Pittinsky, Todd L.; Hadley, Constance Noonan; Sommer, S. Amy
Based on literature and expert interviews, we developed the Crisis Leader Efficacy in Assessing and Deciding scale (C-LEAD) to capture the efficacy of leaders to assess information and make decisions in a public health and safety crisis. In Studies 1 and 2, we find that C-LEAD predicts decision-making difficulty and confidence in a crisis better than a measure of general leadership efficacy. In Study 3, C-LEAD predicts greater motivation to lead in a crisis, more crisis leader role-taking, and more accurate performance while in a crisis leader role. These findings support the scale’s construct validity and broaden our theoretical understanding...
Nye, Joseph S., Jr.
Foreign policy is usually over-determined. The “national interest” often appears to be an immutable dictation of the international system and of domestic politics. As Henry Kissinger put it when he was Secretary of State, “the essential outlines of U.S. policy will remain the same no matter who wins the U.S. Presidential election” (Wittkopf, 2003, 524). Yet sometimes, “reality” is more malleable than it first appears. Not so long ago, it seemed “unimaginable” that the Soviet Union would disappear and Germany would be peacefully reunited. As former National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft put it in 2003, the main divisions in foreign...
Pittinsky, Todd L.; Welle, Brian
Leadership is often viewed as a lonely endeavor, as this quote exemplifies. Leaders are frequently
perceived as standing “alone” at the top of the hierarchy. Drive and sustained commitment have been
linked to the attainment of leadership positions (McClelland & Boyatzis, 1982), findings that are
corroborated by the many public and private sector leaders who have described the years of intense
work, perseverance, and sacrifice that led to their success. Traveling the path to career success and leadership
positions can come at the expense of developing rewarding relationships with friends and family
(e.g., Hewlett, 2002).
Should Presidents obey the law? And how about governors, mayors, admirals, sergeants, members of
Congress, police officers, and various other public officials? To many people, the answer to the question
is obviously “Yes,” but perhaps things are not so clear.
Pittinsky, Todd L.; Shih, Margaret J.
Managers have formal and official supervisory authority within an organizational hierarchy. As a result, a perennial concern of managers is employee mobility, i.e., the turnover of workers, and the implication of worker mobility for the staffing of critical functions in the organization.
Koh, Howard K.; McCormack, Michael
Leadership in public health requires stretching the mind and soul in almost unimaginable ways. Living
the dynamic tension of health as “part individual good served by medicine and part public good secured
by public health activities” (Institute of Medicine, 2003a) represents a privilege and an awesome responsibility.
Upholding the health of others requires complementing a foundation in science with skills in
government, policy, media, economics, sociology, ethics and other dimensions. To survive and thrive,
public health leaders must practice the “tactics of the transcendent” (Parks, 2005).
Mannix, Elizabeth; Wageman, Ruth
Even within teams of peers, certain individuals have more power than others. Individual members may
have essential skills and experience, networks outside the team, or status within the organization that
give them more power than the average team member (French & Raven, 1959; Hollander, 1958). How
these powerholders use their power may vary from team to team. For example, consider a task force
whose purpose is to solve a problem in the organization’s ability to attract new members. One member
of the team is especially expert in member-engagement practices and root cause analysis, upon which the
team is dependent to complete its task well. This dependency...
Kang, Michael S,
Health care reform was the dominant issue on the political agenda during the early 1990s. Few issues
during the decade persisted on the public agenda for so long. Why did it resonate so loudly? And why did
it emerge then, from 1991 to 1994, rather than earlier or later? Did public opinion drive political leaders
to address health care reform, or did political leaders convince the public of health care reform’s importance?
Rosenthal, Seth A.
It is clear that a significant number of world leaders have rigidly grandiose belief systems and leadership
styles. Often, the authors who recount the “psychohistories” of these leaders connect both the leaders’
assent to power, and their ultimate (and seemingly inevitable) downfall, to their narcissistic grandiosity.
While not every author employs the term “narcissism” to describe the leader in question, across the board
they reliably depict individuals whose aspirations, judgments, and decisions, both good and bad, are driven
by unyielding arrogance and self-absorption. The pantheon of purportedly narcissistic leaders ranges
from the great tyrants of recent history including Hitler, Stalin, and Saddam Hussein (Glad, 2002), to
Burns, James MacGregor
On the morning of November 5, 1956, Democrats across America were in despair. Dwight Eisenhower
had done it again. His first victory, in 1952, had been understandable—memories of his military leadership
in World War II were still fresh. But after four years of his bumbling presidency, as the Democrats
saw it, Americans should have been turning back to the party of Roosevelt and Truman. But they didn’t.
Even worse, Ike had improved his 1952 margin over Adlai Stevenson, this time beating him by almost
ten million votes. How could this happen?
Howitt, Arnold M.; Leonard, Herman B.
As Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma successively lashed the Gulf Coast starting in late August 2005,
nature’s fury exposed serious weaknesses in the United States’s emergency response capabilities. These
problems were not simply the failure of particular places or leaders to be ready for disaster but rather an
indication of more fundamental issues. These must be addressed if the country is to be ready for serious
challenges that may lay ahead, whether severe natural disasters, outbreaks of emergent infectious disease,
or renewed terrorist attacks.
