El refinado oído del saltamontes - Montealegre-Z, Fernando
¿En qué se parece un humano a un saltamontes? A primera vista, en nada. Sin embargo, en 2012 se descubrió que ambos han desarrollado un mecanismo semejante para poder percibir los sonidos del mundo que los rodea. El hallazgo se realizó en ciertos saltamontes (o chapulines) de las selvas tropicales y ofrece un claro ejemplo de convergencia evolutiva, en la que dos organismos no emparentados filogenéticamente han resuelto los problemas biofísicos de la audición mediante estrategias semejantes.
Todo empezó en 2008, cuando, junto con Daniel Robert, experto en sistemas sensoriales de insectos de la Universidad de Bristol, y otros colaboradores, emprendimos...
Barriers to effective corporate governance reforms: corruption and the peculiar case of Nigeria - Okoye, Ngozi
Corporate governance reforms have been viewed as a means of improving the economic and social welfare of emerging economies and there have been efforts by the Nigerian government and its agencies to promulgate codes of best practices for companies in the country. There are critical questions regarding how effective these codes are in practice, and whether they are achieving the aims for which they were promulgated. Another pertinent issue is whether the codes of best practice actually complement and are complemented by the corporate legislation, because, ideally, meaningful corporate governance mechanisms should comprise of laws, regulations and principles working in...
Directors' duties of care, skill and diligence in Vietnam - Pearce, Jeremy
The director’s duty of care in Vietnam is in its infancy. Many of the existing provisions are borrowed from
other jurisdictions and require implementation and evolution to make them uniquely Vietnamese. As part of
the existing duties, Vietnam currently stipulates a duty to the ‘State’ and this could form a cornerstone for
their own model of corporate social responsibility.
Social solidarity co-operatives for higher education - Winn, Joss
A paper for the 'Co-operative higher education/What next for the co-operative university?' panel at the 'Learning together: Perspectives in co-operative education' conference, December 9th 2014.
How should we measure ambulance service quality and performance? - Coster, Jo; Turner, Janette; Irving, Andy; Wilson, Richard; Siriwardena, A. Niroshan; Phung, Viet-Hai
Ambulance services in England treat 6.5 million people per year but get no information about what happens to patients after discharge. This has led to a reliance on measuring response times rather than outcomes to assess how well services perform, and little opportunity for identifying problems and good practice or evaluating service developments.
There is a lack of consensus on which outcome measures are important for pre-hospital care so we set out to address this within the Prehospital Outcomes for Evidence Based Evaluation (PhOEBE) research programme.
We conducted a two round Delphi study to prioritise outcome measures identified from a...
Developing new ways of measuring the impact of ambulance service care - Turner, Janette; Coster, Joanne; Wilson, Richard; Siriwardena, A. Niroshan; Phung, Viet-Hai
Pre-hospital care in England is provided by ambulance services who deliver a diverse range of services to over 9 million patients a year but there is limited evidence about the effectiveness of this care. Historically ambulance performance has been measured by response times rather than clinical need or effectiveness. Progress on developing more appropriate performance measures is constrained by a lack of information about what happens to patients and their outcome after the pre-hospital component of care. If ambulance service information about patients could be linked to process and outcome data further along the care pathway then relevant measurement tools...
How should we measure ambulance service quality and performance? Results from a Delphi study - Coster, Jo; Irving, Andy; Turner, Janette; Wilson, Richard; Phung, Viet-Hai; Siriwardena, A. Niroshan
Background and objectives
The Pre-hospital Outcomes for Evidence Based Evaluation (PhOEBE) research programme aims to develop better ways of measuring the quality of ambulance service care. Ambulance service care is often measured by the speed of the ambulance response rather than the quality of care provided or patient outcomes. Whilst response times are relevant to a small proportion of seriously ill patients, they are not clinically relevant for most people who contact the ambulance service. We identified existing and aspirational ambulance service quality and performance measures from reviews of the literature and interviews with service users and prioritised these as...
Moving on from response rates: linking patient level ambulance data to ED, hospital and survival data to assess quality and performance - Coster, Jo; Turner, Janette; Irving, Andy; Wilson, Richard; Siriwardena, A. Niroshan; Phung, Viet-Hai
The ambulance service has no information about what happens beyond the prehospital phase of care. This leads to process measures, e.g. response rates, being used as a proxy for quality of care.
To develop better ways of measuring the quality and performance of ambulance service care.
Prehospital Outcomes for Evidence Based Evaluation (PhOEBE) is a five year National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) programme to develop better ways of measuring the performance, quality and impact of ambulance service care by: identifying and prioritising ambulance related outcome measures; creating a new information source by linking together routinely collected data; using the...
Common (and multiple) neural substrates for static and dynamic motion after-effects: a rTMS investigation - Campana, Gianluca; Maniglia, Marcello; Pavan, Andrea
Introduction: Prolonged exposure to directional motion (adaptation) biases the perceived direction of subsequently presented test stimuli towards the opposite direction with respect to that of adaptation (i.e., motion after-effect; MAE). Different neural populations seem to be involved in the generation of the MAE, depending on the spatiotemporal characteristics of both adapting and test stimuli. Although the tuning mechanisms of the neural populations involved in the MAE have been psychophysically identified, the specific loci along the motion processing hierarchy where the different types of MAE take place is still debated. Method: In this study, by using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)...
