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Caltech Authors (160.010 recursos)

Repository of works by Caltech published authors.

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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 992

  1. Quantum efficiency enhancement by photon recycling with backscatter evasion

    Nagano, Koji; Perreca, Antonio; Arai, Koji; Adhikari, Rana X.
    The non-unity quantum efficiency (QE) in photodiodes (PD) causes deterioration of signal quality in quantum optical experiments due to photocurrent loss as well as the introduction of vacuum fluctuations into the measurement. In this article, we report that the QE enhancement of a PD was demonstrated by recycling the reflected photons. The effective external QE for an InGaAs PD was increased by 2-6% over a wide range of incident angles. Moreover, we confirmed that this technique does not increase backscattered light when the recycled beam is properly misaligned.

  2. Generalized surface codes and packing of logical qubits

    Delfosse, Nicolas; Iyer, Pavithran; Poulin, David
    We consider a notion of relative homology (and cohomology) for surfaces with two types of boundaries. Using this tool, we study a generalization of Kitaev's code based on surfaces with mixed boundaries. This construction includes both Bravyi and Kitaev's and Freedman and Meyer's extension of Kitaev's toric code. We argue that our generalization offers a denser storage of quantum information. In a planar architecture, we obtain a three-fold overhead reduction over the standard architecture consisting of a punctured square lattice.

  3. A linear-time benchmarking tool for generalized surface codes

    Delfosse, Nicolas; Iyer, Pavithran; Poulin, David
    Quantum information processors need to be protected against errors and faults. One of the most widely considered fault-tolerant architecture is based on surface codes. While the general principles of these codes are well understood and basic code properties such as minimum distance and rate are easy to characterize, a code's average performance depends on the detailed geometric layout of the qubits. To date, optimizing a surface code architecture and comparing different geometric layouts relies on costly numerical simulations. Here, we propose a benchmarking algorithm for simulating the performance of surface codes, and generalizations thereof, that runs in linear time. We implemented...

  4. Linear-Time Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Surface Codes over the Quantum Erasure Channel

    Delfosse, Nicolas; Zémor, Gilles
    Surface codes are among the best candidates to ensure the fault-tolerance of a quantum computer. In order to avoid the accumulation of errors during a computation, it is crucial to have at our disposal a fast decoding algorithm to quickly identify and correct errors as soon as they occur. We propose a linear-time maximum likelihood decoder for surface codes over the quantum erasure channel. This decoding algorithm for dealing with qubit loss is optimal both in terms of performance and speed.

  5. The quasiprobability behind the out-of-time-ordered correlator

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Swingle, Brian; Dressel, Justin
    Two topics, evolving rapidly in separate fields, were combined recently: The out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) signals quantum-information scrambling in many-body systems. The Kirkwood-Dirac (KD) quasiprobability represents operators in quantum optics. The OTOC was shown to equal a moment of a summed quasiprobability. That quasiprobability, we argue, is an extension of the KD distribution. We explore the quasiprobability's structure from experimental, numerical, and theoretical perspectives. First, we simplify and analyze Yunger Halpern's weak-measurement and interference protocols for measuring the OTOC and its quasiprobability. We decrease, exponentially in system size, the number of trials required to infer the OTOC from weak measurements. We also construct...

  6. Test for a large amount of entanglement, using few measurements

    Chao, Rui; Reichardt, Ben W.; Sutherland, Chris; Vidick, Thomas
    Bell-inequality violations establish that two systems share some quantum entanglement. We give a simple test to certify that two systems share an asymptotically large amount of entanglement, n EPR states. The test is efficient: unlike earlier tests that play many games, in sequence or in parallel, our test requires only one or two CHSH games. One system is directed to play a CHSH game on a random specified qubit i, and the other is told to play games on qubits {i,j}, without knowing which index is i. The test is robust: a success probability within delta of optimal guarantees distance O(n^{5/2} sqrt{delta})...

  7. Matrix Product Representation of Locality Preserving Unitaries

    Sahinoğlu, M. Burak; Shukla, Sujeet K.; Bi, Feng; Chen, Xie
    The matrix product representation provides a useful formalism to study not only entangled states, but also entangled operators in one dimension. In this paper, we focus on unitary transformations and show that matrix product operators that are unitary provides a necessary and sufficient representation of 1D unitaries that preserve locality. That is, we show that matrix product operators that are unitary are guaranteed to preserve locality by mapping local operators to local operators while at the same time all locality preserving unitaries can be represented in a matrix product way. Moreover, we show that the matrix product representation gives a straight-forward...