Benjamin, Jessica Sara; Gardner, Howard; Pettingill, Lindsay
It is hard to imagine a society functioning in the absence of trust. From the smallest incident—crossing
the street when the light is green—to the most consequential events—a government fulfilling its pledge
to pay Social Security—individuals must be able to rely on individuals and institutions to behave in a reliable
and trustworthy manner. When trust is absent, chaos ensues. Of course, trust should not be given
blindly; authentic trust needs to be earned and renewed (Fukuyama, 1995; Putnam, 2000).
Kramer, Roderick M.
Few concepts in the social sciences are invoked with the same ease or employed so readily to explain so
many social and institutional outcomes as power. The concept of power has been used to explain, for
example, how organizational resources are allocated (Pfeffer, 1992), how decisions are made (Neustadt,
1990), the control of attention (Fiske, 1993), behavioral disinhibition (Galinsky, Gruenfeld & Magee,
2003; Keltner, Gruenfeld & Anderson, 2003), and the resolution of conflict (Boulding, 1966, 1989), to
name just a few important processes and outcomes. The concept of power is routinely used, moreover,
not only to explain why such outcomes do happen, but also why they...
Greenstein, Fred I.
If one set out to design a democracy in which the personal qualities of the top leader could be expected to have an impact on political outcomes, the result might well resemble the political system of the United States. The separation of powers and the Constitutional provision for a president with autonomous powers such as the veto have enabled chief executives to place a personal stamp on the nation's policies since
the founding of the Republic; but until the1930s, Congress typically took the lead in policy making, and the activities of the federal government had little impact on the nation and...
On March 16, 2003, Rachel Corrie, a 23-year-old American college student from Olympia, Washington,
was crushed to death by an Israeli military bulldozer while attempting to prevent, with her own body, the
Israeli demolition of a Palestinian doctor’s home in the Occupied Territories. Photos of blond and petite
Corrie, taken during the incident by fellow twenty-something nonviolent activists in the “International
Solidarity Movement” (ISM), which Corrie had joined for her work in Palestine, showed her standing
high on a pile of dirt in front of the American-made Caterpillar bulldozer. A small figure in a fluorescent
jacket holding a bullhorn, she sat down momentarily to stop the...
Jensen, Michael C.
In the past few years, we have seen many fine companies end up in ruins and watched record numbers
of senior executives go to jail. And we will surely hear of more investigations, more prison
terms, and more damaged reputations. Shareholders and society have borne value destruction in the
hundreds of billions of dollars.
What went wrong? Were managers overtaken by a fit of greed? Did they wake up one morning and
decide to be crooks? No. Although there were some crooks in the system, the root cause of the problem
was not the people but the system in which they were operating—a system in which...
Andrews, Kenneth T.; Baggetta, Matthew; Ganz, Marshall; Han, Hahrie; Lim, Chaeyoon
For much of our history, civic associations have served as schools of democracy for the millions of
Americans to whom they taught leadership skills, democratic governance and public engagement. Civic
associations rooted in a membership to whom they are accountable, in governance by elected leaders, and
in a commitment to public advocacy not only make claims on public officials but teach the practice of
democracy itself by engaging citizens in working together on common goals. In fact, many have argued
that the recent trend replacing such associations with professional advocates and professional service
providers has eroded valuable civic infrastructure (Putnam, 2000; Skocpol, 2003). But not all...
Pittinsky, Todd L.; Zhu, Cheng
China’s economic and political importance has captured the world’s attention. China has become increasingly
integrated into the global economy. Between 2000 and 2003, it accounted for one-third of global
economic growth measured at purchasing-power parity, more than twice as much as the United States
(“Food for Thought,” 2004). Politically, China is the largest communist country in the world. As China
seeks to raise its international prestige by hosting the 2008 Olympic Games, social factors have also captured
the world’s attention: China’s status as the most populous country in the world, and its domestic
and international crises over democratization, legitimization, and corruption. For all these reasons, China
Sternberg, Robert J.
Leadership is essential to the successful functioning of virtually any organization. Scholars of leadership
attempt to understand what leads to success in leadership. Successful leaders need to do two things, among others. First, they need to have a story that followers can understand, accept, and, hopefully, support (see also Gardner, 1995). Second, they need to engage in complex processing that results in the creation, implementation, and monitoring of the story (see also Sternberg, 2003). The WICS model of leadership addresses both aspects of the leadership process. This model synthesizes many aspects of previous models. Thus it draws on much that is...
Bowles, Hannah Riley
It is hard to imagine a leadership situation that is devoid of conflict or even what the function of leadership would be on an island of perpetual harmony where all parties shared a perfectly common vision of their objectives and how to achieve them. Many of leadership’s most important challenges are born of conflict— to build coalitions among divergent interests, forge consensus from discord, and transform destructive disagreement into constructive debates (Burns, 1978; Gardner, 1990; Selznick, 1957). We easily
recognize effective leaders as expert negotiators as they confront and appeal to a multiplicity of interests to achieve their objectives (Lax &...