Recursos de colección

The KnowledgeBank at OSU (80.287 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 333

  1. Behavioral differences between populations of an African cichlid fish from divergent habitats

    Episcopo, Nicole
    With all of the different environmental shifts occurring in ecosystems across the globe due to anthropogenic activities, it is not hard to imagine that in order for a species to survive, it needs to adjust its phenotypic traits. In aquatic systems, a number of environmental changes are known to affect the survival of fish, including low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia) and increased suspended sediments (turbidity). Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor is a species of African cichlid fish that is widespread across East Africa and is found in a range of habitats that vary in dissolved oxygen (DO) and turbidity level. My study tested the...

  2. Factors Influencing Preservice Teachers' Decisions to Major in Agriscience Education

    Landis, Sarah
    The purpose of the study was to acquire information that could assist the Department of Agricultural Communication, Education, and Leadership in developing materials and targeting audiences to assist in addressing the shortage of agricultural science teachers across Ohio. The objective was to describe factors influencing students to choose Agriscience Education as a major in college. In this study, a census (N = 19) of the students participating in the 2017 Preservice Teacher Professional Block Program at The Ohio State University completed a questionnaire describing factors influencing their decision to choose Agriscience Education as a college major. The research questionnaire was...

  3. Assessment of Smallholder Urban and Peri-Urban Dairy Production with Zero-Grazing Practices in Kampala, Uganda

    Klass, Taylor
    Many people in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda, own a few dairy cows to provide milk and income for their family. Most of these dairy farmers feed their cows with a system called zero-grazing, where the cows are confined and feed is carried to the cows. This research project evaluated the smallholder dairy system in urban and peri-urban Kampala, Uganda. Several research studies have previously been conducted on specific parts of smallholder, non-grazing dairy farms in Africa. However, this project was unique in the fact that it focused on the urban, smallholder dairy farming system as a whole. The...

  4. Storage stability and color characteristics of acylated and non-acylated anthocyanins in fish and beef gelatin gel system

    Khairuddin, Siti Fatimah
    Gummies are well-known confectionaries usually dyed with artificial colorants. However, some health concerns about artificial colorants have pushed the industry to produce gummies with naturally derived colors. Anthocyanins are pigments in vegetables and fruits, giving colors from red to purple and blue depending on pH. The source of gelatin is a concern in Jewish and Muslim communities since gelatin usually made by pork. Our objective was to determine the color characteristics and pigment stability of anthocyanins in gummies made by beef and fish gelatin. Gummies were prepared from beef (BG) and fish gelatin (FG) using published formulations with slight modifications,...

  5. Effects of Methane Inhibition and BCVFA Supplementation on Production of Fatty Acids in Continuous Culture Fermenters

    Hernandez Rosado, Vianca
    Ruminants, such as cows, use microorganisms to digest fiber in order to absorb nutrients. As the microbes digest fiber they create H2 which the methanogens (a type of archaea) use to make methane. Methane produced by ruminants is not only a source of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, about 3% of the total methane produced, but also is potentially wasted metabolizable energy. There is current research on the relationship of methane inhibition in bacteria, suggesting the movement of aqueous hydrogen (hydrogen has been proven to increase with methane inhibition) helps in the production of longer chain fatty acids, such as...

  6. How Does the Presence of a Live Animal Affect the Millennial Generation's Attitudes towards Zoos and Species Conservation?

    Sommers, Lauren E.
    Zoos and aquariums have unique opportunities to educate the public utilizing human-animal interactions. Many zoos claim success in educating their audiences and inspiring pro-conservation outcomes, but little research exists to confirm this. Existing research focuses on family members and assesses knowledge gained and attitudes of participants depending on variables such as animal observability, animal behaviors, or presences of zoo educators. This study begins to fill these literature gaps, focusing on the millennial generation and measuring participants’ support of conservation and zoos financially and via social media in addition to attitudes and knowledge. Participants were recruited randomly through posted flyers advertising...

  7. Development and characterization of processed, high-lipid piglet formula enriched with phospholipids and evaluation of its protein digestibility post-heat treatment

    Lu, Megan
    Homogenization and heat-treatment of piglet formula could providers researchers who artificially rear neonatal pigs an efficiency, less added variability, and more flexibility in their studies. But the processing of piglet formula must be validated, as homogenization and heat-treatment both affect the surface load of the milk fat globule membrane(MFGM), a natural emulsifying agent in dairy products. It is hypothesized that heat-treatment of a high-lipid (8% w/v), homogenized piglet formula will have reduced digestibility in the piglet due to accumulated adsorption of whey protein on the MFGM surface that limits protease access to cleavage sites. Piglet formula was developed to mimic...