  8. Variational optimization algorithms for uniform matrix product states

    Zauner-Stauber, V.; Vanderstraeten, L.; Fishman, M. T.; Verstraete, F.; Haegeman, J.
    We combine the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) with Matrix Product State tangent space concepts to construct a variational algorithm for finding ground states of one dimensional quantum lattices in the thermodynamic limit. A careful comparison of this variational uniform Matrix Product State algorithm (VUMPS) with infinite Density Matrix Renormalization Group (IDMRG)and with infinite Time Evolving Block Decimation (ITEBD) reveals substantial gains in convergence speed and precision. We also demonstrate that VUMPS works very efficiently for Hamiltonians with long range interactions. The new algorithm can be conveniently implemented as an extension of an already existing DMRG implementation.

  9. Variational optimization algorithms for uniform matrix product states

    Zauner-Stauber, V.; Vanderstraeten, L.; Fishman, M. T.; Verstraete, F.; Haegeman, J.
    We combine the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) with Matrix Product State tangent space concepts to construct a variational algorithm for finding ground states of one dimensional quantum lattices in the thermodynamic limit. A careful comparison of this variational uniform Matrix Product State algorithm (VUMPS) with infinite Density Matrix Renormalization Group (IDMRG)and with infinite Time Evolving Block Decimation (ITEBD) reveals substantial gains in convergence speed and precision. We also demonstrate that VUMPS works very efficiently for Hamiltonians with long range interactions. The new algorithm can be conveniently implemented as an extension of an already existing DMRG implementation.

  10. Local Master Equation for Small Temperatures

    Mozgunov, Evgeny
    We present a local Master equation for open system dynamics in two forms:Markovian and non-Markovian. Both have a wider range of validity than the Lindblad equation investigated by Davies. For low temperatures, they do not require coupling to be exponentially weak in the system size. If the state remains a low bond dimension Matrix Product State throughout the evolution, the local equation can be simulated in time polynomial in system size.

  11. Area law in the exact solution of many-body localized systems

    Mozgunov, Evgeny
    Many-body localization was proven under realistic assumptions by constructing a quasi-local unitary rotation that diagonalizes the Hamiltonian (Imbrie, 2016). A natural generalization is to consider all unitaries that have a similar structure. We bound entanglement for states generated by such unitaries, thus providing an independent proof of area law in eigenstates of many-body localized systems. An error of approximating the unitary by a finite-depth local circuit is obtained. We connect the defined family of unitaries to other results about many-body localization (Kim et al, 2014), in particular Lieb-Robinson bound. Finally we argue that any Hamiltonian can be diagonalized by such a unitary, given...

  12. A study of second-order supersonic-flow theory

    Van Dyke, Milton D.
    Second-order solutions of supersonic-flow problems are sought by iteration, using the linearized solution as the first step. For plane and axially symmetric flows, particular solutions of the iteration equation are discovered which reduce the second-order problem to an equivalent linearized problem. Comparison of second-order solutions with exact and numerical results shows great improvement over linearized theory. For full three-dimensional flow, only a partial particular solution is found. The inclined cone is solved, and the possibility of treating more general problems is considered.

  13. Anyons are not energy eigenspaces of quantum double Hamiltonians

    Kómár, Anna; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier
    Kitaev's quantum double models, including the toric code, are canonical examples of quantum topological models on a 2D spin lattice. Their Hamiltonian defines the groundspace by imposing an energy penalty to any nontrivial flux or charge, but does not distinguish among those. We generalize this construction by introducing a novel family of Hamiltonians made of commuting four-body projectors that provide an intricate splitting of the Hilbert space by discriminating among non-trivial charges and fluxes. Our construction highlights that anyons are not in one-to-one correspondence with energy eigenspaces, a feature already present in Kitaev's construction. This discrepancy is due to the presence of...

