
Santos Hernández, Sergio; Barcons Xixons, Víctor; Verdaguer, Albert; Chiesa, Matteo
In ambient conditions, nanometric water layers form on hydrophilicsurfaces covering them and significantly changing their properties and characteristics. Here we report the excitation of subharmonics in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy induced by intermittent water contacts. Our simulations show that there are several regimes of operation depending on whether there is perturbation of water layers. Single period orbitals, where subharmonics are never induced, follow only when the tip is either in permanent contact with the water layers or in pure noncontact where the water layers are never perturbed. When the water layers are perturbed subharmonic excitation increases with decreasing oscillation...

Palà Schönwälder, Pere; Bonet Dalmau, Jordi; López Riera, Alexis; Moncunill Geniz, Francesc Xavier; Águila López, Francisco del; Giralt Mas, Ma. Rosa
In this paper we investigate the possibilities of narrowband FSK detection using a superregenerative (SR) receiver. Previous SR FM demodulation techniques rely on detecting the amplitude variations caused by the different frequencies involved in FSK modulation. However, this requires relatively high frequency deviations because the frequency response of SR receivers is not very selective. In this paper we take a different approach, exploiting the distinct phase trajectories of FSK modulations resulting from the transmitted data. The wellknown fact that the SR oscillator response preserves the phase information of the received signal is successfully exploited to allow the detection of several...

Cembrano Gennari, Gabriela; Wells, G; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Pérez Magrané, Ramon; Argelaguet Isanta, María Rosa
This paper deals with the use of optimal control techniques in water distribution networks. An optimal control tool, developed in
the context of a European research project is described and the application to the city of Sintra (Portugal) is presented.

Joan Arinyo, Robert; Tarres Puertas, Marta Isabel; Vila Marta, Sebastià
In geometric constraint solving, Decomposition Recombination solvers (DRsolvers) refer to a general solving approach where the problem is divided into a set of subproblems, each subproblem is recursively divided until reaching basic problems which are solved by a dedicated equational solver. Then the solution to the starting problem is computed by merging the solutions to the subproblems.; Triangle or treedecomposition is one of the most widely used approaches in the decomposition step in DRsolvers. It may be seen as decomposing a graph into three subgraphs such that subgraphs pairwise share one graph vertex. Shared vertices are called hinges. Then a...

Palà Schönwälder, Pere; Bonet Dalmau, Jordi; Moncunill Geniz, Francesc Xavier; Águila López, Francisco del; Giralt Mas, Ma. Rosa
This brief describes a superregenerative (SR) voltagecontrolled oscillator as a building block for SR receivers where most of the oscillator spectrum components are outside the reception frequency band. This allows overcoming one of the main drawbacks of SR receivers, i.e., the potential interference to nearby receivers operating at the same frequency due to oscillator reradiation. We perform a qualitative analysis of the solution of the circuit equations, describe the most relevant parameters for design, and provide some numerical simulation results. Experimental results on a proofofconcept implementation validating the described principle and a discussion of the observed behavior are provided.

Águila López, Francisco del; Ametller Congost, Lluís; Talavera Sánchez, Pedro
We discuss forwardbackward charge asymmetries for leptonpair production in association with a largetransversemomentum jet at hadron colliders. The lepton charge asymmetry relative to the jet direction AjFB gives a new determination of the effective weak mixing angle sin2lept
eff M2 Z with a statistical precision after cuts of 10 3 (8 10 3) at LHC (Tevatron). This is to be compared with the current uncertainty at LEP and SLD from the asymmetries alone, 2 10 4. The identification of b jets
also allows for the measurement of the bottomquark–Z asymmetry AbFB at hadron colliders, the resulting statistical precision for sin2lept eff M2
Z...

Escobet Canal, Antoni; Nebot Castells, M. Àngela; Múgica Álvarez, Francisco
In this work, a fault diagnosis methodology termed VisualBlockFuzzy Inductive Reasoning, i.e. VisualBlockFIR, based on fuzzy and pattern recognition approaches is presented and applied to PEM fuel cell power systems. The innovation of this methodology is based on the hybridization of an artificial intelligence methodology that combines fuzzy approaches with well known pattern recognition techniques. To illustrate the potentiality of VisualBlockFIR, a nonlinear fuel cell simulator that has been proposed in the literature is employed. This simulator includes a set of five fault scenarios with some of the most frequent faults in fuel cell systems. The fault detection and identification...

