Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 13.623

  1. Within-group behavioural consequences of between-group conflict: a prospective review

    Radford, Andrew N.; Majolo, Bonaventura; Aureli, Filippo
    Conflict is rife in group-living species and exerts a powerful selective force. Group members face a variety of threats from extra-group conspecifics, from individuals looking for reproductive opportunities to rival groups seeking resources. Theory predicts that such between-group conflict should influence within-group behaviour. However, compared with the extensive literature on the consequences of within-group conflict, relatively little research has considered the behavioural impacts of between-group conflict. We give an overview of why between-group conflict is expected to influence subsequent behaviour among group members.We then use what is known about the consequences of within-group conflict to generate testable predictions about how...

  2. The long-term effectiveness of EU Cohesion Policy: assessing the achievements of the ERDF, 1989-2012

    Bachtler, John; Begg, Iain; Charles, David; Polverari, Laura
    The chapter presents results of a long-term evaluation of the ERDF in 15 EU regions.

  3. Challenging the boundaries of medieval romance: Thomas Chestre's Lybeaus Desconus

    Ward, René
    This article reassesses the often derided medieval author Thomas Chestre, as well as his tail-rhyme romance Lybeaus Desconus. It argues that while Chestre’s Lybeaus retains basic features and story lines of its source, the French Li Biaus Desconeüs by Renaud de Beaujeu, it simultaneously contradicts and challenges the authority of the source, seeking to establish its own place within the romance genre rather than be subordinate to generic ideals. Chestre rewrites his hero, establishing a new standard for knightly success: youth and inexperience become as acceptable as the romance conventions of maturity and experience. For Chestre, the process of rewriting...

  4. Doing 'green criminology': methodologies, research strategies and values (or lack thereof?)

    Hall, Matthew
    Methodology in green criminology

  5. A bio-inspired embedded vision system for autonomous micro-robots: the LGMD case

    Hu, Cheng; Arvin, Farshad; Xiong, Caihua; Yue, Shigang
    In this paper, we present a new bio-inspired vision system embedded for micro-robots. The vision system takes inspiration from locusts in detecting fast approaching objects. Neurophysiological research suggested that locusts use a wide-field visual neuron called lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) to respond to imminent collisions. In this work, we present the implementation of the selected neuron model by a low-cost ARM processor as part of a composite vision module. As the first embedded LGMD vision module fits to a micro-robot, the developed system performs all image acquisition and processing independently. The vision module is placed on top of a microrobot to initiate obstacle avoidance behaviour autonomously. Both simulation and real-world experiments...

  6. Laser colouring on titanium alloys: characterisation and potential applications

    Franceschini, Federica; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Dowding, Colin; Previtali, Barbara; Griffiths, Jonathan David
    Oxides of titanium exhibit vivid colours that can be generated naturally or manipulated through controlled oxidation processes. The application of a laser beam for colouring titanium permits flexible manipulation of the oxidized geometry with high spatial resolution. The laser-based procedure can be applied in an ambient atmosphere to generate long-lasting coloured marks. Today, these properties are largely exploited in artistic applications such as jewellery, eyewear frames, watch components, and, in the industrial sector, for marking logos on car body-shells. Moreover, this technique has the potential for widespread adoption in the optoelectronics industry for applications such as projectors. In order to...

  7. Isotopic provenancing of Pb in Mitrovica, northern Kosovo: source identification of chronic Pb enrichment in soils, house dust and scalp hair

    Brewer, Paul A.; Bird, Graham; Macklin, Mark G.
    Mitrovica, northern Kosovo, is the site of some of the highest Pb concentrations reported in human populations; exemplified by Pb concentrations in scalp hair of up to 130 μg g-1 and widely-publicized of Pb-related ill-health and mortality amongst internally displaced populations. High human Pb burdens are accompanied by elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in soils and house dust within the city, which has a long history of mining and metallurgy. In this study enrichment-levels for PHEs in soils are quantified and compared to environmental quality guidelines and a statistically-derived estimation of background concentration. In addition, Pb isotopes (207Pb/206Pb,...

