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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (76.127 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Engineering

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 627

  1. Characterization of Cyanophages on Cyanobacteria for Potential Control of Harmful Algal Blooms

    Ha, Chanhee
    Cyanobacteria are responsible for the toxins produced by Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) that pose extremely hazardous environmental risks to humans, wildlife and the ecosystem. Cyanophages act as viruses on host cyanobacteria and can deter or improve their growth through lysis or lysogenesis, depending on the factors the cyanophages carry; in turn, affecting the growth of HABs (Watkins, 2014). Whereas this general cyanophage-cyanobacteria relationship is understood, freshwater cyanobacteria has been less studied in comparison to its saltwater counterpart. These freshwater cyanobacteria must be studied as they remain prominent problems to clean drinking water and inland agriculture. Little information on detailed characteristics...

  2. Characterization of Cyanophages on Cyanobacteria for Potential Control of Harmful Algal Blooms

    Ha, Chanhee
    Cyanobacteria are responsible for the toxins produced by Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) that pose extremely hazardous environmental risks to humans, wildlife and the ecosystem. Cyanophages act as viruses on host cyanobacteria and can deter or improve their growth through lysis or lysogenesis, depending on the factors the cyanophages carry; in turn, affecting the growth of HABs (Watkins, 2014). Whereas this general cyanophage-cyanobacteria relationship is understood, freshwater cyanobacteria has been less studied in comparison to its saltwater counterpart. These freshwater cyanobacteria must be studied as they remain prominent problems to clean drinking water and inland agriculture. Little information on detailed characteristics...

  3. Converting Impulsive Kinetic Energy to DC Power for Self-Powered Microelectronics by Tunable, Nonlinear Vibration Energy Harvesters

    Park, Inhyuk
    Impulsive kinetic energies are abundant throughout natural and engineered environments including those energies due to human motion, pulsation of flow in pipes, vehicles driving over spanned bridges or speed bumps, and gusts of wind. Such impulsive energy is plentiful and collocated with many microelectronic systems that require small electrical power resources for their sustainment. As a result, researchers are investigating concepts of vibration energy harvesting using electromechanical oscillators that are sensitive to generate large electric energy conversion when excited by impulsive energy. Yet, a critical need exists to identify suitable energy harvesting systems that have high sensitivity to impulsive excitation...

  4. New Insights into Car-following Behavior on Freeways Based on High Resolution Vehicle Data

    Kong, Sili
    This research seeks to find a better understanding of how a given driver in congestion responds to the speed change of the vehicle ahead of them. This car-following behavior was studied based on a high-resolution data set collected by a probe vehicle on I-71 in Columbus, OH. This work used Matlab to analyze the speed-spacing relationship in the car-following regime and identify factors that may have impact on such relationship. Several factors were identified that appear to impact the speed-spacing relationship: time offset between the leader and follower, relative speed from adjacent lanes, and the rate of lane change maneuvers.

  5. Using Refined Least Square Image Matching to Improve 3D Reconstruction under Gaussian Blur and Motion Blur images

    Han, Xuyang
    Image matching, defined as the process of finding corresponding points across multiple images, is a critical step for accurate measurement of 3D objects. Least Square Image Matching (LSM), as a classic point matching method, is known for its high accuracy over the competing approaches (up to 1/10th of pixel-size). However, the major drawback of Least Square Image Matching is its high requirement on algorithm convergence, which demands good image texture and initial solution. In addition, it deals with reasonable image distortions, while being limited by occluded area where part of the area around the points is not visible in all...

  6. Analyzing Catalyst Deactivation with a Packed Bed Reactor

    Diep, Brian
    As the global demand for industrial and consumer products has increased in recent years, so too has the need for robust and high-performance catalysts to support this need. In particular, heterogeneous catalysts have proven to be versatile and economically feasible solutions to this problem. Organosilane catalysts have been studied for their ability to catalyze reactions that convert abundant biomolecular feedstocks such as cellulose and glucose to more valuable products used in the polymer, energy and fine chemical industries. However, one issue that these catalysts, like many others, encounter is catalyst deactivation, where the active sites on the catalyst support degrade...

