Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 13.021

  1. Editorial

    Golightley, Malcolm; Holloway, Margaret
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  2. Diversity of food consumption in Slovakia

    Cupak, Andrej; Pokrivcak, Jan; Rizov, Marian
    In the present study we analyze diversification of food consumption in Slovakia. Dietary diversity is a proxy for the quality of diet and it measures one aspect of household food and nutritional security. Using data from the Slovak Household Budget Survey, we estimate determinants of demand for food diversity by means of linear and quantile regressions. We measure food diversity by count measure of food items consumed during a specific time period and by Berry index. While demand for food diversity has been steadily increasing since 2004, economic crisis in 2009 slightly reduced the diversity of foodstuffs consumed by Slovak households. Estimated income elasticities are consistent with...

  3. Liver CT enhancement using Fractional Differentiation and Integration

    Ghatwary, Noha; Ahmed, Amr; Jalab, Hamid
    In this paper, a digital image filter is proposed to enhance the Liver CT image for improving the classification of tumors area in an infected Liver. The enhancement process is based on improving the main features within the image by utilizing the Fractional Differential and Integral in the wavelet sub-bands of an image. After enhancement, different features were extracted such as GLCM, GRLM, and LBP, among others. Then, the areas/cells are classified into tumor or non-tumor, using different models of classifiers to compare our proposed model with the original image and various established filters. Each image is divided into 15x15...

  4. Using Multiple Sequential Functional Analysis (MSFA) to identify potential developmental pathways of Non-Epileptic Attack Disorder (NEAD)

    Brough, Jenna Louise
    Background. Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) is one of the most common differential diagnoses to epilepsy. Due to the impact of misdiagnosis, research has focused on improving differential diagnosis by identifying factors distinguishing the two populations. These factors, though non-specific and common place comprise much of the understanding of the aetiology of NEAD. Theories which adequately explain the processes by which attacks develop and are maintained are lacking. Although it is agreed that psychological processes underpin NEAD, therapeutic approaches targeting specific processes are under developed. In light of the limitations of currently employed structural approaches, a functional approach may improve understanding...

  5. Regulating Eating through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (REACT): a single case experimental design to evaluate a guided self-help intervention for individuals who are overweight or obese and engage in emotional eating

    Jinks, Mary
    Background: Obesity rates are growing globally along with the associated health and economic consequences (Caballero, 2007). However, weight loss is difficult, highlighting the need to address the psychological challenges of obesity (Wing & Phelan, 2005). Obesity is linked with emotional eating (Torres & Nowson, 2007). Therefore, interventions which may tackle emotional eating may address obesity. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl & Wilson, 1999) intervention which has been considered helpful for this clinical problem. Method: Six participants engaged in a five week guided self-help ACT intervention. Utilising an AB single case experimental design (SCED) and follow-up, participants completed a range of implicit,...

  6. Using marker-based motion capture to develop a head bobbing robotic lizard

    Frohnwieser, Anna; Willmott, Sandy; Murray, John; Pike, Tom; Wilkinson, Anna
    Robotic animals are regularly used in behavioral experiments, typically in experimental interactions with individuals of the species they were modelled on. In order to do so successfully, these robots need to be designed carefully, taking into consideration the specific perceptual system of the model species. We used marker-based motion capture to measure head bobbing in a widely popular lizard species, bearded dragons, and found that head bobbing is highly stereotypic yet differs subtly when displayed towards males and females. These results were then used for the construction of a robotic lizard, with the aim to use it in behavioral and...

  7. PEER support in MOOCs: The role of social presence

    Appiah-Kubi, Kwamena; Rowland, Duncan
    MOOCs by their design are able to reach several thousands of participants with very few instructors creating, delivering and facilitating the content. Participants interact with each other usually with text based asynchronous discussion forums built into the MOOC platform. The purpose of this research is to explore the role of social presence in facilitating peer support among a large community of learners.