  8. A hydrogeomorphic assessment of twenty-first century floods in the UK

    Foulds, Simon A.; Macklin, Mark G,
    The occurrence of devastating floods in the British uplands during the first two decades of the twenty-first century poses two key questions: (1) are recent events unprecedented in terms of their frequency and magnitude; and (2) is climate and/or land-use change driving the apparent upturn in flooding? Conventional methods of analysing instrumental flow records cannot answer these questions because upland catchments are usually ungauged, and where records do exist they rarely provide more than 30-40 years of data. In this paper we analyse all lichen-dated upland flood records in the United Kingdom (UK) to establish the longer-term context and causes...

  9. The influence of hydroclimatic variability on flood frequency in the Lower Rhine

    Toonen, Willem H. J.; Middelkoop, Hans; Konijnendijk, Tiuri Y. M.; Macklin, Mark G.; Cohen, Kim M.
    Climate change is expected to significantly affect flooding regimes of river systems in the future. For Western Europe, flood risk assessments generally assume an increase in extreme events and flood risk, and as a result major investments are planned to reduce their impacts. However, flood risk assessments for the present day and the near future suffer from uncertainty, coming from short measurements series, limited precision of input data, arbitrary choices for particular statistical and modelling approaches, and climatic non-stationarities. This study demonstrates how historical and sedimentary information can extend data records, adds important information on extremes, and generally improves flood...

  10. The UK National Minimum Wage’s impact on productivity

    Rizov, Marian; Croucher, Richard; Lange, Thomas
    Low pay poses issues for managers internationally. We examine productivity in low-paying sectors in Britain, since the National Minimum Wage’s (NMW) introduction. We use a multiple channel analytical strategy, emphasising the wage-incentives channel and linking it to a model of unobserved productivity. We estimate firm-specific productivity measures and aggregate them to the level of low-paying sectors. Difference-in-differences analysis illustrates that the NMW positively affected aggregate low-paying sector productivity. These findings highlight increased wages’ incentive effects with implications for management practice and public policy since ‘living’ wages may be productivity enhancing.

  11. Mobile phone purchasing and brand presence on Facebook

    Ardley, Barry; Hardwick, Jialin; Delarue, Lauriane; Taylor, Nick
    Focusing on the mobile phones sector, this study explores how the social networking site ‘Facebook’ is used by consumers in their purchasing. Although there is extensive work on the influences on the buying decision process relevant to mobile phone purchasing, it is mainly set outside of a social media context. This paper assists in filling a gap in contemporary research, revealing the presence of different behavioural segments on Facebook. We analyse the consumer decision sequence in response to the notion of ‘brand presence’, manifested through online advertising, fan and group pages. The approach is interpretative. The study is based on...

  12. Slip of the tongue: implications for evolution and language development

    Forrester, Gillian S.; Rodriguez, Alina
    A prevailing theory regarding the evolution of language implicates a gestural stage prior to the emergence of speech. In support of a transition of human language from a gestural to a vocal system, articulation of the hands and the tongue are underpinned by overlapping left hemisphere dominant neural regions. Behavioral studies demonstrate that human adults perform sympathetic mouth actions in imitative synchrony with manual actions. Additionally, right-handedness for precision manual actions in children has been correlated with the typical development of language, while a lack of hand bias has been associated with psychopathology. It therefore stands to reason that sympathetic...

  13. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Rodriguez, Alina
    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and...

