Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 46

  1. Blood transfusion-related immunomodulation

    Vargas, Luciana do Nascimento; Garcia, Lais Oliveira; Galvão, Ananda Cristine Santos; Onsten, Tor Gunnar Hugo; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Sekine, Leo
    The phenomenon of transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) has been studied since the observation of a higher kidney allograft survival in patients who had received a higher number of transfusions. Conversely, it has been suggested as one of the possible causes related to the development of infections in patients with multiple blood transfusions and/or after a major surgery, and has been also associated with a decreased function of natural killer cells (NK) and antigen-presenting cells (APCs), reduced cell-mediated immunity, and increased regulatory T cells (Tregs). This review aimed to conceptualize TRIM and discuss some aspects related to its mechanisms and the prevention...

  2. Calculando o tamanho de efeito no SPSS

    Lindenau, Juliana Dal-Ri; Guimarães, Luciano Santos Pinto
    O tamanho de efeito é uma estatística descritiva que serve como complemento ao teste de significância estatística. Cada vez mais esse tipo de abordagem vem sendo estimulada, em alguns casos até exigida, pelas publicações da área científica. Foram escolhidas algumas medidas de tamanho de efeito para uma explicação mais detalhada: o tamanho de efeito de d de Cohen, g de Hedges, D de Glass para comparação das médias de dois grupos e o f2 de Cohen utilizado na análise de medidas correlacionadas. Esses tamanhos de efeito foram calculados em exemplos obtidos a partir de simulação usando o SPSS v.18.0.0.

  3. Clinical genetics and public policies : how should rare diseases be managed?

    Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doederlein; Souza, Monica Vinhas de; Leivas, Paulo Gilberto Cogo; Faccini, Lavinia Schuler
    The implementation of a specific policy for rare diseases in the Brazilian Unified Health System presents challenges in terms of its rationale. Recognizing the importance of rarity in the context of public health means understanding genetics as one of the dimensions of disease and accepting that Brazil is undergoing a period of transition in health indicators. Although most rare diseases lack pharmacological treatment and genetic counseling constitutes the best strategy for their prevention, the cost of “orphan drugs” and their consequent lack of cost-effectiveness are still claimed as hurdles to the implementation of public policies in this field. Epidemiological aspects...

  4. Determinação do limite mínimo de detecção da técnica de Nested-PCR para os poliomavírus JC e BK

    Vieira, Aline dos Santos; Machado, Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Paris, Fernanda de
    Introdução: Os poliomavírus (JCV e BKV) causam infecções principalmente em adultos imunocomprometidos. Um diagnóstico sensível e específico é de fundamental importância para os pacientes portadores de JCV e BKV. Atualmente alguns laboratórios têm utilizado a técnica de PCR para a detecção do material genético destes vírus em amostras clínicas. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é determinar o limite mínimo de detecção da técnica de nested-PCR para os poliomavírus JC e BK. Métodos: Diluições seriadas (100 cópias/mL; 50 cópias/mL; 25 cópias/mL; 10 cópias/mL; 5 cópias/mL e 1 cópia/mL) de controles positivos comerciais de JCV e BKV com concentrações conhecidas foram submetidas...

  5. Effects of melatonin and estradiol on chronic pain during postmenopause

    Moreira, Sônia Fátima da Silva; Souza, Andressa de; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva
    Chronic pain is a major public health problem that affects approximately 40% of the adult population worldwide. Several epidemiological studies have shown a higher prevalence of chronic pain in women, with variations within the menstrual cycle and an increase in pain after menopause. Clinical and experimental studies have shown differences in pain perception between genders, but the underlying mechanisms of this inequality are complex and far from being understood. Estrogens play an important role in pain modulation and seem to account at least partially for these differences. Melatonin is a neurohormone synthesized mainly by the pineal gland that regulates circadian...

