Pornography addiction in adults: a systematic review of definitions and reported impact - Duffy, Athena; Dawson, Dave; Das Nair, Roshan
Self-perceived pornography addiction (SPPA) has increasingly emerged as a concept in research and popular culture, and commentators warn of the reported negative impact that it can have. Despite this, “pornography addiction” is not a formally recognized disorder and there is disagreement among researchers regarding its definition or even its existence. Therefore, how SPPA is operationalized often varies, and this can significantly influence the conclusions made about its impact.
This paper aimed to examine how SPPA is commonly operationalised, and its supposed impact, through a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed literature. We found that SPPA is most frequently operationalized as...
Crocodiles and grey nomads: a deadly combination? - Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel
Increasing numbers of retirees seek individual, extended, unstructured activities in
remote, non-commercial locations. Travel is predominantly by self-drive 4WD vehicle
towing a caravan/campervan. These ‘grey nomads’ often prefer remote bush camping
sites/caravan parks to commercial resorts. The tropics – a popular destination – are
inhabited by Australia’s only large semi-terrestrial carnivore, the estuarine crocodile
Crocodylus porosus. Conservation programmes of recent decades have resulted in a
substantial increase in numbers. With naive grey nomads increasingly encroaching on
crocodile territory, attacks are expected to increase. Review of conservation programmes
to incorporate awareness education targeting grey nomads is therefore required.
Comparing robot embodiments in a guided discovery learning interaction with children - Kennedy, James; Baxter, Paul; Belpaeme, Tony
The application of social robots to the domain of education is becoming more prevalent. However, there re- main a wide range of open issues, such as the effectiveness of robots as tutors on student learning outcomes, the role of social behaviour in teaching interactions, and how the em- bodiment of a robot influences the interaction. In this paper, we seek to explore children’s behaviour towards a robot tutor for children in a novel guided discovery learning interac- tion. Since the necessity of real robots (as opposed to virtual agents) in education has not been definitively established in the literature, the...
Comorbidity and intervention in octogenarians with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis - Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Díez-Villanueva, Pablo; Sánchez-Sendin, Domingo; Carro Hevia, Amelia; Gómez Doblas, Juan José; García de la Villa, Bernardo; Cornide, Luis; Alonso Tello, Albert; Andión Ogando, Ramón; Ripoll Vera, Tomás; Arribas Jiménez, Antonio; Carrillo, Pilar; Rodriguez Pascual, Carlos; Casares i Romeva, Maria; Borras, Xavier; Vázquez, Sandra; López-Palop, Ramón
Background: The benefit from intervention in elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) and high comorbidity is unknown. Our aims were to establish the correlation between the Charlson comorbidity index and the prognosis of octogenarians with symptomatic sever AS and to identify patients who might not benefit from intervention. Methods: We used the data from PEGASO (Pronóstico de la Estenosis Grave Aórtica Sintomática del Octogenario - Prognosis of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in octogenarians), a prospective registry that included consecutively 928 patients aged ≥80 years with severe symptomatic AS. Results: The mean Charlson comorbidity index was 3.0 ± 1.7,...
Effects of non-consumptive wildlife-oriented tourism on marine species and prospects for their sustainable management - Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel
Marine non-consumptive wildlife-oriented tourism, whereby tourists observe and/or interact closely with animals, without purposely having a detrimental effect on them, has been growing globally in recent decades. Human-mediated feeding (provisioning) is widely used by tour operators to attract target species, facilitate viewing and interaction with tourists. Although potential effects of such provisioning on terrestrial fauna have been given moderate scientific research attention, equivalent research in the marine environment is limited. Effects of provisioning marine wildlife may include direct habituation, behavioural change, and/or dietary impacts among individuals and species. There may also be disruption to the species associated assemblage. It was...
Modelling concept prototype competencies using a developmental memory model - Baxter, Paul; De Greeff, Joachim; Wood, Rachel; Belpaeme, Tony
The use of concepts is fundamental to human-level cognition, but there remain a number of open questions as to the structures supporting this competence. Specifically, it has been shown that humans use concept prototypes, a flexible means of representing concepts such that it can be used both for categorisation and for similarity judgements. In the context of autonomous robotic agents, the processes by which such concept functionality could be acquired would be particularly useful, enabling flexible knowledge representation and application. This paper seeks to explore this issue of autonomous concept acquisition. By applying a set of structural and operational principles,...