  14. Changes in health in England, with analysis by English regions and areas of deprivation, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Newton, John N.; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Dicker, Daniel; Foreman, Kyle J.; Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Barber, Ryan M.; Vos, Theo; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Hughes, Andrew J; Fay, Derek F J; Ecob, Russell; Gresser, Charis; McKee, Martin; Rutter, Harry; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Ali, Raghib; Anderson, H Ross; Banerjee, Amitava; Bennett, Derrick A; Bernabé, Eduardo; Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Biryukov, Stanley M; Bourne, Rupert R; Brayne, Carol E G; Bruce, Nigel G; Brugha, Traolach S; Burch, Michael; Capewell, Simon; Casey, Daniel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Coates, Matthew M; Cooper, Cyrus; Critchley, Julia A; Dargan, Paul I; Dherani, Mukesh K; Elliott, Paul; Ezzati, Majid; Fenton, Kevin A; Fraser, Maya S; Fürst, Thomas; Greaves, Felix; Green, Mark A; Gunnell, David J; Hannigan, Bernadette M; Hay, Roderick J; Hay, Simon I; Hemingway, Harry; Larson, Heidi J; Looker, Katharine J; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A; Marcenes, Wagner; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matthews, Fiona E; Moller, Henrik; Murdoch, Michele E; Newton, Charles R; Pearce, Neil; Piel, Frédéric B; Pope, Daniel; Rahimi, Kazem; Rodriguez, Alina; Scarborough, Peter; Schumacher, Austin E; Shiue, Ivy; Smeeth, Liam; Tedstone, Alison; Valabhji, Jonathan; Williams, Hywel C; Wolfe, Charles D A; Woolf, Anthony D; Davis, Adrian C J
    Background In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), knowledge about health and its determinants has been integrated into a comparable framework to inform health policy. Outputs of this analysis are relevant to current policy questions in England and elsewhere, particularly on health inequalities. We use GBD 2013 data on mortality and causes of death, and disease and injury incidence and prevalence to analyse the burden of disease and injury in England as a whole, in English regions, and within each English region by deprivation quintile. We also assess disease and injury burden in England attributable to potentially preventable...

  15. The attitudes of dental students towards socially acceptable and unacceptable group working practices

    Sisson, K.; Newton, J.
    Objective: To explore the attitudes of undergraduate dental students towards academically unacceptable behaviour

  16. Boxed pervasive games: an experience with user-created pervasive games

    Wetzel, Richard; Waern, Annika; Jonsson, Staffan; Lindt, Irma; Ljungstrand, Peter; Ãkesson, Karl-Petter
    Pervasive games are rapidly maturing - from early research experiments with locative games we now start to see a range of commercial projects using locative and pervasive technology to create technology-supported pervasive games. In this paper we report on our experiences in transferring the successful involvement of players in computer games to modding for pervasive games. We present the design process, the enabling tools and two sample games provided in boxes to end users. Finally we discuss how our findings inform the design of modding tools for a pervasive game community of the future.

  17. Challenges and opportunities [Conclusion]

    Chew-Graham, Carolyn A.; Ray, Mo
    We have attempted to highlight, in this book, the significant improvement in the provision of mental health services for older people which has been achieved through changes in legislation, policy and practice. Despite many drivers for change, there is still evidence that older people feel that mental health problems are stigmatising and they experience discrimination when attempting to access care. We discuss the recent policy directives which highlight these inequalities and make suggestions for improving care, including offering more acceptable interventions to older people with mental health problems, and working more closely with the third sector to provide such services....

  18. Setting the context [introduction]

    Chew-Graham, Carolyn A.; Ray, Mo
    This brief chapter sets the context to this book by outlining what we mean by ‘older age’, which represents an important period of life in which health and social care needs rise substantially, and in which multiple mental and physical health problems are common and interacting, often compounded by social isolation. We discuss the recent and projected demographic changes, and the transitions which can accompany growing older. We discuss the current context in which health and social care is provided, particularly in the United Kingdom, and the challenges faced, including inequity of access to care, particularly for mental health problems....

  19. Mum and me, a journey with dementia: a personal reflection

    Jones, Jackie; Ray, Mo
    This chapter is a personal reflection of a daughter’s experience of supporting and caring for her mother, who was diagnosed with vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in 2008. As well as reflecting on the past 8 years, this chapter aims to increase awareness of the experience of living with and caring for someone with dementia. This chapter also highlights the importance of dementia care being integrated and coordinated throughout a person’s journey in dementia.

  20. Creativity and the arts for older people living with depression

    Ray, Mo
    The right to participate in cultural life and enjoy the arts is enshrined in Article 27 of the 1948, Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In a contemporary context, there is an appreciation that the arts and creative activities can support the development and maintenance of good mental health across the life course. Policies in each of the devolved nations recognise the positive role of culture and the arts in the lives of its citizens and the part that it plays in supporting vibrant and creative communities. More recently, arts and creativity as non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment and management of...

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