  6. Prevalence of thrombophilia and thrombotic events in patients with fabry disease in a Reference Center for Lysosomal Disorders in Southern Brazil

    Dick, Jéssica; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Vairo, Filippo Pinto e; Giugliani, Roberto; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doederlein
    Introduction: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial genetic disorder that occurs in approximately one in a thousand adults per year. Because there is no laboratory test or clinical marker useful for predicting which patients with Fabry disease may develop thrombotic events, this study aimed to determine whether there is a hereditary predisposition to hypercoagulation in these patients. Methods: The prevalence of p.R506Q mutation in the factor V gene and of c.G20210A mutation in Factor II (prothrombin) gene was evaluated in 39 patients with Fabry disease from Southern Brazil and correlated with clinical findings. The DNA analysis was performed by real-time...

  7. Molecular cytogenetic evaluation of chromosomal microdeletions : the experience of a public hospital in southern Brazil

    Riegel, Mariluce; Barcellos, Natália; Mergener, Rafaella; Souza, Karen Regina Silva de; Leite, Júlio César Loguercio; Gus, Rejane; Moreira, Lília Maria de Azevedo; Giugliani, Roberto
    Introduction: During the past few decades, the number of diseases identified to be caused by chromosomal microdeletions has increased quickly, bringing a new and crucial role for cytogenetics on the diagnosis of these conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize chromosomal microdeletions associated with malformation syndromes and intellectual disability. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a consecutive series of samples from a cohort of 598 subjects with clinical symptoms of a microdeletion syndrome, including the deletion of chromosomes 4p16.3, 5p15.2, 5q35, 7q11.23, 8q24.12, 15q11.2, 16p13.3, 17p13.3, 17p11.2,2, and 22q11.2, as investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Array-based...

  8. Non-viral gene transfer to the tendon : comparison of two methods

    Melendez, Matias Eliseo; Lagranha, Valeska Lizzi; Baptista, André Lorscheitter; Lompa, Paulo Arlei; Giugliani, Roberto; Matte, Ursula da Silveira
    Background: tendons are part of the connective tissue that joins muscle to bone. Tendon injuries are a problem, since they have a poor ability to regenerate spontaneously. Alternative treatments involving the injection of local growth factors and gene transfer has been evaluated. Thus, we compared two methods for non-viral gene transfer tendons, using the GFP gene as reporter gene. Methods: Wistar rats had the medial quadriceps tendon exposed and the plasmid was transferred by direct injection or complexed with liposomes. Quantification of GFP in the tendom and in the spleen was evaluated by histological analysis with a fluorescence microscope. Results:...

  9. Economic analysis of intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange therapies for the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a university-based hospital in the south of Brazil

    Britto, Alexandre Paulo Machado de; Ferreira, Maria Angelica Pires; Maciel, Paola Panazzolo; Moreira, Leila Beltrami
    Background: direct costs for treating Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) represent a significant financial burden to public hospitals. Few studies compared the cost of plasma exchange (PE) treatment with human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Aim: to compare the cost of two therapies for GBS: IVIg and PE. Secondary objective was to evaluate compliance to IVIg prescription guidelines of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (PTC). Methods: a cross-sectional study included 25 patients with GBS admitted in a university affiliated hospital from June, 2003 through June, 2008. The costs of IVIg (N=20) and PE (N=5) were evaluated through the cost minimization method, considering direct medical...

  10. Análise de prescrições médicas dispensadas em farmácia no Sistema Único de Saúde

    Laste, Gabriela; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Deitos, Alícia; Souza, Ana Cláudia de; Souza, Andressa de; Kauffmann, Carla; Fernandes, Luciana Carvalho; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso
    Objetivo: Analisar os indicadores propostos pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) em prescrições médicas fornecidas a pacientes atendidos em Centro de Saúde do município de Lajeado – RS. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo transversal, que avaliou dados relativos ao padrão de prescrição em Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Resultados: Foram analisadas 292 prescrições médicas. Destas, 282 continham o nome do paciente, mas em apenas três havia o seu endereço. Em 243 prescrições, constava o nome do médico, e, em 227, havia o número de inscrição no Conselho de Medicina. Foram identificados 713 medicamentos, com média de 2,44 por prescrição, sendo aqueles...

