Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 12.812

  1. Host genetics determine susceptibility to avian influenza infection and transmission dynamics

    Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Mwangi, William; Peroval, Marylene; Sadeyen, Jean-Remy; Ascough, Stephanie; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Boyd, Amy; McCauley, John; Smith, Adrian; Butter, Colin
    Host-genetic control of influenza virus infection has been the object of little attention. In this study we determined that two inbred lines of chicken differing in their genetic background, Lines 0 and C-B12, were respectively relatively resistant and susceptible to infection with the low pathogenicity influenza virus A/Turkey/England/647/77 as defined by substantial differences in viral shedding trajectories. Resistant birds, although infected, were unable to transmit virus to contact birds, as ultimately only the presence of a sustained cloacal shedding (and not oropharyngeal shedding) was critical for transmission. Restriction of within-bird transmission of virus occurred in the resistant line, with intra-nares...

  2. Design strategies for gamified physical activity applications for older adults

    Kappen, Dennis L.; Nacke, Lennart E.; Gerling, Kathrin M.; Tsotsos, Lia E.
    Staying physically active is essential to wellbeing in late life. However, many older adults experience barriers to physical activity. Past research has investigated the development of playful interactive systems to support exercise routines and reduce access barriers. Yet, little research has been done on older adults' needs and preferences regarding technologies that support physical activity. We address this issue through an exploration of older adults' exercise motivations grouped around themes relevant to technology design. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 older adults, and followed up with a focus group study of physical trainers and older adults with an active lifestyle....

  3. The design of a legacy indicator tool for measuring climate change related impacts on built heritage

    Daly, Cathy
    Background: We are experiencing a period of climate change the extent and impact of which is uncertain. In the cultural heritage sector the need for monitoring to inform our understanding is widely agreed, yet there is a lack of consensus over what constitutes 'monitoring for climate change'. This is due, at least in part, to the extended timescales involved. In this paper the design and implementation of one solution is described; a sustainable legacy indicator tool (LegIT) for the long term tracking of surface weathering effects on built heritage. Results: The assessment of climate change impacts requires 30-100 years of...

  4. Acoustic signalling reflects personality in a social mammal

    Friel, Mary; Kunc, Hansjoerg P.; Griffin, Kym; Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M.
    Social interactions among individuals are often mediated through acoustic signals. If acoustic signals are consistent and related to an individual's personality, these consistent individual differences in signalling may be an important driver in social interactions. However, few studies in non-human mammals have investigated the relationship between acoustic signalling and personality. Here we show that acoustic signalling rate is repeatable and strongly related to personality in a highly social mammal, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica). Furthermore, acoustic signalling varied between environments of differing quality, with males from a poor-quality environment having a reduced vocalization rate compared with females and males...

  5. The application of online transcranial random noise stimulation and perceptual learning in the improvement of visual functions in mild myopia

    Camilleri, Rebecca; Pavan, Andrea; Campana, Gianluca
    It has recently been demonstrated how perceptual learning, that is an improvement in a sensory/perceptual task upon practice, can be boosted by concurrent high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). It has also been shown that perceptual learning can generalize and produce an improvement of visual functions in participants with mild refractive defects. By using three different groups of participants (single-blind study), we tested the efficacy of a short training (8 sessions) using a single Gabor contrast-detection task with concurrent hf-tRNS in comparison with the same training with sham stimulation or hf-tRNS with no concurrent training, in improving visual acuity (VA)...

  6. Fine-tuning of a thermosalient phase transition by solid solutions

    Nauha, Elisa; Naumov, Pance; Lusi, Matteo
    Thermosalient crystals are solids that exhibit motion at the macroscale as a consequence of a thermally induced phase transition. They represent an interesting scientific phenomenon and could be useful as actuators for the conversion of thermal energy into motion or mechanical work. The potential utilization of these miniature transducers in real-world devices requires a controllable phase transition (i.e. a predetermined temperature). While it is difficult to control these performances with a single-component molecular crystal, “tunable” properties could be accomplished by solid solutions. To verify this hypothesis, the thermosalient material [Zn(bpy)Br2] (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) was selected and its synthesis was performed...