  8. Contribution of direct electron transfer mechanisms to overall electron transfer in microbial fuel cells utilising Shewanella oneidensis as biocatalyst

    Fapetu, Segun; Keshavarz, Taj; Clements, Mark; Kyazze, Godfrey
    Objectives To investigate the contribution of direct electron transfer mechanisms to electricity production in microbial fuel cells by physically retaining Shewanella oneidensis cells close to or away from the anode electrode. Results A maximum power output of 114 ± 6 mWm−2 was obtained when cells were retained close to the anode using a dialysis membrane. This was 3.5 times more than when the cells were separated away from the anode. Without the membrane the maximum power output was 129 ± 6 mWm−2. The direct mechanisms of electron transfer contributed significantly to overall electron transfer from S. oneidensis to electrodes, a result that was...

  9. Behavioral responses to injury and death in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    Campbell, Liz A. D.; Tkaczynski, Patrick J.; Mouna, Mohamed; Qarro, Mohamed; Waterman, James; Majolo, Bonaventura
    The wounding or death of a conspecific has been shown to elicit varied behavioral responses throughout thanatology. Recently, a number of reports have presented contentious evidence of epimeletic behavior towards the dying and dead among non-human animals, a behavioral trait previously considered uniquely human. Here, we report on the behavioral responses of Barbary macaques, a social, non-human primate, to the deaths of four group members (one high-ranking adult female, one high-ranking adult male, one juvenile male, and one female infant), all caused by road traffic accidents. Responses appeared to vary based on the nature of the death (protracted or instant)...

  10. Design and implementation of an anthropomorphic hand for replicating human grasping functions

    Xiong, Cai-Hua; Chen, Wen-Rui; Sun, Bai-Yang; Liu, Ming-Jin; Yue, Shigang; Chen, Wen-Bin
    How to design an anthropomorphic hand with a few actuators to replicate the grasping functions of the human hand is still a challenging problem. This paper aims to develop a general theory for designing the anthropomorphic hand and endowing the designed hand with natural grasping functions. A grasping experimental paradigm was set up for analyzing the grasping mechanism of the human hand in daily living. The movement relationship among joints in a digit, among digits in the human hand, and the postural synergic characteristic of the fingers were studied during the grasping. The design principle of the anthropomorphic mechanical digit...

  11. Agreement between session RPE and individual training impulse across a range of running speeds

    Curtis, Ffion; Thatcher, Rhys
    BACKGROUND: The training impulse (TRIMP) provides a means of quantifying training dose during physical training; it is traditionally based on the heart rate response to exercise and involves establishing the heart rate – blood lactate relationship. A new approach is based on the individual’s global rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for the training session. The current study was undertaken to examine agreement between individual TRIMP and session RPE. METHODS: Nine healthy male volunteers completed three trials involving a 6 km treadmill run at speeds of 12 km×h-1, 9 km×h-1 and 7.2 km×h-1 in random order. Individual training impulse and session rating...

  12. Quantitative evaluation of anion–π Interactions in solution

    Gil-Ramírez, Guzmán; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C.; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Ballester, Pablo
    Anions included: A series of meso-tetraaryl calix[4]pyrrole receptors have been used as a model system to quantify chloride–π interactions in solution (see picture; green balls are chloride ions). The free energy values are generally indicative of a repulsive interaction; their magnitude depends on the substituent on the aromatic ring.

  13. Employees' witnessed presence in changing organisation

    Mendy, John
    In recent years, governments, businesses and other organisations have increasingly been forced to attempt to survive by reorganising themselves fundamentally. Although this happens at present on a large scale, it is not unprecedented. In fact, most organisations have had to change their working practises at some time for some reason-for example, when the competition catches up or when technology threatens to make production obsolete. The usual strategy is to fire part of the staff and to redistribute tasks. This tends to put a heavy burden on staff. They have to search for other jobs or attempt re-skilling. Those remaining may...

  14. Translucent society and its non-fortuitous design: producing and consuming reality through images

    Izak, Michal
    The recent inquiries into the dynamics of exchanges between social actors evoke the notions of ‘liquidity’ and ‘mcdonaldization’, while their objects are rendered distant from ‘the real’. Using the ‘popular’ examples from the nonymous (Facebook) and anonymous (YouTube) social media, the current study emphasizes the role of increasing mediation of images in the processes of ‘liquid’ societal sensemaking. Managing the relationship between reality and image is conceptualized in terms of ‘translucency’ – the capacity to make oneself explicitly visible as an ‘image consumer–creator’ while still enjoying the fantasy that reality is inherent in one's rendition. Since contingency is disabled, its...

