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DSpace - Universidade do Porto (70,821 recursos)
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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 227

1. Aleitamento materno e caracterização dos hábitos alimentares na primeira infância: experiência de São Tomé e Príncipe - Silva, Diana; Nóbrega, L.; Valente, A.; Dias, C.; Almeida, F.; Cruz, J.L.; Neves, E.; Afonso, C.; Guerra, A.
Objectives:to evaluate breastfeeding and the frequency and diversification of feeding, in children in São Tomé e Príncipe (STP).Methods:the sample comprised 1,285 children. The protocol included the prevalence of exclusive (EMB) and total (TMB) maternal breastfeeding, the onset of nutritional diversification (ND) and a questionnaire on the frequency of feeding. The statistics were processed using SPSS®. The results were presented in terms of the total sample.Results:45.5% of the babies were female and the mean age 26±18 months. 46.6% were given EMB up to the age of six months (mean 5±2). The mean for TMB was 12±7 months and the onset of...

2. Validation Analysis of a Geriatric Dehydration Screening Tool in Community-Dwelling and Institutionalized Elderly People - Rodrigues, S.; Silva, J.; Severo, M.; Inácio, C.; Padrão, Patrícia; Carvalho, J.; Carmo, I.; Moreira, Pedro
Abstract: Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST) in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility), with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n = 29) and community-dwelling (n = 74) elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and...

3. Time and regional perspectives of food insecurity during the economic crisis in Portugal, 2011-2013 - Gregório, Maria João; Graça, Pedro; Costa, A.; Nogueira, P.J.
Food insecurity (FI) has received much attention inrecent years, even in high-income countries, due tothe increasing trend of poverty and social inequalitiesindicators, as a result of the global financialcrisis. The establishment of a monitoring system ofFI becomes a priority for food and nutrition policies.Our study aims to evaluate FI trends during theeconomic crisis in Portugal and to identify regionaldisparities throughout the country. Data derivedfrom three surveys conducted by the PortugueseDirectorate-General of Health, concerning FI of thePortuguese population, during the period that Portugalwas under the International Monetary Fundfinancial assistance program (20112013). Data werecollected by face-to-face interviews and FI was evaluatedusing a...

4. Promoting health equity in European children: design and methodology of the prospective EPHE (Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity) evaluation study - Mantziki, K.; Vassilopoulos, A.; Radulian, G.; Borys, J-M.; du Plessis, H.; Gregório, Maria João; Graça, Pedro; et al.
Background: Reducing health inequalities is a top priority of the public health agendas in Europe. The EPHE project aims to analyse the added value of a community-based interventional programme based on EPODE methodology, adapted for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in childhood obesity. The interventions that will be implemented by this project focus on four energy balance-related behaviours (fruit and vegetable consumption, tap water intake, physical inactivity, sleep duration) and their determinants. This article presents the design of the effect evaluation of the EPHE project. Methods/Design: This is a prospective two-year follow-up evaluation study, which will collect data on the...

5. Psychological Determinants of Consumer Acceptance of Personalised Nutrition in 9 European Countries - Poinhos, Rui; van der Lans, I.A.; Rankin, A.; Fischer, A.; Bunting, B.; Kuznesof, S.; Stewart-Knox, B.; Frewer, L.
Objective: To develop a model of the psychological factors which predict peoples intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Potential determinants of adoption included perceived risk and benefit, perceived self-efficacy, internal locus of control and health commitment. Methods: A questionnaire, developed from exploratory study data and the existing theoretical literature, and including validated psychological scales was administered to N = 9381 participants from 9 European countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, the UK, and Norway). Results: Structural equation modelling indicated that the greater participants perceived benefits to be associated with personalised nutrition, the more positive their attitudes were towards...

6. Ansiedade Social na Infância e Pré-Adolescência: Adaptação para o Português de Portugal da SASC-R - Martins, A.C; Almeida, J.P.; Viana, Victor
The Social Anxiety Scale for Children (revised form) - SASC-R evaluates the experience of social anxiety and avoidance felt by children and pre-adolescents in the context of relationship with their peers. This study aims to validate the Portuguese version of the SASC-R by confirmatory factor analysis using the structure proposed by the authors of the original scale. In a survey donewith 486 children between the ages of nine and 15 years, the results show that the scale reproduces the original factors, has a good internal consistency and a quite satisfactory construct validity. This study suggests that the SASC-R is a...

