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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (75.275 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Engineering

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 616

  1. Creating Automation to Couple Laser Light from an Optical Fiber to a Photonic Integrated Circuit

    Maharry, Aaron
    Coupling light between fiber optic cables and photonic devices on silicon chips is important for optical communications. Recently, vertically bent cantilever couplers have been developed that have better bandwidth and lower power loss than grating couplers, which are the current standard for fiber-to-chip coupling. A system that can perform butt-coupling between optical fibers and cantilever couplers on an integrated silicon photonic device is reported here. This system is able to perform butt coupling using vision processing and measured coupled power as feedback, and requires minimal human assistance. This system can be extended to automatically collect measurements from multiple devices on...

  2. Development of Advanced 2D Membrane Materials for Shale Flowback Water Treatment

    Babayemi, Emmanuel
    A model of design is provided in order to determine the most effective processes to fabricate and test a 2D Membrane for its effectiveness in water desalination. Water desalination with a 2D Membrane has already shown great theoretical results due to its energy efficiency that results from the thinness of the membrane. The 2D Membrane to be used in the model of design is Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) due to its thickness of 3 atoms and Molybdenum’s hydrophilicity. The need for water desalination is important, especially with the increased salt concentration in saline water. Current desalination plants cannot currently filter saline...

  3. Development and Study of Hyperdamping Protective Material Systems for Shock Mitigation

    Saxena, Sansriti
    Helmets are used as personal protective equipment in a large variety of occupational and recreational activities. Despite the widespread use of helmets, concussions and traumatic brain injuries are still common due to ineffective diffusion and damping of the shock energies caused by impact events. Conventional foam liners for helmet designs require large quantities of stiff, deformable foam for shock absorption, increasing weight, and yet not providing adequate protection required to prevent head-related injuries. Hyperdamping materials are lightweight, elastomer materials able to absorb significant vibration and wave energy by harnessing principles from mechanics of beams for the material design. This research...

  4. Enhanced Butanol Production in Clostridium acetobutylicum Using Small Regulatory RNAs for Metabolic Engineering

    Yang, Hopen
    This project uses an RNA-based gene expression control system for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. The primary focus is enhancing production of n-butanol, a green alternative to fossil fuels. Butanol is an attractive alternative fuel with higher energy density than other biofuels, and can directly replace gasoline. To improve the production of butanol using Clostridium, a small RNA (sRNA) platform is utilized. RNA is useful as a genetic regulatory tool because it provides flexible expression tuning compared to the on/off DNA knockout method. sRNAs are used by bacteria for regulating gene expression, as they bind to protein-coding mRNA sequences. Through...

  5. Ventilation and Microbial Communities in LEED-Certified Buildings

    Platt, Quentin
    For over a decade and a half, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) has strived to improve building efficiency and indoor environmental quality around the world through its Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification program. Attempts to maximize energy efficiency in LEED-certification projects may be in conflict with indoor air quality with regards to microbial communities if building designs employ lower ventilation rates in order to reduce energy demand. However, the influence of LEED certification on indoor microbial communities is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects that LEED design principles have on indoor microbial communities. We collected carpet dust...

  6. The Role of Matrix Stiffness in the Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity

    Kaltenmark, Kathryn
    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes that enable cell-mediated remodeling of the tumor microenvironment. MMP levels have been found to be upregulated in almost all tumor types and have been shown to play a critical role in extracellular matrix remodeling, basement membrane penetration, and eventually, tumor metastasis. It has been shown that matrix stiffness increases with tumor progression, however, it has yet to be elucidated how mechanical cues from the microenvironment such as matrix stiffness work to regulate MMP activity and how this activity is spatially distributed. Recently, a mouse model has been developed which recapitulates the...

  7. Low Frequency Noise of Few Layer MoS2

    Cheng, Junao
    The study of 2D semiconductor materials has been proposed as one of the most promising candidates to resolve the problem of upcoming limit of CMOS fabrication technology in downscaling. We can further shrink the device channel length and gate thickness to atomic scales considering the thin layer properties of 2D semiconductors. The semiconducting material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted more attention for its possible application of into field-effect transistors (FETs) with its proper energy bandgap. This study therefore investigates the low frequency noise characteristics of the two-terminal few layer 6nm thick MoS2 device grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). We...

