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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (74.956 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 301

  1. U.S. GMO Labeling and Consumer Perceptions

    Berning, Craig
    Farmers have rapidly been adopting genetically modified crop varieties but consumers have a mixed view of this technology. The debate on whether to require mandatory labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on food labels was partially settled on July 29th, 2016 when President Obama signed “S. 764: Biotechnology Disclosure Act” into public law. The law mandates (a) the disclosure of bioengineered ingredients to consumers via a weblink, symbol, or phone number and (b) that a study assess the ability of consumers to access this disclosure information. This work analyzes survey responses from 525 adults to investigate whether U.S. consumers are...

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Agricultural Hashtags on Twitter

    Besancon, Megan
    Hashtags are used on various social media platforms, particularly Twitter, in order to make messages searchable. Through the use of hashtags, individuals and organizations in agriculture tell the story of agriculture by sharing information to educate the public. However, these hashtags can be “hijacked” by non-agricultural sources to share unintended, and often negative messages about food safety, food production, and animal welfare. Hijacked hashtags can ruin the credibility of farmers and agricultural organizations trying to utilize them to educate the public. The researcher sought to understand whether the hashtags #farm365 and #harvest16 were being used by the intended audience to...

  3. Production of pyranoanthocyanin pigments from cyanidin-derivatives with different glycosylation patterns for food colorant use

    Hoehn, Megan
    Traditionally synthetic colorants have been used in food to ensure vibrant and stable colors, but as consumer acceptance decreases and health concerns over synthetic colorants arise, natural colorant use has increased. Anthocyanins (ACN) are natural colorants with limited stability. Pyranoanthocyanins (PACN) are recently discovered, anthocyanin-derived compounds that have increased stability and could function as safe natural food colorants. However, the conversion of the ACN to PACN is not well understood, limiting commercial food application. The purpose of this study was to understand how ACN chemical structure affects PACN formation. It was hypothesized that ACNs possessing more than two sugar moieties...

  4. Perceptions of Preservice Teachers Preparedness' to Teach the Science of Agriculture

    Balint, Shelby
    Preservice Agriscience Education (Ag. Ed.) teachers at The Ohio State University are enrolled in a block of courses prior to student teaching. The block at The Ohio State University was planned following a theory of immersion to prepare and shape Agriscience Education majors for their student teaching semester. The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of preparedness of the preservice Ag. Ed. students’ who engaged in the immersion block experience. Prior research on preservice Ag. Ed teachers were focused on the preparation for licensure, content knowledge, understanding teacher self-confidence, and variations of agriscience teacher preparation programs. Prior research...

  5. Evaluation of the Vice President's Conversation on the Future of Extension

    Stollar, Mariah
    In December of 2015, results of the VP Conversation on the Future of Extension were shared at the Annual OSU Extension Conference. Study outputs were released that would guide the programmatic direction of OSU Extension. A year later, conversations within the extension community indicated that the excitement surrounding the VP Conversation and implementation of its findings may have died down, and perceptions were that extension professionals believed there were opportunities to more fully utilize the VP Conversation findings. A need was observed to receive organized, concrete feedback on the VP Conversation to evaluate the project and to determine how the...

  6. Effect of Transition to the Dry Period on Fecal Shedding of Coliform Bacteria in Dairy Cows

    Liebe, Douglas
    On well-managed dairy farms, environmental mastitis leading to clinical mastitis (CM) in dairy cows is common, and the most likely cause identified is certain gram-negative bacteria. Clinical mastitis is a very costly disease for farmers, limiting milk production and saleable milk, as well as negatively affecting milk quality. Previous studies have shown that the dry period is a critical time in the development of new intramammary infections that persist into the next lactation. In some beef feedlot studies, large increases in grain have resulted in increased fecal shedding of E. coli bacteria. Cows are fed primarily a high grain diet...

  7. Honey Bee Foraging Patterns In Rural and Urban Landscapes

    Matcham, Emma Grace
    Honey bees are an important insect for crop pollination and honey production, regularly traveling 5km from their hive to forage for nectar and pollen. In agricultural landscapes they forage on crops and the herbaceous plants on field margins. Honey bees also forage on flowering trees at the edges of forests and ornamental and weed species in urban environments. Bees recruit more foragers to resource locations using the waggle dance language. Other bees observe the dance and interpret the duration and angle of the waggle run to determine the location of the resource relative to the hive. Apiarists keep bee hives...