  8. Consumer acceptability of blueberry confections formulated with blueberry extract and lyophilized whole blueberry powder

    Orwig, Haley
    Functional food products (FFP) have been shown to enhance overall health and aid in disease prevention. FF'’s, aside from delivering the intended health benefit, need to be sensory acceptable so that they are regularly consumed. Confections make excellent FFPs and delivery vehicles for bioactives due to their high consumer compliance, and their ability to deliver a consistent composition of phytochemicals even after processing and storage. Blueberries contain polyphenols, primarily anthocyanins, which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and other health benefits. However, most of the pre-clinical evidence regarding the health benefits of blueberries have been seen using a phytochemical-rich...

  9. Effects of cadmium soil contamination on pollination services

    McLaughlin, Rachel
    Urban agriculture has grown in popularity across many cities throughout the world. Many of these cities have industrial pasts, resulting in soils contaminated with heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu). Heavy metals are known to adversely affect human health, but their effects on the pollinators providing critical pollination services to urban agriculture are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to understand the effects of Cd contamination on bees' pollination services. We predicted that sunflowers grown in Cd-contaminated soil would receive fewer pollination services than those grown in control soil, resulting in lower seed...

  10. Perceptual differences of aromas delivered through the orthonasal and retronasal routes

    Stegman, Margaret
    Aroma can be perceived through two routes: orthonasal (through the nose) and retronasal (through the mouth). The stimuli elicit signals that eventually reach the same receptors in the olfactory epithelium. However, previous studies suggest there is a perceptual difference between the two routes although the results are inconclusive. In this study, a matching paradigm was designed to control for memory bias and isolate the potential perceptual difference between aroma delivery routes. Panelists performed four matching paradigms of four different strawberry flavors (candy, woody, ripe, and green). The similarity of the four strawberry flavors required panelists to profile each sample to...

  11. Whey protein and sphingomyelin but not casein contribute to α-tocopherol bioaccessibility in skim milk

    Bouranis, John
    Bioaccessibility, or the extent to which nutrients can be taken up by enterocytes, is an important predictor of nutrient bioavailability. Despite being fat-soluble, the relatively high bioaccessibility of α-tocopherol (α-T) is unaffected by the fat content of dairy milk. This suggests that physiochemical properties of dairy milk independent of fat are functionally responsible for promoting α-T bioaccessibility. We therefore hypothesized that the emulsifying properties of whey protein (WP) and micellarized casein (CAS) and an amphiphilic phospholipid, sphingomyelin (SM), are responsible for α-T bioaccessibility. To test this, simulated digestions in vitro were performed to define the independent and additive contributions of...

  12. Environmental Enrichment of Calves Using Stationary and Mechanical Brushes

    Uren, Jaime E.
    While there is research on enrichment and brush use in adult cows, there is limited research addressing brush use in calves. The objectives were to substantiate brushes as enrichment devices for calves and determine if exposure to stationary brushes pre-weaning affects brush use post-weaning. Calves were randomly grouped into treatment group B (with brush, n = 10) or treatment group N (no brush, n = 10). During pre-weaning, calves were housed individually in hutches from birth until at least 8 weeks of age, and group B had access to stationary brushes. During post-weaning, calves entered group housing and had access...

  13. PFK-1 Transcript Amounts in the Liver and Skeletal Muscle of Pigeons and Quail Acutely Exposed to High Embryonic Incubation Temperatures

    Loveless, Michael
    The developing avian embryo is reliant on external sources of heat. Incubation temperatures above or below optimal alter development and metabolic function, and may compromise emergence and post-hatch adaptation. Studies in chick embryos indicate that high incubation temperature increases glycolysis and reduces hepatic glycogen needed during hatching. As a key glycolytic enzyme, phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) is a likely target for the temperature-induced effects on pathways of glucose metabolism. However, there is limited data characterizing PFK-1 in avians exposed to high incubation temperatures. This study used real time PCR to compare PFK-1 mRNA transcript amounts within the breast muscle and liver tissue...