  8. Wing Structure Design for Flexible Delta-Type Wings at Low Speeds

    Buchhop, Kegan
    Aerial reconnaissance plays a key role in gathering intelligence for the military. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have proven that they can fulfill this role in a cost-effective manner. Furthermore, high-altitude UAVs fill this need well because they do not interfere with commercial air traffic. However, the effectiveness of these UAVs is subject to their range, endurance, and ease of deployment. High-altitude UAVs have an enhanced challenge of weight savings because there is less lift available at higher altitudes as air is less dense. Efforts to save weight for this class of UAV have proven catastrophic because they are designed for...

  9. Development of a Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) Mimetic to Study Breast-Brain Metastasis

    Tan, Zheng Hong
    Cancer metastasis is a highly complex process that causes 90% of all solid tumor deaths. With recent advances in diagnostic modalities and treatment options, the occurrence of brain metastasis has been rising over the last decade. Since many therapeutics are unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), a protective layer separating the vascular system and the brain, brain metastases are notoriously difficult to treat. In certain types of cancer, tumor cells can invade the brain by crossing the BBB from the circulatory system through a process known as extravasation. Brain metastasis in breast cancer leads to poor prognosis with...

  10. Effects of Compressive Stress on Glioblastoma Cells

    Elliott, Eileen
    The application of engineering principles and technologies to biological systems has enabled the advent of new healthcare strategies. This research is focused on understanding the effects of compression on the migration of brain tumor cells in vitro and to understand the molecular underpinnings regarding this change. Compression in the brain arises as a result of the barrier formed by the cranium. As intracranial pressure increases, because of head injury or tumor growth, compression will increase. Untreated compression in the brain can lead to the destruction of brain tissue and even death. Previous studies have shown that increasing compression on breast cancer...

  11. Replicability of Classification Procedures for Gene Expression Data

    Gupta, Dinank
    Pattern classification is a branch of statistics and machine learning that uses labeled samples to predict information about unlabeled ones. A common application of this theory in medicine is to classify cancer patients into subtypes based on the patterns of their gene expression profiles. What determines the validity of the procedure is not whether one can find these patterns in observed data, but whether these patterns generalize to unobserved data from the same population. In this regard, the error of the classification rule over the population determines its validity and a key issue is how to estimate it. In small...

  12. Analysis, Simulation, and Control of Blindfolded Walking

    Yang, Kaiwen
    People can walk fairly straight with their vision because vision provides the sensory feedback needed to control our movement direction robustly. However, without vision, for instance, when people are blindfolded, they cannot in general walk straight even if they think they can. No quantitatively accurate theory has been able to explain why individuals perform blindfolded walking so differently and explain the heading angle deviation in the blindfolded walking and what causes people not to be able to walk with a solid heading angle without using their eyes. In this research, we use human subject experiments to explore how physical asymmetries...

  13. Nanoscale Characterization of Bone Tissue under a Precise Displacement Control Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Zhang, Zhi
    The bone is an indispensable structure in the skeletal system of the human body that provides a mechanical function to bear various loadings. In a healthy person or animal, bone remodels its composition and arrangement of the constituent materials to adapt to changing functional demands continuously throughout life [1]. However, the mechanism of how the force input to the bone is transduced to be involved in the physiological bone buildup process has not been clearly understood. In order to uncover the mechanism, this project aims to investigate the changes in the morphology and properties of bone in response to an...

  14. Optimizing Hyperdamping Materials for Enhancing Vibration Control and Shock Attenuation Properties

    Song, Yu
    To reduce unwanted mechanical vibrations in automotive, aerospace, and civil engineering fields, recent research has investigated periodic metamaterials having especially architected topologies. Yet, these solutions employ heavy materials and narrowband, resonant phenomena which are unsuitable for the many applications where broadband frequency vibration energy is a concern and weight is a performance penalty. To overcome these limitations, a new idea for hyperdamping materials is recently being explored, such that improved vibration damping is achieved without the drawbacks of the conventional periodic metamaterials. On the other hand, optimized designs of hyperdamping materials have not been determined which suggests that best practices...