7. Piecewise RD dynamics on costs - M. Ferreira; B. M. P. M. Oliveira; Alberto Pinto

8. Protective effects of xanthohumol against the genotoxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines MeIQx and PhIP in bacteria and in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells (vol 50, pg 949, 2012) - Viegas, Olga; Zegura, Bojana; Pezdric, Marko; Novak, Matjaz; Ferreira, Isabel; Pinho, Olívia; Filipic, Metka

9. Parallel increase in placental oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses occurs in type 1 but not gestational diabetes - Araújo, João; Ramalho, Carla; Branco, Ana; Faria, Ana; Ferraz, Tiago; Keating, Elisa; Martel, Fátima
We aimed to determine the oxidative stress status in placentas obtained from gestational (GDM) and type 1 (T1D) diabetic pregnancies. Malonaldehyde and protein carbonyls, two biomarkers of oxidative damage, were higher in T1D but not in GDM placentas. Also, higher reduced glutathione and lower oxidized glutathione levels and higher glutathione peroxidase activity were found in T1D but not in GDM placentas. These results suggest that T1D placentas may develop a protective antioxidant mechanism to overcome higher oxidative stress levels.

10. Corrigendum to ‘'Protective effects of xanthohumol against the genotoxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines MeIQx and PhIP in bacteria and in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells' [Food and Chemical Toxicology 50 (2012) 949–955] - Viegas, Olga; Zegura, Bojana; Pezdric, Marko; Novak, Matjaz; Ferreira, Isabel; Pinho, Olívia; Filipic, Metka

11. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat salads: An underestimated vehicle of bacteria and clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes - Campos, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Pestana, Nazaré; Peixe, Luisa; Novais, Carla; Antunes, Patrícia
The increase demand for fresh vegetables is causing an expansion of the market for minimally processed vegetables along with new recognized food safety problems. To gain further insight on this topic we analyzed the microbiological quality of Portuguese ready-to-eat salads (RTS) and their role in the spread of bacteria carrying acquired antibiotic resistance genes, food products scarcely considered in surveillance studies. A total of 50 RTS (7 brands; split or mixed leaves, carrot, corn) were collected in 5 national supermarket chains in Porto region (2010). They were tested for aerobic mesophilic counts, coliforms and Escherichia coli counts as well as for the presence of Salmonella and...

12. Intraventricular pressure gradients in heart failure - Guerra, Miguel; Silva, Carmen Brás; Amorim, Mário; Bento, Cláudia; Bastos, Pedro; Moreira, Adelino
The aim of the present study was to characterize intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) in an animal model of chronic heart failure. New Zealand rabbits were treated with doxorubicin (heart failure group, n=5) or saline (control group, n=5) and instrumented with pressure catheters placed in the apex and outflow-tract of left ventricle (LV) and with sonomicrometer crystals placed in the apex and base of the LV free wall. In heart failure animals, ventricular filling was delayed and slower when compared with control animals. Moreover, the physiological nonuniformity observed between apical and basal segments in normal hearts was abolished in failing hearts....

13. Food and Nutrition Actions and their Interface with Food Security: a comparison between Brazil and Portugal - Vieira, Viviane; Gregório, Maria; Mancuso, Ana; Graça, Pedro
This paper aims to compare food and nutrition actions related to foodsecurity (FS) in Brazil and Portugal, keeping in mind that several countries have established guidelines to guarantee adequate food. Both nations are experiencing a reduction in fertility rates, increased life expectancy, and a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases. In Brazil, 30.2% of households live in food insecurity; in Portugal, even without estimating food insecurity, 18.0% of its inhabitants are at risk for poverty. The National Food and Nutrition Policy is the current Brazilian document which seeks to ensure universal access to food. Portugal, due to its inclusion in the...

14. BMI and self-perceived body shape in Portuguese children - Coelho, Eduarda; Padez, Cristina; Moreira, Pedro; Rosado, Victor; Carvalhal, Isabel
Objectives: This study examined the relationship between Portuguese childrens self-perceived body shape and body mass index (BMI) by gender, and BMI values were determined for each silhouette. Method: A sample of 4,211 children aged 7-10 was used. Their body image was assessed using Collinss body image silhouettes, while cole et al.s cutoffs were used to define obesity. Results: The higher the number of the selected silhouette, the higher the mean BMI, except in the case of silhouettes 2 and 7 for boys and 7 for girls. Most of the individuals who selected silhouette number 5 or higher were obese. For...

