilienthal, Achim
    This paper presents a vision-based approach to SLAM in large-scale environments with minimal sensing and computational requirements. The approach is based on a graphical representation of robot poses and links between the poses. Links between the robot poses are established based on odomety and image similarity, then a relaxation algorithm is used to generate a globally consistent map. To estimate the covariance matrix for links obtained from the vision sensor, a novel method is introduced based on the relative similarity of neighbouring images, without requiring distances to image features or multiple view geometry. Indoor and outdoor experiments demonstrate that the approach...

  14. Active people recognition using thermal and grey images on a mobile security robot

    Treptow, A.; Cielniak, G.; Duckett, T.
    In this paper we present a vision-based approach to detect, track and identify people on a mobile robot in real time. While most vision systems for tracking people on mobile robots use skin color information, we present an approach using thermal images and a fast contour model together with a Particle Filter. With this method a person can be detected independently from current light conditions and in situations were no skin color is visible (the person is not close or does not face the robot). Tracking in thermal images is used as an attention system to get an estimate of the...

  15. Automatic building detection from aerial images for mobile robot mapping

    Persson, M.; Sandvall, M.; Duckett, T.
    To improve mobile robot outdoor mapping, information about the shape and location of buildings is of interest. This paper describes a system for automatic detection of buildings in aerial images taken from a nadir view. The system builds two types of independent hypotheses based on the image contents. A segmentation process implemented as an ensemble of SOMs (Self Organizing Maps) is trained and used to create a segmented image showing different types of roofs, vegetation and sea. A second type of hypotheses is based on an edge image produced from the aerial photo. A line extraction process uses the edge image...

  16. Internet of things for disaster management: state-of-the-art and prospects

    Ray, P. P.; Mukherjee, M.; Shu, L.
    Disastrous events are cordially involved with the momentum of nature. As such mishaps have been showing off own mastery, situations have gone beyond the control of human resistive mechanisms far ago. Fortunately, several technologies are in service to gain affirmative knowledge and analysis of a disaster's occurrence. Recently, Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm has opened a promising door toward catering of multitude problems related to agriculture, industry, security, and medicine due to its attractive features, such as heterogeneity, interoperability, light-weight, and flexibility. This paper surveys existing approaches to encounter the relevant issues with disasters, such as early warning, notification, data...

  17. Haptic role allocation and intention negotiation in human-robot collaboration

    Kucukyilmaz, Ayse
    This dissertation aims to present a perspective to build more natural shared control systems for physical human-robot cooperation. As the tasks become more complex and more dynamic, many shared control schemes fail to meet the expectation of an effortless interaction that resembles human-human sensory communication. Since such systems are mainly built to improve task performance, the richness of sensory communication is of secondary concern. We suggest that effective cooperation can be achieved when the human’s and the robot’s roles within the task are dynamically updated during the execution of the task. These roles define states for the system, in which...

  18. Improving human-computer cooperation through haptic role exchange and negotiation

    Kucukyilmaz, Ayse; Oguz, Salih Ozgur; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Basdogan, Cagatay
    Even though in many systems, computers have been programmed to share control with human operators in order to increase task performance, the interaction in such systems is still artificial when compared to natural human-human cooperation. In complex tasks, cooperating human partners may have their own agendas and take initiatives during the task. Such initiatives contribute to a richer interaction between cooperating parties, yet little research exists on how this can be established between a human and a computer. In a cooperation involving haptics, the coupling between the human and the computer should be defined such that the computer can understand...

  19. Conveying intentions through haptics in human-computer collaboration

    Kucukyilmaz, Ayse; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Basdogan, Cagatay
    Haptics has been used as a natural way for humans to communicate with computers in collaborative virtual environments. Human-computer collaboration is typically achieved by sharing control of the task between a human and a computer operator. An important research challenge in the field addresses the need to realize intention recognition and response, which involves a decision making process between the partners. In an earlier study, we implemented a dynamic role exchange mechanism, which realizes decision making by means of trading the parties' control levels on the task. This mechanism proved to show promise of a more intuitive and comfortable communication....

  20. Effects of temperature and diet on black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), development

    Harnden, Laura M.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.
    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, is recognised for its use in a forensic context as a means for estimating the time of colonisation and potentially postmortem interval of decomposing remains. However, little data exist on this species outside of its use in waste management. This study offers a preliminary assessment of the development, and subsequent validation, of H. illucens. Larvae of H. illucens were reared at three temperatures (24.9 °C, 27.6 °C and 32.2 °C) at 55% RH on beef loin muscle, pork loin muscle and a grain-based diet (control). Each of the temperatures and diets were found to...

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