Santos Hernández, Sergio
In amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy the attractive and the repulsive force regimes induce phase shifts above and below 90°, respectively. In the more recent multifrequency approach, however, multiple operation regimes have been reported and the theory should be revisited. Here, a theory of phase contrast in multifrequency atomic force microscopy is developed and discussed in terms of energy transfer between modes, energy dissipation and the kinetic energy and energy transfer associated with externally driven harmonics. The single frequency virial that controls the phase shift might undergo transitions in sign while the average force (modal virial) remains positive (negative). ©...

Santos Hernández, Sergio; Barcons Xixons, Víctor; Font Teixidó, Josep; Verdaguer Prats, Albert
In dynamic atomic force microscopy, nanoscale properties are encoded in the higher harmonics. Nevertheless, when gentle interactions and minimal invasiveness are required, these harmonics are typically undetectable. Here, we propose to externally drive an arbitrary number of exact higher harmonics above the noise level. In this way, multiple contrast channels that are sensitive to compositional variations are made accessible. Numerical integration of the equation of motion shows that the external introduction of exact harmonic frequencies does not compromise the fundamental frequency. Thermal fluctuations are also considered within the detection bandwidth of interest and discussed in terms of higherharmonic phase contrast...

Palà Schönwälder, Pere; Bonet Dalmau, Jordi; Moncunill Geniz, Francesc Xavier; Águila López, Francisco del; Giralt Mas, Ma. Rosa
In this paper we present a description and experimental verification of a superregenerative receiver (SR) for QPSK signals. Exploiting the fact that a conventional SR generates pulses which preserve the input phase information, we take $N$ 1bit samples of each generated pulse. A suitable choice of the sampling frequency gives as a result a bit vector containing a subsampled version of each PSK pulse. Extremely simple digital processing of the vectors from two consecutive pulses allows symbol decision, together with information on signal quality and frequency displacements. Although presented for the QPSK case, the principle may be applied to the...

Santos Hernández, Sergio
Here, we introduce bimodal atomic force microscopy operated with subnm and ultrasmall, i.e., subangstrom, first and second mode amplitudes in ambient conditions. We show how the tip can be made to oscillate in the proximity of the surface and in perpetual contact with the adsorbed water layers while the second mode amplitude and phase provide enhanced contrast and sensitivity.
Nonlinear and nonmonotonic behavior of the experimental observables is discussed theoretically with a view to high resolution, enhanced contrast, and minimally invasive mapping. Fractions of meV of energy dissipation are shown to provide contrast above the noise level.

Palacios Quiñonero, Francisco; Vicente Rodrigo, Jesús; Molina Hernández, M. Antonia; Karimi, Hamid Reza
We present an advanced design methodology for pulsewidthmodulated (PWM) DCAC signal generation. Using design methods
based on the Walsh transform, AC sinusoidal signals can be approximated by suitable PWM signals. For different AC amplitudes,
the switching instants of the PWM signals can be efficiently computed by using appropriate systems of explicit linear equations.
However, the equation systems provided by conventional implementations of this approach are typically only valid for a restricted
interval of AC amplitudes and, in general, a supervised implementation of several equation systems is necessary to cover the full AC
amplitude range. Additionally, obtaining suitable equation systems for designs with a large number...