Challenges and opportunities (Open Access monographs) - Eve, Martin Paul
It is widely known that open access for research monographs is objectively harder than for journal articles. The economics and social processes are different, beyond a mere change of scale. That said, cause for optimism is to be found amid recent experiments that have demonstrated the value of such an undertaking. In this talk, I will set out the difficulties and the way in which some publishers are seeking to overcome them, as well as some proposed future directions for open access books.
Open Access and the humanities: contexts, controversies and the future - Eve, Martin Paul
Open access, the notion that research work should be free to access and re-use, is a theoretically simple concept that has become mired in practical complexities and controversies. It is also, however, an aspect of contemporary research practice that is gaining worldwide traction and one that no contemporary scholar can afford to ignore, regardless of his or her discipline. In this talk, Dr. Martin Eve will set out the background to open access, the specific challenges faced by the humanities and the potential future solutions. What, exactly, do the terms “gold”, “green”, “libre” and “gratis” mean? How can OA be...
The subjective duration of audiovisual looming and receding stimuli - Grassi, Massimo; Pavan, Andrea
Looming visual stimuli (log-increasing in proximal size over time) and auditory stimuli (of increasing sound intensity over time) have been shown to be perceived as longer than receding visual and auditory stimuli (i. e., looming stimuli reversed in time). Here, we investigated whether such asymmetry in subjective duration also occurs for audiovisual looming and receding stimuli, as well as for stationary stimuli (i. e., stimuli that do not change in size and/or intensity over time). Our results showed a great temporal asymmetry in audition but a null asymmetry in vision. In contrast, the asymmetry in audiovision was moderate, suggesting that...
Improving myopia via perceptual learning: is training with lateral masking the only (or the most) efficacious technique? - Camilleri, Rebecca; Pavan, Andrea; Ghin, Filippo; Campana, Gianluca
Perceptual learning produces an improvement in visual functions such as an increase in visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity in participants with both amblyopia and refractive defects. This improvement has been observed in the presence of lateral masking, which is known to bring about lateral interactions between detectors in early cortical pathways. Improvement has also been revealed in the absence of flankers in healthy individuals and those with amblyopia. This study seeks to understand whether a perceptual training regime really needs to be based on lateral interactions in cases where poor vision is not due to cortical dysfunction, such as...
Frobenius groups of automorphisms and their fixed points - Khukhro, Evgeny; Makarenko, Natalia; Shumyatsky, Pavel
Suppose that a finite group G admits a Frobenius group of automorphisms with kernel F and complement H such that the fixed-point subgroup of F is trivial: . In this situation various properties of G are shown to be close to the corresponding properties of . By using Clifford's theorem it is proved that the order is bounded in terms of and , the rank of G is bounded in terms of and the rank of , and that G is nilpotent if is nilpotent. Lie ring methods are used for bounding the exponent and the nilpotency class of G...
Rank and order of a finite group admitting a Frobenius-like group of automorphisms - Ercan, G.; Guloglu, I.; Khukhro, Evgeny
A finite group FH is said to be Frobenius-like if it has a nontrivial nilpotent normal subgroup F with a nontrivial complement H such that FH/[F,F] is a Frobenius group with Frobenius kernel F/[F,F]. Suppose that a finite group G admits a Frobenius-like group of automorphisms FH of coprime order with certain additional restrictions (which are satisfied, in particular, if either |FH| is odd or |H| = 2). In the case where G is a finite p-group such that G = [G, F] it is proved that the rank of G is bounded above in terms of |H| and the...
Essentials of sensation and perception - Mather, George
The study of sensation and perception looks at how we acquire, process, and interpret information about the outside world. By describing key ideas from first principles, this straightforward introduction provides easy access to the basic concepts in the subject, and incorporates the most recent advances with useful historical background. The text takes a uniquely integrative approach, highlighting fundamental findings that apply across all the senses - including vision, hearing, touch, pain, balance, smell and taste - rather than considering each sense in isolation.
Several pedagogical features help students to engage with the material. ‘Key Term’ and ‘Key Concept’ boxes describe technical...
Foundations of sensation and perception [2nd Ed.] - Mather, George
This comprehensive introduction to Sensation and Perception has been highly praised for its unique approach, which begins with the minor senses and progresses to vision.
The book begins with an introductory chapter on general physiological, perceptual and theoretical principles which gives the reader the conceptual tools to build a clear understanding of how we perceive the world. The next two chapters then flesh out basic topics such as transduction, receptive fields, and sensory adaptation via coverage of the minor senses (touch, balance, smell, and taste). Later chapters on hearing and vision build on these foundations. This approach allows students to thoroughly...
The motion aftereffect: a modern perspective - Mather, George; Verstraten, Frans; Anstis, Stuart
Motion perception lies at the heart of the scientific study of vision. The motion aftereffect (MAE), probably the best known phenomenon in the study of visual illusions, is the appearance of directional movement in a stationary object or scene after the viewer has been exposed to visual motion in the opposite direction. For example, after one has looked at a waterfall for a period of time, the scene beside the waterfall may appear to move upward when ones gaze is transferred to it. Although the phenomenon seems simple, research has revealed surprising complexities in the underlying mechanisms, and offered general...
Computer-generated screening test for colorblindness - Anstis, Stuart; Cavanagh, Patrick; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri; MacLeod, Donald A. I.; Mather, George
Two new technique that test color vision using motion stimuli have allowed us to exploit optokinetic nystagmus as a response measure. We are now able to screen for colorvision deficits in adults and in nonverbal infants by observing their eyes as they watch a computer-controlled TV display. It was shown that the relative contribution of red and green cones to the luminance channels is already in place within the first few months of life.