  15. Phase separation on bicontinuous cubic membranes: symmetry breaking, reentrant, and domain faceting

    Paillusson, Fabien; Pennington, Matthew R.; Kusmaatmaja, Halim
    We study the phase separation of binary lipid mixtures that form bicontinuous cubic phases. The competition between the nonuniform Gaussian membrane curvature and line tension leads to a very rich phase diagram, where we observe symmetry breaking of the membrane morphologies and reentrant phenomena due to the formation of bridges between segregated domains. Upon increasing the line tension contribution, we also find faceting of lipid domains that we explain using a simple argument based on the symmetry of the underlying surface and topology.

  16. 'Ladies present!’: An auto/ethnographic study of the perceptions and lived-embodied experiences of women amateur golfers

    Evans, Adam; Mitchell, Stacey; Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn
    Despite high general participation rates in golf in England and a raft of initiatives to encourage more women and younger players into golf, fewer than one in five amateur golfers in England is female and there is a real dearth of young women entering the sport. Sexist policies and practices have been posited as possible barriers to women’s and girls’ grass-roots participation in golf, but to date little qualitative research has been undertaken on the lived experiences of recreational women players themselves. To address this considerable gap, an 18-month ethnographic and autoethnographic research project was undertaken within a case study...

  17. Demand for food away from home in Slovakia

    Cupak, Andrej; Pokrivcak, Jan; Rizov, Marian
    We analyze demand for food away from home (FAFH) in Slovakia by means of a doublehurdle model using recent Slovak Household Budget Survey data covering the period 2006–2012. The estimated unconditional income elasticity of FAFH demand (1.37) demonstrates that away-from-home eating is still perceived as a luxury by Slovak households. An important feature of our applied theoretical framework is measurement of the effect of a wifeʼs opportunity cost of time. Results indicate that households where the wife is employed have significantly higher expenditure on FAFH compared to households where the wife is unemployed or a housewife. Further FAFH market growth can be expected in Slovakia in the future,...

  18. An evaluation of an enterprise framework for performance improvement in the emergency department of a rural district general hospital

    Turner, Paul
    An Enterprise Culture, which looks to replicate improvements to quality and efficiency demonstrated in the private sector, has evolved from health care policy in the English NHS. The aims of this research were to explore the theory underpinning the application of the policy and to challenge and test if the Enterprise Culture has provided a framework for performance improvement in a rural District General Hospital (DGH). The evolution and characteristics of the Enterprise Culture resulting from the convergence of political policy relating to health care revealed a centralised command and control approach to performance expectations and a decentralised means of achieving...

  19. Preceptors in nursing education: striking a balance between nursing student learning and client care

    Murphy, Kathleen
    In the Irish healthcare system ward staffing is not matched with client acuity. With the recession came a moratorium on staffing and this combined with reduced length of stay for clients impacted significantly on nursing staff. Added to this a large number of front-line staff took early retirement leading to burnout of existing staff. Clear guidelines have been laid down by HIQA (2012a, 2012b) on the appropriate governance structure to ensure that client care is delivered safely and is of a high quality. The environment where nursing students undertake their clinical placement can have a positive or negative effect on...

  20. A case study of the internationalisation of higher education in China: meaning, implementation and evaluation

    Tian, Zezhong
    While the internationalisation of higher education (IHE) is often treated as a single global phenomenon by those who evaluate its effectiveness, internationalisation means different things in different contexts. Due to the limited number of Chinese-context-based studies and literature of IHE, this research aims to set up an empirical and contextual study of Chinese IHE considering the following points of concern: how the meaning, interpretation and evaluation of IHE are constructed in practice in a Chinese university; how these three points of concern shape IHE in specific local contexts; and whether we can understand this process through using evaluation tools developed...

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