  15. Exploring Oxygen Delivery Strategies for Oxidative Coupling of Methane

    Jindra, Michael
    A myriad of metal oxide catalysts have been explored for upgrading methane into higher hydrocarbons in a process called oxidative coupling of methane (OCM). Because of the ramifications of utilizing methane as a chemical feedstock, efforts to optimize the reactor design and catalyst for OCM process have been ongoing since 1980. Catalytic oxygen carriers (COCs) used for cycling oxygen to the reactant gas in OCM reaction processes have shown distinct advantages over cofeeding reaction schemes. Manganese based COCs have exhibited multiple oxidation states that function in the cyclic reduction oxidation reactions of OCM. This study aims to elucidate the different forms...

  16. Energy Storage Applications of Ionic Redox Transistor Membranes

    Marino, Chris
    Electric vehicles in recent years have offered a cleaner alternative to internal combustion engines (ICE’s), but the lithium-ion batteries which power them currently lack the high energy density that gasoline provides. Modern battery architectures like redox flow batteries have achieved higher energy densities than conventional Li-ion batteries, but struggle with capacity fade due to self-discharge across the microporous membranes used to separate the anodic and cathodic cells of the battery. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the use of an ionic redox transistor membrane, which assumes the function of the standard, porous membrane, and verify its ability to...

  17. Design of an Experimentally Simulated Moving Bed Reactor for Oxidative Coupling of Methane

    Drees, William
    With the recent increase in natural gas production, methane has become an increasingly attractive compound with which to upgrade to higher value products such as ethylene. One method of great interest, the oxidative coupling of methane, has been prevented from commercialization by low yield caused mainly by reaction of intermediates and products with gas phase oxygen. This makes a chemical looping reaction scheme very attractive because in this scheme, oxygen is delivered via the lattice oxygen on a catalytic oxygen carrier (COC) eliminating gas phase oxygen contact with any hydrocarbon species. In a chemical looping scheme, a moving bed reducer...

  18. Experimental Investigations of Microchannel Cooling within a Nozzle Guide Vane Trailing Edge Configuration

    Walsh, James
    Improving component cooling to sustain higher gas turbine inlet temperatures is a widely-studied subject to improve engine efficiency. From advances in additive manufacturing technology, the use of microchannel cooling is possible within turbine components and appears advantageous due to significant heat transfer benefit within a small packaging and the ability to provide targeted cooling [1]. Although microchannel usage at relevant engine conditions has been characterized in prior research [16,18], application into a trailing edge geometry and direct comparison to current trailing edge cooling technologies has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat transfer...

  19. Selective Conversion of Glucose to Fructose with Immobilized Tertiary Amines

    Pattanaik, Lagnajit
    Increasing global energy demands necessitate research in alternative sources of energy such as biomass. Sustainable biomass conversion strategies require high yields for the isomerization reaction of glucose to fructose. The key challenge for this reaction is achieving high selectivity towards fructose using inexpensive catalytic materials. Previous studies have achieved 32% fructose yields using tin-containing catalysts (Sn-BEA zeolite) and homogeneous organic bases (triethylamine), but these catalysts are either expensive to synthesize or require energy-intensive downstream separation processes. By functionalizing a mesoporous silica material with a triethylamine analogue, we combined aspects of these studies to create an improved heterogeneous catalyst to convert...

  20. Engineering Out Systematic Oppression: Disenfranchisement, Discrimination, and Solutions for Election Systems

    Lawson, Jeremiah
    This comparative analysis reviews literature from the perspective of legal, sociological, political and engineering disciplines. The interdisciplinary approach allows for a holistic examination of what problems persist in commissioning of elections. In many cases, practical engineering considerations are forced to defer to legal precedent. I blend both historical and contemporary issues regarding elections and democracy in the United States, and I trace the failures of the election system to achieve full enfranchisement. I discuss these legal battles in the context of maintaining secure elections. I review technological aspects of elections and various election systems. A newly developed tool, the Perspective On...

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