  7. Changing architecture for a changing climate; unsustainable trends in New Zealand

    Byrd, Hugh; Rehm, Michael
    To be sustainable, buildings should usefully last for many generations. This requires building designers to have some knowledge of the future climate and the resources available to maintain the operations, in particular energy consumption, of buildings.The New Zealand climate is predicted to get hotter and an energy gap to emerge as fossil fuels deplete and hydroelectricity production declines due to the retreat of glaciers.The historical peak demand of electricity for buildings has been for winter heating.This is now shifting to summer cooling. Building design should be responding by designing with climate rather than against it. Appropriate consideration of solar shading,...

  8. Modular reorganization of the global network of gene regulatory interactions during perinatal human brain development.

    Monzón-Sandoval, Jimena; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Urrutia, Araxi O.; Gutierrez, Humberto
    BACKGROUND During early development of the nervous system, gene expression patterns are known to vary widely depending on the specific developmental trajectories of different structures. Observable changes in gene expression profiles throughout development are determined by an underlying network of precise regulatory interactions between individual genes. Elucidating the organizing principles that shape this gene regulatory network is one of the central goals of developmental biology. Whether the developmental programme is the result of a dynamic driven by a fixed architecture of regulatory interactions, or alternatively, the result of waves of regulatory reorganization is not known. RESULTS Here we contrast these two alternative models...

  9. Region-specific role of growth differentiation factor-5 in the establishment of sympathetic innervation

    O’Keeffe, Gerard W.; Gutierrez, Humberto; Howard, Laura; Laurie, Christopher W.; Osorio, Catarina; Gavaldà, Núria; Wyatt, Sean L.; Davies, Alun M.
    Background Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the prototypical target-derived neurotrophic factor required for sympathetic neuron survival and for the growth and ramification of sympathetic axons within most but not all sympathetic targets. This implies the operation of additional target-derived factors for regulating terminal sympathetic axon growth and branching. Results Here report that growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), a widely expressed member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily required for limb development, promoted axon growth from mouse superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons independently of NGF and enhanced axon growth in combination with NGF. GDF5 had no effect on neuronal survival and influenced...

  10. Older LGBT people's beliefs and experiences regarding GP services

    Toze, Michael
    Public policy on responding to the ageing “crisis” typically involves a focus on preventative interventions in primary care, tackling inequalities and increasing use of informal and voluntary care networks. Yet at present, the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGB&T) older people remains under-researched, despite evidence of increased risk of mortality and morbidity in LGBT populations (Williams et al., 2013; Addis et. al, 2009). Voluntary sector surveys (River, 2011; Guasp, undated) highlights fear of discrimination and perceived lack of sensitivity to needs. However, there remains a lack of research into older LGB&T patients as active participants within general practice,...

  11. Commentary on Dixon et al. (2014): Understanding the abuse liability of modern electronic gaming machines

    Clark, Luke; Sharman, Stephen

  12. Polar bears, climate change, CSR and sustainable tourism

    Pearce, Jeremy
    This research focuses on how the FNA/PBI partnership deals with complex issues in the context of CSR and sustainable polar tourism in prevailing Arctic governance. It resists the temptation to apply a more linear perspective to the activities of the partnership and instead looks at the interplay of the variables from a wider lens.

  13. Modelling air and water two-phase annular flow in a small horizontal pipe

    Yao, Jun; Yufeng, Yao; Arini, Antonino; Gordon, Timothy
    Numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been carried out to study air and water two-phase flow in a small horizontal pipe of an inner diameter of 8.8mm, in order to investigate unsteady flow pattern transition behaviours and underlying physical mechanisms. The surface liquid film thickness distributions, determined by either wavy or full annular flow regime, are shown in reasonable good agreement with available experimental data. It was demonstrated that CFD simulation was able to predict wavy flow structures accurately using two-phase flow sub-models embedded in ANSYS-Fluent solver of Eulerian–Eulerian framework, together with a user defined function subroutine ANWAVER-UDF....