  11. Avaliação de fatores associados ao diagnóstico de queimação bucal : um estudo preliminar

    Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Gutierrez, Luiz Makito Osawa; Souza, Andressa de; Oliveira, Márcia Gaiger de; Chaves, Anna Cecília Moraes; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva
    Objetivo: avaliar fatores associados ao diagnóstico de ardência bucal, como xerostomia, hipossalivação, sintomas depressivos, ansiedade, transtornos de sono, doenças sistêmicas e uso contínuo de medicamentos. Métodos: foram avaliados 22 pacientes atendidos em nível ambulatorial através de escalas validadas e questionário sociodemográfico, seguido de medidas de fluxo salivar espontâneo e estimulado através do método de expectoração salivar. Na análise estatística descritiva foi utilizado SPSS 16.0. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por 4 homens e 18 mulheres com idade média de 61,6+2,83 anos. As médias de fluxo salivar espontâneo e estimulado foram 0,27+0,06 ml/min e 0,84+0,08 ml/min, respectivamente. A hipossalivação esteve presente...

  12. A normativa do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre para o armazenamento e utilização de materiais biológicos humanos e informações associadas em pesquisa : uma proposta interdisciplinar

    Fernandes, Márcia Santana; Prolla, Patrícia Ashton; Matte, Ursula da Silveira; Meurer, Luíse; Osvaldt, Alessandro Bersch; Bittelbrunn, Ana Cristina da Costa; Schlatter, Rosane Paixão; Kucyk, Rosa; Silva, Fernando Martins Pereira da; Clausell, Nadine Oliveira; Goldim, José Roberto
    Este artigo apresenta a justificativa e o processo de elaboração do marco normativo do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA) para o armazenamento e utilização de materiais biológicos humanos e suas informações associadas em atividades de pesquisa. Um grupo de trabalho multiprofissional se reuniu e discutiu todos os aspectos referentes a esta questão que envolve as atividades de biobanco e de biorrepositórios. Como produto deste trabalho é apresentada a Normativa Institucional.

  13. Fenilcetonúria no sistema único de saúde : avaliação de adesão ao tratamento em um centro de atendimento do Rio Grande do Sul

    Nalin, Tatiéle; Perry, Ingrid Dalira Schweigert; Refosco, Lilia Farret; Netto, Cristina Brinckmann Oliveira; Souza, Carolina Fischinger Moura de; Vieira, Tatiane Alves; Picon, Paulo Dornelles; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doederlein
    Introdução: Fenilcetonúria (PKU) é um erro inato do metabolismo no qual ocorre um aumento dos níveis séricos do aminoácido fenilalanina. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a adesão ao tratamento de pacientes com PKU atendidos em um centro de referência do Rio Grande do Sul. Métodos: Estudo transversal de pacientes com PKU atendidos no ambulatório do Serviço de Genética Médica do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os parâmetros de adesão considerados foram a mediana de fenilalanina plasmática no último ano (critério 1); o consumo de fenilalanina (critério 2); o consumo de fórmula metabólica (critério 3); e...

  14. O prêmio nobel de fisiologia e medicina de 2009 : o papel dos telômeros e da telomerase na manutenção dos cromossomos

    Jardim, Laura Bannach; Prolla, Patrícia Ashton; Maluf, Sharbel Weidner
    Resumo não disponível

  15. Different intensities of treadmill running exercise do not alter melatonin levels in rats

    Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues; Moysés, Felipe dos Santos; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; Elsner, Viviane Rostirolla; Farias, Christianne; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva
    Background: Regular and moderate exercise has been considered an interesting neuroprotective strategy. Our research group demonstrated that a protocol of moderate exercise on a treadmill reduced, while a protocol of high-intensity exercise increased in vitro ischemic cell damage in Wistar rats. The molecular mechanisms by which physical exercise exerts neuroprotective effects remain unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that exercise may have short- and long-term effects on melatonin secretion in humans. Melatonin, the main product of the pineal gland, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in models of brain and spinal cord injury and cerebral ischemia. A dual modulation of melatonin...