  7. Design and Evaluation of Potential Cooling Cycles for the Reduction of Water Use in Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Davis, Rhys
    In the U.S., water for thermoelectric power plant cooling constitutes 40% of all freshwater withdrawal and 4% of all freshwater consumption. There are two main kinds of power plant cooling systems, once-through and recirculating, but environmental issues arise from both types, including excessive water consumption and ecological damage from high temperature return water. The purpose of this study is to identify effective while environmentally safe ways to reduce water use at power plants and determine the water savings and potential cost savings resulting from these methods. The strategy to reduce cooling water use that was employed in this study was...

  8. Development of an Integrated Platform for Modular Prototyping: the ‘Mod Duino’

    Flannery, Patrick
    One crucial portion of a design project involves the design and build of a prototype. Prototypes are advantageous because they help to reduce a project’s time and cost, identify and address problems early on in the design process, and increase user involvement by confirming a common vision among users and developers. These factors all contribute to delivering a better quality final product. Embedded electromechanical prototypes use programmed electronics and a mechanical device to perform a specific function. Microcontrollers are small computers on integrated circuits that are often used to control the electronics of these embedded prototypes. One set of problems...

  9. Development of an Integrated Platform for Modular Prototyping: the ‘Mod Duino’

    Flannery, Patrick
    One crucial portion of a design project involves the design and build of a prototype. Prototypes are advantageous because they help to reduce a project’s time and cost, identify and address problems early on in the design process, and increase user involvement by confirming a common vision among users and developers. These factors all contribute to delivering a better quality final product. Embedded electromechanical prototypes use programmed electronics and a mechanical device to perform a specific function. Microcontrollers are small computers on integrated circuits that are often used to control the electronics of these embedded prototypes. One set of problems...

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Non-Isothermal Gas-Assisted Injection Molding for Non-Newtonian Fluids

    Stanisauskis, Eugenia
    Gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM) is a process where a molten polymer is injected into a cooled mold cavity followed by an injection of gas, allowing the polymer to fill the cavity and form a hollow part as it cools and solidifies. Current GAIM simulations for non-isothermal Newtonian fluids can accurately predict the coating thickness of the polymer melt. However, no existing models predict the behavior of non-isothermal non-Newtonian fluids. The proposed simulations use known material and system properties and process variables such as mold temperature, melt temperature, and pressure, to calculate the temperature and velocity profiles to predict the coating...

  11. Techniques for Assistance in Streamline and Stream Surface Visualizations

    Vasko, Ross
    Flow fields provide a mathematical model of fluid flows and arise in various fields of science and engineering. Fluid flows are often visualized with streamlines and stream surfaces. A streamline is a curve that is tangent everywhere to the flow field and a stream surface is a surface that is tangent everywhere to the flow field. These geometric techniques can provide the user with a clear, intuitive visualization if applied effectively. Visualizations with either technique are not trivial to create. Streamline visualizations often suffer from sampling or occlusion issues while the construction of stream surfaces themselves is difficult and time...

  12. Creating Automation to Couple Laser Light from an Optical Fiber to a Photonic Integrated Circuit

    Maharry, Aaron
    Coupling light between fiber optic cables and photonic devices on silicon chips is important for optical communications. Recently, vertically bent cantilever couplers have been developed that have better bandwidth and lower power loss than grating couplers, which are the current standard for fiber-to-chip coupling. A system that can perform butt-coupling between optical fibers and cantilever couplers on an integrated silicon photonic device is reported here. This system is able to perform butt coupling using vision processing and measured coupled power as feedback, and requires minimal human assistance. This system can be extended to automatically collect measurements from multiple devices on...

  13. Development of Advanced 2D Membrane Materials for Shale Flowback Water Treatment

    Babayemi, Emmanuel
    A model of design is provided in order to determine the most effective processes to fabricate and test a 2D Membrane for its effectiveness in water desalination. Water desalination with a 2D Membrane has already shown great theoretical results due to its energy efficiency that results from the thinness of the membrane. The 2D Membrane to be used in the model of design is Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) due to its thickness of 3 atoms and Molybdenum’s hydrophilicity. The need for water desalination is important, especially with the increased salt concentration in saline water. Current desalination plants cannot currently filter saline...