  14. Evaluation of Alphabet Stimuli Using Anterior Tongue and Fingertip

    Van Simaeys, Karli
    While the system for texture perception on the dermis has been well researched, there has been little work done on texture perception in the oral cavity. This study seeks to compare edge and point sensitivity of the anterior tongue to the fingertip by using a simple letter identification task. It is hypothesized that the tongue will be better at edge and point detection as the ability to evaluate objects within the oral cavity in the absence of visual cues plays a vital role in chewing and swallowing. Small, plastic alphabet letters of various sizes were created and bound to tongue...

  15. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Examining Associated Press Coverage of Wildfires in the US

    Gwirtz, Brianna
    This research project examined newspaper articles surrounding United States wildfires that were published by the Associated Press. Following the Starbuck Fires in the western United States, which devastated many farms and ranches in 2017, I wanted to investigate if and how print media focused on agricultural and environmental issues related to wildfire tragedies. Using the framing theory, this study examined how news surrounding wildfires is framed and whether or not agricultural and environmental topics are discussed. Using Lexis Nexis, I searched for articles published by the Associated Press between November 1, 2012, and November 1, 2017. I then examined a...

  16. Effects of Fermenten™ on Holstein Dairy Calf Growth Rate from Birth to Weaning

    Sweet, Marina
    The effective rapid growth of healthy, young dairy calves is imperative to the success of the dairy industry because it can decrease the cost of raising replacement heifers and therefore reduce age at first calving. Fermenten™ (Church and Dwight, Inc., Princeton, NJ) was evaluated as a dairy calf feed supplement. It is an organic complex of amino acids, peptides, and non-protein nitrogen for the purpose of stimulating microbial growth in the gastrointestinal tract, potentially stimulating rumen microbe development, and thus increasing feed efficiency for faster growth. The study was performed on a dairy calf ranch in northeast Wisconsin during the...

  17. Development and Characterization of a Children's Beverage Using By-Products from the Dairy Industry

    Arora, Ayna
    The study aims to develop a children's beverage repurposing 2 dairy by products: acid whey from cottage cheese production and buttermilk powder (BMP). This beverage will serve as a healthier alternative to products that provide little nutrition. The by-products being used have high nutritive value as they contain protein and milk phospholipids. However, their undesirable flavors yield in no significant use in the dairy industry. Through this beverage, they can be used in a potentially profitable manner. The aim is achieved by improving the organoleptic properties of the by-products by comparing four processing treatments to increase palatability. The acid whey...

  18. Exploring the impact of elevated muscle temperature on the rate and extent of postmortem pH decline in porcine skeletal muscle

    Montgomery, Madison
    When an animal is harvested for meat, the resulting carcass is processed to provide safe and wholesome meat products for the consumer. One of these processing steps for pigs known as scalding involves heating the carcass in hot water (60ºC) in order to remove the hair. Despite its necessity, previous data from our research group has indicated that muscle temperature increases from normal body temperature of 39ºC to 43-47ºC in current commercial pigs during scalding. This rise in temperature may delay carcass chilling and be detrimental to pork quality. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to determine the effects...

  19. An Alternative, Low Cost Means of Heating Water Used in Vegetable Seed Sanitation

    Moodispaw, Margaret
    Some bacterial plant pathogens can infect crops through seeds, causing a major problem for vegetables. Bacterial diseases spread quickly, are not easily managed, and can vary in severity. Currently, there are not many tools to manage bacterial diseases other than prevention. Therefore, it is important to sanitize seeds prior to planting to reduce the risk of seedborne bacterial diseases. The best way to do this is by applying a hot water treatment to the seeds to kill bacteria before planting. However, water baths are prohibitively expensive for many vegetable growers. There is a need to find a more cost-effective way...

  20. Adsorption of Organophosphates from Drinking Water Using Activated Carbon from Seed Waste

    Mathias, Caleb
    A constant concern in modern agricultural production is pesticide runoff. Pesticides can leach into groundwater or be released into the atmosphere and return as contaminated rainwater. One method of mitigation is in the form of activated carbon, which possesses a net negative charge and functional groups which allow for the adsorption of chemicals from water. For this study, pyrolized seed was treated with phosphoric acid to increase the porosity of the char. This increased porosity leads to a greater surface area, and thus more room for the pesticide molecules to bind, which in this case were three commonly used organophosphates:...

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