  16. Estimação da probabilidade de mutação germinativa através da história familiar

    Schneider, Silvana; Giacomazzi, Juliana; Prolla, Patrícia Ashton; Camey, Suzi Alves
    Introdução: Cerca de 10% de todos os tumores são primariamente causados por mutações germinativas de alta penetrância em genes de predisposição ao câncer. Indivíduos portadores dessas mutações têm risco significativamente maior de desenvolver câncer que não portadores e estratégias de redução de risco podem ser implementadas se estas pessoas forem identificadas. Essa identificação pode ser feita pela estimativa da probabilidade de mutação através da história pessoal e familiar do probando. Objetivo: Descrever um dos métodos utilizados para estimar a probabilidade de um indivíduo ser portador ou não de uma mutação germinativa em dois genes associados a uma determinada doença mendeliana,...

  17. Proprioceptive deficits in Parkinson’s disease : from clinical data to animal experimentation

    Santos, Letícia Ribeiro da Silva dos; Souza, Tadeu Mello e; Araujo, Lisiane Bizarro; Oliveira Junior, Alcyr Alves de
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the manifestation of akinesia, slowness to initiate movement, muscle rigidity, and tremors. However, recent evidence indicates that this pathology also causes alterations in proprioception. Disturbances in proprioceptive mechanisms directly affect postural control and the ability to calculate the velocity and amplitude of movement, suggesting that these alterations are related to the motor symptoms of PD. This article reviews the clinical data on these symptoms and presents evidence of a connection between proprioceptive deficits and the physiology of PD. The identification of proprioceptive impairments in different forms of Parkinsonism can provide valuable clues on the...

  18. Access to treatment for phenylketonuria by judicial means in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes the use of a metabolic formula which should be provided free of charge by the Unified Health System (SUS). This retrospective, observational study sought to characterize judicial channels to obtain PKU treatment in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. Lawsuits filed between 2001– 2010 and having as beneficiaries PKU patients requesting treatment for the disease were included. Of 20 lawsuits filed, corresponding to 16.8% of RS patients with PKU, 19 were retrieved for analysis. Of these, only two sought to obtain therapies other than metabolic formula. In all the other 17 cases, prior treatment requests...

  19. Access to treatment for phenylketonuria by judicial means in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) includes the use of a metabolic formula which should be provided free of charge by the Unified Health System (SUS). This retrospective, observational study sought to characterize judicial channels to obtain PKU treatment in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. Lawsuits filed between 2001– 2010 and having as beneficiaries PKU patients requesting treatment for the disease were included. Of 20 lawsuits filed, corresponding to 16.8% of RS patients with PKU, 19 were retrieved for analysis. Of these, only two sought to obtain therapies other than metabolic formula. In all the other 17 cases, prior treatment requests...

  20. The seed bank of subtropical grasslands withcontrasting land-use history in southern Brazil

    Vieira, Mariana de Souza; Bonilha, Camila Leal; Boldrini, Ilsi Iob; Overbeck, Gerhard Ernst
    The expansion of land use for agriculture is among the main reasons for the reduction of natural grasslands around the world, and little is known about the recovery potential of original native grassland vegetation from seed banks. The aim of this study was to assess the seed bank potential of grassland areas with or without history of cultivation in southern Brazil. Specifically, we aimed at evaluating if agricultural use allowed for the persistence of species typical of natural grasslands in soil seed banks. We analyzed seed banks in two areas with a history of cultivation and in two natural grasslands....

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