  14. Development and Study of Hyperdamping Protective Material Systems for Shock Mitigation

    Saxena, Sansriti
    Helmets are used as personal protective equipment in a large variety of occupational and recreational activities. Despite the widespread use of helmets, concussions and traumatic brain injuries are still common due to ineffective diffusion and damping of the shock energies caused by impact events. Conventional foam liners for helmet designs require large quantities of stiff, deformable foam for shock absorption, increasing weight, and yet not providing adequate protection required to prevent head-related injuries. Hyperdamping materials are lightweight, elastomer materials able to absorb significant vibration and wave energy by harnessing principles from mechanics of beams for the material design. This research...

  15. Enhanced Butanol Production in Clostridium acetobutylicum Using Small Regulatory RNAs for Metabolic Engineering

    Yang, Hopen
    This project uses an RNA-based gene expression control system for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. The primary focus is enhancing production of n-butanol, a green alternative to fossil fuels. Butanol is an attractive alternative fuel with higher energy density than other biofuels, and can directly replace gasoline. To improve the production of butanol using Clostridium, a small RNA (sRNA) platform is utilized. RNA is useful as a genetic regulatory tool because it provides flexible expression tuning compared to the on/off DNA knockout method. sRNAs are used by bacteria for regulating gene expression, as they bind to protein-coding mRNA sequences. Through...

  16. Ventilation and Microbial Communities in LEED-Certified Buildings

    Platt, Quentin
    For over a decade and a half, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) has strived to improve building efficiency and indoor environmental quality around the world through its Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification program. Attempts to maximize energy efficiency in LEED-certification projects may be in conflict with indoor air quality with regards to microbial communities if building designs employ lower ventilation rates in order to reduce energy demand. However, the influence of LEED certification on indoor microbial communities is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects that LEED design principles have on indoor microbial communities. We collected carpet dust...

  17. The Role of Matrix Stiffness in the Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity

    Kaltenmark, Kathryn
    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes that enable cell-mediated remodeling of the tumor microenvironment. MMP levels have been found to be upregulated in almost all tumor types and have been shown to play a critical role in extracellular matrix remodeling, basement membrane penetration, and eventually, tumor metastasis. It has been shown that matrix stiffness increases with tumor progression, however, it has yet to be elucidated how mechanical cues from the microenvironment such as matrix stiffness work to regulate MMP activity and how this activity is spatially distributed. Recently, a mouse model has been developed which recapitulates the...

  18. Low Frequency Noise of Few Layer MoS2

    Cheng, Junao
    The study of 2D semiconductor materials has been proposed as one of the most promising candidates to resolve the problem of upcoming limit of CMOS fabrication technology in downscaling. We can further shrink the device channel length and gate thickness to atomic scales considering the thin layer properties of 2D semiconductors. The semiconducting material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted more attention for its possible application of into field-effect transistors (FETs) with its proper energy bandgap. This study therefore investigates the low frequency noise characteristics of the two-terminal few layer 6nm thick MoS2 device grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). We...

  19. Wing Structure Design for Flexible Delta-Type Wings at Low Speeds

    Buchhop, Kegan
    Aerial reconnaissance plays a key role in gathering intelligence for the military. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have proven that they can fulfill this role in a cost-effective manner. Furthermore, high-altitude UAVs fill this need well because they do not interfere with commercial air traffic. However, the effectiveness of these UAVs is subject to their range, endurance, and ease of deployment. High-altitude UAVs have an enhanced challenge of weight savings because there is less lift available at higher altitudes as air is less dense. Efforts to save weight for this class of UAV have proven catastrophic because they are designed for...

  20. Development of a Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) Mimetic to Study Breast-Brain Metastasis

    Tan, Zheng Hong
    Cancer metastasis is a highly complex process that causes 90% of all solid tumor deaths. With recent advances in diagnostic modalities and treatment options, the occurrence of brain metastasis has been rising over the last decade. Since many therapeutics are unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), a protective layer separating the vascular system and the brain, brain metastases are notoriously difficult to treat. In certain types of cancer, tumor cells can invade the brain by crossing the BBB from the circulatory system through a process known as extravasation. Brain metastasis in breast cancer leads to poor prognosis with...

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