Solid-state self-assembly of a calixpyrrole−resorcinarene hybrid into a hexameric cage - Gil-Ramírez, Guzmán; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C.; Ballester, Pablo
The solid-state packing of a two-component mixture consisting of the α,α,α,α steroisomer of a calixpyrrole resorcinarene hybrid and tetramethylammonium chloride is controlled by the relative stoichiometry of the mixture in solution. The use of a high molar excess of the ammonium salt induces, in the solid state, a self-assembly process of the calixpyrrole into a supramolecular hexameric structure that corresponds to an octahedron.
Molecular recognition of pyridine N-oxides in water using calix4pyrrole receptors - Verdejo, Begona; Gil-Ramirez, Guzman; Ballester, Pablo
The incorporation of four carboxylic acids or four amino groups to the upper rim of an aryl extended calixpyrrole produces water-soluble receptors which are able to effectively bind aromatic N-oxides in water by a combination of hydrogen bonding, π−π, CH−π, and hydrophobic interactions.
Strong and selective anion binding within the central cavity of molecular knots and links - Ayme, Jean-Francois; Beves, Jonathan E.; Campbell, Christopher J.; Gil-Ramirez, Guzman; Leigh, David A.; Stephens, Alexander J.
A molecular pentafoil knot and doubly and triply entwined catenanes based on circular Fe(II) double helicate scaffolds bind halide anions in their central cavities through electrostatic and CH···X– hydrogen-bonding interactions. The binding is up to (3.6 ± 0.2) × 1010 M–1 in acetonitrile (for pentafoil knot [2·Cl](PF6)9), making these topologically complex host molecules some of the strongest synthetic noncovalent binders of halide anions measured to date, comparable in chloride ion affinity to silver salts.
Editorial - Golightley, Malcolm; Holloway, Margaret
Does Yerba Maté ingestion alter fat metabolism during a cardiorespiratory exercise test in healthy participants? - Fisher, Sam; Middleton, Geoff
Introduction: Studies have shown enhanced fatty acid oxidation (FAO) after ingestion of Yerba Maté (YM) compared to placebo (PL) conditions. Interestingly, this improvement was reported at rest and during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of YM ingestion on substrate utilisation (including FAO) during a low-moderate intensity walking exercise test.
Methods: This study was a single-blind randomised control trial with a repeated-measures design. Following institutional ethics approval, seven healthy and active men (n=4) and women (n=3) were recruited. After an initial habitulisation trial and separated by at least 3 days, participants ingested either 1000mg...
A Review of long-term memory in natural and synthetic systems - Wood, Rachel; Baxter, Paul; Belpaeme, Tony
Memory may be broadly regarded as information gained from past experi- ence which is available in the service of ongoing and future adaptive behavior. The biological implementation ofmemory shares little with memory in synthetic cognitive systems where it is typically regarded as a passive storage structure. Neurophysiological evidence indicates that memory is neither passive nor cen- tralised. A review of the relevant literature in the biological and computer sciences is conducted and a novel methodology is applied that incorporates neuroethological approaches with general biological inspiration in the design of synthetic cognitive systems: a case study regarding episodic memory provides an...
Cognitive architecture for human–robot interaction: towards behavioural alignment - Baxter, Paul E.; de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony
Abstract With increasingly competent robotic systems desired and required for social human–robot interaction comes the necessity for more complex means of control. Cognitive architectures (specifically the perspective where principles of structure and function are sought to account for multiple cognitive competencies) have only relatively recently been considered for applica- tion to this domain. In this paper, we describe one such set of architectural principles – acti- vation dynamics over a developmental distributed associative substrate – and show how this enables an account of a fundamental competence for social cognition: multi-modal behavioural alignment. Data from real human–robot interactions is modelled using...
Towards long-term social child-robot interaction: using multi-activity switching to engage young users - Coninx, Alexandre; Baxter, Paul; Oleari, Elettra; Bellini, Sara; Bierman, Bert; Henkemans, Olivier Blanson; Canamero, Lola; Cosi, Piero; Enescu, Valentin; Espinoza, Raquel Ros; Hiolle, Antoine; Humbert, Remi; Kiefer, Bernd; Kruijff-korbayova, Ivana; Looije, Rosemarijn; Mosconi, Marco; Neerincx, Mark; Paci, Giulio; Patsis, Georgios; Pozzi, Clara; Sacchitelli, Francesca; Sahli, Hichem; Sanna, Alberto; Sommavilla, Giacomo; Tesser, Fabio; Demiris, Yiannis; Belpaeme, Tony
Social robots have the potential to provide support in a number of practical domains, such as learning and behaviour change. This potential is particularly relevant for children, who have proven receptive to interactions with social robots. To reach learning and therapeutic goals, a number of issues need to be investigated, notably the design of an effective child-robot interaction (cHRI) to ensure the child remains engaged in the relationship and that educational goals are met. Typically, current cHRI research experiments focus on a single type of interaction activity (e.g. a game). However, these can suffer from a lack of adaptation to...