  14. Raising student wellbeing standards through the 'Student as Producer' principle

    Parkin, Emily; Hagyard, Andy; Mayer, Jacqueline
    Raising Student Wellbeing Through the 'Student as Producer' Principle * Using the guiding principle of ‘Student as Producer’ in order to foster collaboration and discovery through strong student and staff relationships * From induction to graduation: Ensuring appropriate, accessible and effective support for all students throughout their education * Driving student engagement: Staff as 'engagement-ready' for service transformation * Changing the conversation: Enabling students, staff and partners implement and engage with student centred solutions and models

  15. Optimised configuration of sensors for fault tolerant control of an electro-magnetic suspension system

    Michail, K.; Zolotas, Argyrios; Goodall, R. M.; Whidborne, J. F.
    For any given system the number and location of sensors can affect the closed-loop performance as well as the reliability of the system. Hence, one problem in control system design is the selection of the sensors in some optimum sense that considers both the system performance and reliability. Although some methods have been proposed that deal with some of the aforementioned aspects, in this work, a design framework dealing with both control and reliability aspects is presented. The proposed framework is able to identify the best sensor set for which optimum performance is achieved even under single or multiple sensor...

  16. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in the Nordic countries

    Obel, Carsten; Heiervang, Einar; Rodriguez, Alina; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Smedje, Hans; Sourander, Andre; Gudmundsson, Olafur O.; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Christensen, Else; Heian, Frode; Mathiesen, Kristin S.; Magnusson, Pall; Njardvik, Urdur; Koskelainen, Merja; Ronning, John A.; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Olsen, Jorn
    Background: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been translated into the different Nordic languages between 1996 and 2003. During the past few years, SDQs have been completed for nearly 100,000 children and adolescents in population-based studies as well as in clinical samples. The largest studies have been performed in Norway and Denmark, and in these countries the diagnostic interview DAWBA has also been used in conjunction with the SDQ. Aims: In addition to a brief overview of past and ongoing SDQ work in Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland, we present scale means and standard deviations from selected community studies...

  17. The University of Utopia

    Neary, Mike; Winn, Joss
    What follows is a series of short letters written by a student from the University of Utopia. Although a fictional account, the letters are written with the conviction that we are actually living in a state of abundance, rather than the scarcity imposed by the market economy and that global social needs can be met by our existing capacity to co-operate with one-another rather than compete. The five letters are based on our joint research and practice of co-operative higher education which we have been undertaking since 2010. They do not reflect the breadth of the research but instead offer...

  18. Solar village in Malaysia – a route map for financing mechanism

    Ahmad, Azfahani; Byrd, Hugh; Wahab, Suriana; Ghani, Aida
    Abstract. Malaysia’s development has been largely financed from its fossil fuels resources that come principally from the South China Sea. This has enabled electricity to be distributed equitably throughout society and improved the quality of life for people in Malaysia. However, the depletion of fossil fuel resources and the international conflict over South China Sea territorial ownership may leads to inadequacy of supply in the future, and may give direct impact to people in the rural areas. Malaysia’s greatest potential for solar energy comes from photovoltaics (PVs) and the large roofs of village houses offer significant potential to contribute electricity...

  19. Emotional prejudice, essentialism, and nationalism [The 2002 Tajfel lecture]

    Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Cortes, Brezo; Demoulin, Stephanie; Dovidio, John F.; Fiske, Susan T.; Gaunt, Ruth; Paladino, Maria-Paola; Rodriguez-Perez, Armando; Rodriguez-Torres, Ramon; Vaes, Jeroen
    In explaining differences between groups, people ascribe the human essence to their ingroup and consider outgroups as less human. This phenomenon, called infra-humanization, occurs outside people's awareness. Because secondary emotions (e.g. love, hope, contempt, resentment) are considered uniquely human emotions, people not only attribute more secondary emotions to their ingroup than to outgroups, but are reluctant to associate these emotions with outgroups. Moreover, people behave less cooperatively (in terms of altruism, imitation, and approach) with an outgroup member who expresses himself through secondary emotions. Infra-humanization occurs for high and low status groups, even in the absence of conflict between groups....

  20. Infra-humanization: The wall of group differences

    Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Demoulin, Stephanie; Vaes, Jeroen; Gaunt, Ruth; Paladino, Maria Paola
    Infra-humanizing outgroups involves considering outgroups less human and more animal-like than the ingroup, which is perceived, in essence, as fully human. In this article, the first section presents the theoretical background of infra-humanization and distinguishes it from related concepts, such as dehumanization. The three basic hypotheses of the theory are then presented with a summary of empirical evidence. Social implications follow. Reasons for the pervasiveness of the phenomenon are examined as well as conditions that lead a specific outgroup to be infra-humanized. We also explore the consequences of infra-humanization, such as a lack of forgiveness for the outgroup and the...

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