15. Therapeutic potential of neuregulin1 in cardiovascular disease - Ferreira, Pedro; Keulenaer, G.; Moreira, Adelino; Silva, Carmen Brás
Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1)/ErbB signaling has an indispensable role in cardiac development and in the maintenance of the structural and functional integrity of the human adult heart in health and disease. Several animal studies have now demonstrated the therapeutic effects of NRG-1 during acute cardiac injury and during chronic heart failure, with improvements in cardiac performance and animal survival. Phase I and II clinical trials for chronic heart failure in humans are now in progress.

16. Optimization of QuEChERS Procedure Coupled to GC-ECD for Organochlorine Pesticide Determination in Carrot Samples - Sá, Maria; Fernandes, Virginia; Calhau, Conceição; Domingues, Valentina; Matos, Cristina
An optimised version of the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method for simultaneous determination of 14 organochlorine pesticides in carrots was developed using gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detector (GC-ECD) and confirmation by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). A citrate-buffered version of QuEChERS was applied for the extraction of the organochlorine pesticides, and for the extract clean-up, primary secondary amine, octadecyl-bonded silica (C18), magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and graphitized carbon black were used as sorbents. The GC-ECD determination of the target compounds was achieved in less than 20 min. The limits of detection were below the EU...

17. Handgrip strength and associated factors in hospitalized patients - Guerra,R.; Fonseca, I.; Pichel, F.; Restivo, M.; Amaral, Teresa
Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is a marker of nutrition status. Many factors are associated with HGS. Age, height, body mass index, number of diagnoses, and number and type of drugs have been shown to modify the association between undernutrition and HGS. Nevertheless, other patient characteristics that could modify this association and its joint modifier effect have not been studied yet. Objective: To evaluate the association of inpatients’ HGS and undernutrition considering the potential modifier effect of cognitive status, functional activity, disease severity, anthropometrics, and other patient characteristics on HGS. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a university hospital. Sex, age,...

18. Food waste as an index of foodservice quality - Ferreira, Maria; Martins, Margarida; Rocha, Ada
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate waste at a Portuguese university setting in order to suggest improvements on foodservice sustainability. Design/methodology/approach – The work was developed during four weeks in order to allow the evaluation of parameters of an entire menu cycle. The index of waste/consumption (%) was obtained by the ratio between plate waste and the quantity of foods distributed, subtracting the weight of leftovers. Findings – The average index of waste/consumption was approximately 24 percent, higher in the days with a fish menu, values considered unacceptable. Each canteen user is served with approximately 940 g of foods, from which only 660 g...

19. Early dietary treated patients with phenylketonuria can achieve normal growth and body composition. - Rocha, Júlio; Spronsen, Francjan; Almeida, Manuela; Guimarães, João; Ramos, Elisabete; Borges, Nuno
BACKGROUND: In the past, overtreatment may have resulted in growth impairment in patients with phenylketonuria. OBJECTIVE: The paper aims to investigate height and body composition in early treated patients with phenylketonuria who were diagnosed between 1981 and 2008. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 89 patients with phenylketonuria and 78 controls aged (mean±SD, in years) 14.4±6.6 and 15.9±7.1, respectively, was undertaken, including anthropometric and body composition evaluation using bioelectrical impedance. Median Phe concentrations in the last year before study enrolment were used as a measure of metabolic control. Natural protein and amino acid mixture intakes were recorded in patients. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found on...

20. Furans and other volatile compounds in ground roasted and espresso coffee using headspace solid-phase microextraction: Effect of roasting speed - Petisca, Catarina; Palacios, Trinidad; Farrah, Adriana; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel
The profile of major classes of furanic compounds, as well as other volatile compounds, was evaluated by headspace solid-phase microextraction GC/MS in Arabica ground coffee roasted at three speeds, and in their respective espresso coffees. A total of 113 and 105 volatile compounds were respectively identified in ground coffee and espresso coffee. They were clustered in the following chemical classes: furans, pyrroles, pyridines, pyrazines, ketones, hydrocarbons, aldehydes and others. Results from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using the data of major volatile class as variables showed that the levels (expressed as relative percentage of total peak area) of furans and pyrroles...

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