An update on effects of creatine supplementation on performance: a review - Dorrell, Harry; Gee, Thomas; Middleton, Geoff
Supplementary creatine, available in many different forms but most commonly monohydrate, is a legal and
reportedly safe to consume nutritional ergogenic aid. After searching internationally recognised research databases,
this review provides and update on the current literature on the physiological effects of creatine supplementation on
performance whilst also discussing the underlying physiology regarding the synthesis and dietary provision of
creatine as well as addressing issues of safety and the ethical considerations of usage. Research has shown that
regular consumption of supplementary creatine can raise associated content within skeletal muscle. Subsequently,
there is an extensive, and still growing, body of the literature supporting the efficacy of creatine...
Teaching undergraduate marketing students using 'Hot-Seating Through Puppetry': an exploratory study. - Pearce, Glenn; Hardiman, Nigel
Changes in preferred methods of learning among many students in recent years
have challenged educators to introduce more interactive and experiential teaching
methods. ‘Hot seating’ – where a person, such as an invited subject expert
is interviewed by an audience – is a well-established interactive method of
learning, but is often limited by availability of willing and suitable interviewees.
In this exploratory study, university business undergraduates were required to
interact with a lecturer-operated puppet representing a corporate client interviewee
in a simulated sales presentation. Reflective diaries were used to gain
insights into students’ perceptions of this teaching technique. Results suggest
that students: (i) gained practical business skills; (ii) were...
Metabolic strategies in wild male Barbary macaques: evidence from faecal measurement of thyroid hormone - Cristobal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Marechal, Laetitia; Semple, Stuart; Majolo, Bonaventura; MacLarnon, Ann
Selection is expected to favour the evolution of flexible metabolic strategies, in response to environmental conditions. Here, we use a non-invasive index of basal metabolic rate (BMR), faecal thyroid hormone (T3) levels, to explore metabolic flexibility in a wild mammal inhabiting a highly seasonal, challenging environment. T3 levels of adult male Barbary macaques in the Atlas Mountains, Morocco, varied markedly over the year; temporal patterns of variation
differed between a wild-feeding and a provisioned group. Overall, T3 levels were related to temperature, foraging time (linked to food availability) and intensity of mating activity, and were higher in the provisioned than in...
Are maternal smoking and stress during pregnancy related to ADHD symptoms in children? - Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla
Background: There are some indications that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy (smoking and stress) contributes to symptoms of ADHD in children. We prospectively studied whether prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and/or stress is associated with ADHD symptoms and diagnostic criteria (according to DSM-IV) in 7-year-olds.
Methods: Nulliparous Scandinavian women were consecutively recruited at their first prenatal health care visit and assessments of smoking and stress were collected at gestational weeks 10, 12, 20, 28, 32, and 36. Children were followed up at 7 years old. We obtained full data for 72% of the sample: ADHD symptoms were rated by 74% of mothers...
Fetal origins of child non-right-handedness and mental health - Rodriguez, Alina; Waldenström, Ulla
Background: Environmental risk during fetal development for non-right-handedness, an index of brain asymmetry, and its relevance for child mental health is not fully understood.
Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy–offspring cohort was followed-up when children were five years old (N = 1714). Prenatal environmental risk exposures were the number of ultrasound examinations and maternal distress during pregnancy. Child mental health, including symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), language difficulties, and care-seeking for child behavior problems, was assessed via maternal and/or kindergarten teacher’s ratings.
Results: Prenatal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms and critical life events were associated with increased risk of child...
Is prenatal alcohol exposure related to inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in children? Disentangling the effects of social adversity - Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Järvelin, M. R.
Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting parallel analyses of three cohorts with varying alcohol consumption and attitudes towards alcohol use.
Methods: We compare three population-based pregnancy–offspring cohorts within the Nordic Network on ADHD from Denmark and Finland. Prenatal data were gathered via self-report during pregnancy and birth outcomes were abstracted from medical charts. A total of 21,678 reports concerning inattention...