Santos Hernández, Sergio; Barcons Xixons, Víctor; Christenson, Hugo K.; Billingsley, Daniel J.; Bonass, William A.; Font Teixidó, Josep; Thomson, Neil H.
A way to operate fundamental mode amplitude
modulation atomic force microscopy is
introduced which optimizes stability and resolution for a given tip size and shows negligible tip
wear over extended time periods (
24 h). In small amplitude smal
l setpoint (SASS) imaging,
the cantilever oscillates with subnanometer am
plitudes in the proximity of the sample, without
the requirement of using large drive forces, a
s the dynamics smoothly lead the tip to the surface
through the water layer. SASS is demonstrat
ed on single molecules of doublestranded DNA in
ambient conditions where sharp silicon tips (R
2–5 nm) can resolve the righthanded double
helix

Rodriguez, Ginesta; Dorado Castaño, Antonio David; Bonsfills Pedrós, Anna; Sanahuja Moliner, Ricard; Gabriel, David; Gamisans Noguera, Javier

Santos Hernández, Sergio; Phillips, M.A.; Verdaguer, Albert; Font Teixidó, Josep; Chiesa, Matteo; Gadelrab,, K.; Stefancich, M.; Armstrong, P.; Li, G.; Souier, T.; Thomson, Neil H.; Barcons Xixons, Víctor
Multifrequency atomic force microscopy holds promise as a method to provide qualitative and quantitative information about samples with high spatial resolution. Here, we provide experimental evidence of the excitation of subharmonics in ambient conditions in the regions where capillary interactions are predicted to be the mechanism of excitation. We also
experimentally decouple a second mechanism for subharmonic excitation that is highly
independent of environmental conditions such as relative humidity. This implies that material properties could be mapped. Subharmonic excitation could lead to experimental determination of surface water affinity in the nanoscale whenever water interactions are the mechanism of excitation.

Santos Hernández, Sergio; Gadelrab,, K.; Barcons Xixons, Víctor; Stefancich, M.; Chiesa, Matteo
A formalism to extract and quantify unknown quantities such as
sample deformation, the viscosity of the sample and surface energy hysteresis
in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is presented. Recovering
the unknowns only requires the cantilever to be accurately calibrated and the
dissipative processes occurring during sample deformation to be well modeled.
The theory is validated by comparison with numerical simulations and shown
to be able to provide, in principle, values of sample deformation with picometer
resolution.

Font Teixidó, Josep; Santos Hernández, Sergio; Barcons Xixons, Víctor; Thomson, Neil H.; Verdaguer, Albert; Chiesa, Matteo
In dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) the cantilever is vibrated and its dynamics
are monitored to probe the sample with nanoscale and atomic resolution. Amplitude and
frequency modulation (AM and FM) atomic force microscopy have established
themselves as the most powerful, robust and reliable techniques in the field.
Nevertheless, it is still debatable whether one or the other technique is preferred in a
given medium or experiment. Here, we quantitatively establish the limitations in
resolution of one and the other technique by introducing the concept of space horizon
SH and quantifying it. The SH is the limiting space boundary beyond which collective
atomic interactions do not affect the...

Moncunill Geniz, Francesc Xavier; Bonet Dalmau, Jordi; Palà Schönwälder, Pere; Águila López, Francisco del; Giralt Mas, Ma. Rosa
We present a simple receiver front end that makes use of the baseband superregeneration principle to detect ultrawideband (UWB) impulse radio signals. The UWB antenna is directly connected to the core circuit consisting of a resistorcapacitor (RC) network coupled to a negative resistance that varies under the control of an external quench generator. Due to a steprecoverydiode quench shaper, 50ps timedomain sensitivity windows are generated that filter the received pulses and reject noise and interference. The circuit achieves high gain, exhibits automatic gain control, and directly demodulates binary phase modulations.

Santos Hernández, Sergio; Barcons Xixons, Víctor; Christenson, Hugo K.; Font Teixidó, Josep; Thomson, Neil H.
Peer Reviewed

Santos Hernández, Sergio; Barcons Xixons, Víctor; Verdaguer, Albert; Font Teixidó, Josep; Thomson, Neil H.; Chiesa, Mateo
We describe fundamental energy dissipation in dynamic nanoscale processes in terms of the localization of the interactions. In this respect, the areal density of the energy dissipated and the effective area of interaction in which each process occurs are calculated for four elementary dissipative processes. It is the ratio between these two, which we term M that provides information about how localized the interactions are. We show that neither the phase lag, nor the magnitude of the energy dissipated alone provide information about energy localization but M has to be considered instead.