  14. Anyons are not energy eigenspaces of quantum double Hamiltonians

    Kómár, Anna; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier
    Kitaev's quantum double models, including the toric code, are canonical examples of quantum topological models on a 2D spin lattice. Their Hamiltonian defines the groundspace by imposing an energy penalty to any nontrivial flux or charge, but does not distinguish among those. We generalize this construction by introducing a novel family of Hamiltonians made of commuting four-body projectors that provide an intricate splitting of the Hilbert space by discriminating among non-trivial charges and fluxes. Our construction highlights that anyons are not in one-to-one correspondence with energy eigenspaces, a feature already present in Kitaev's construction. This discrepancy is due to the presence of...

  15. Chaos, Complexity, and Random Matrices

    Cotler, Jordan; Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Yoshida, Beni
    Chaos and complexity entail an entropic and computational obstruction to describing a system, and thus are intrinsically difficult to characterize. In this paper, we consider time evolution by Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) Hamiltonians and analytically compute out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOCs) and frame potentials to quantify scrambling, Haar-randomness, and circuit complexity. While our random matrix analysis gives a qualitatively correct prediction of the late-time behavior of chaotic systems, we find unphysical behavior at early times including an $\mathcal{O}(1)$ scrambling time and the apparent breakdown of spatial and temporal locality. The salient feature of GUE Hamiltonians which gives us computational traction is the Haar-invariance...

  16. Chaos, Complexity, and Random Matrices

    Cotler, Jordan; Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Yoshida, Beni
    Chaos and complexity entail an entropic and computational obstruction to describing a system, and thus are intrinsically difficult to characterize. In this paper, we consider time evolution by Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) Hamiltonians and analytically compute out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOCs) and frame potentials to quantify scrambling, Haar-randomness, and circuit complexity. While our random matrix analysis gives a qualitatively correct prediction of the late-time behavior of chaotic systems, we find unphysical behavior at early times including an $\mathcal{O}(1)$ scrambling time and the apparent breakdown of spatial and temporal locality. The salient feature of GUE Hamiltonians which gives us computational traction is the Haar-invariance...

  17. Chaos, Complexity, and Random Matrices

    Cotler, Jordan; Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Yoshida, Beni
    Chaos and complexity entail an entropic and computational obstruction to describing a system, and thus are intrinsically difficult to characterize. In this paper, we consider time evolution by Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) Hamiltonians and analytically compute out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOCs) and frame potentials to quantify scrambling, Haar-randomness, and circuit complexity. While our random matrix analysis gives a qualitatively correct prediction of the late-time behavior of chaotic systems, we find unphysical behavior at early times including an O(1) scrambling time and the apparent breakdown of spatial and temporal locality. The salient feature of GUE Hamiltonians which gives us computational traction is...

  18. Fundamental work cost of quantum processes

    Faist, Philippe; Renner, Renato
    Information-theoretic approaches provide a promising avenue for extending the laws of thermodynamics to the nano scale. Here, we provide a general fundamental lower limit, valid for systems with an arbitrary Hamiltonian and in contact with any thermodynamic bath, on the work cost for the implementation of any logical process. This limit is given by a new information measure---the coherent relative entropy---which measures information relative to the Gibbs weight of each microstate. Our limit is derived using a general thermodynamic framework which ensures that our results hold as well in the context of other frameworks such as thermal operations. The coherent relative...

  19. Fundamental work cost of quantum processes

    Faist, Philippe; Renner, Renato
    Information-theoretic approaches provide a promising avenue for extending the laws of thermodynamics to the nano scale. Here, we provide a general fundamental lower limit, valid for systems with an arbitrary Hamiltonian and in contact with any thermodynamic bath, on the work cost for the implementation of any logical process. This limit is given by a new information measure---the coherent relative entropy---which measures information relative to the Gibbs weight of each microstate. Our limit is derived using a general thermodynamic framework which ensures that our results hold as well in the context of other frameworks such as thermal operations. The coherent relative...

  20. Quantum ground state isoperimetric inequalities for the energy spectrum of local Hamiltonians

    Crosson, Elizabeth; Bowen, John
    We investigate the relationship between the energy spectrum of a local Hamiltonian and the geometric properties of its ground state. By generalizing a standard framework from the analysis of Markov chains to arbitrary (non-stoquastic) Hamiltonians we are naturally led to see that the spectral gap can always be upper bounded by an isoperimetric ratio that depends only on the ground state probability distribution and the range of the terms in the Hamiltonian, but not on any other details of the interaction couplings. This means that for a given probability distribution the inequality constrains the spectral gap of any local Hamiltonian with this distribution...

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