  8. Hue Expression and Shelf-Life Stability Studies of Natural Blue Food Color in Beverage Model Solution: Clitoria ternatea Extract, Spirulina, Genipa americana, and Gardenia jasminoides Commercially Produced Colorants

    Lavinia, Claudia Gabi
    Color expression and stability of four naturally-derived food colors, butterfly pea, spirulina, huito, and gardenia extracts, was studied and compared to target color of FD&C Blue 1. Storage conditions include three different pH (2.5, 3.5, 4.5) and two temperatures (4oC and 25oC). Color and stability was measured using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and Colorimetry. Butterfly pea showed superior stability over the other natural pigments, but did not show similar color to FD&C Blue 1. Its absorbance did not decrease drastically, nor did the L* and c* values. The h* value of butterfly pea was dissimilar to that of FD&C Blue 1’s. On...

  9. Comparison of the storage stability of starch and pectin black raspberry confections

    Shi, Menghan
    Black raspberries (BRB) are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals and nutrients, such as anthocyanins and ellagitannins. The phenolic compounds in BRB have drawn much attention recently due to their promising anticancer effect. Physicochemical properties such as texture and water content/activity may influence the phenolic compound stability and sensory acceptance during storage. Therefore, finding suitable food matrix with extended shelf life, higher physicochemical stability and production consistency is important in delivering the bioactive compound from BRB in clinical trials. The objective of this study is to assess the physicochemical stability of two different BRB matrices: Starch and pectin based gummies,...

  10. Educational Value of Human-Animal Interactions

    Adamczak, Sara
    Human-animal interactions are inherently multi-disciplinary. However, the influence of human-animal interactions on academic achievement has yet to be evaluated in the literature. Although it has been suggested that animals influence the development of human intelligence (Shepard, 1978), this theory has not been thoroughly tested. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the educational value of human-animal interactions by measuring the effect of a live animal present in a student learning environment. It is hypothesized that the presence of a live animal during a presentation will increase a student’s knowledge about that animal. Sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned...

  11. Identification of Mucin2 as a strong promoter for gut-specific genes

    Woodfint, Rachel
    Abstract As per capita consumption of poultry continues to increase, it is necessary for the poultry industry to optimize production to accommodate the growing demand. Discovery of gut-specific genes could significantly improve poultry production through a better understanding of genes that relate to nutrition, feed efficiency, and the microbiome. In the present study, the Mucin 2 promoter is used to drive overexpression of green florescent protein (GFP) in intestinal tissue. Through comparison of gene expression in different tissues, the gut specificity of Mucin 2 expression was confirmed in mice and humans. RT-PCR data indicates that poultry have Mucin 2 expression...

  12. How to kill bed bugs in portable items: unconventional non-chemical approaches

    Tyrpak, Alex
    In the past decade, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has resurged globally as a household pest. Bed bugs currently are the most difficult and often the most expensive pest to eradicate, especially if an infestation is not detected early on. This has led many to resort to do-it-yourself (DIY) methods of bed bug control. The purpose of this study was to determine if a conventional microwave oven could be used to decontaminate sensitive items such as books that were infested with bed bugs. Three experiments were conducted using the EPM bed bug strain and a conventional microwave oven...

  13. Regulation of vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) in pancreatic β cells

    Lee, Esther J.
    Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is a protein found in insulin granules that facilitates the uptake of ATP and release of ATP and insulin. Studies show that suppressed VNUT results in reduced insulin secretion. Currently, the regulation of VNUT expression in β cells is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on VNUT levels and test if free radicals generated from HFD are involved in HFD modulation of VNUT expression in β cells. A mouse insulin-producing cell line (MIN6) was used for this study. The control group received growth medium treatment, and...

  14. Nitrogen Price and Concentration in the Mississippi River ---- Based on WRTDS Model

    Liu, Bingcai
    The main purpose of this research is to test whether or not there is a relationship between market factors, such as nitrogen fertilizer price and crop prices, and the concentration of nitrogen in the Mississippi River, and how variation in prices affects nitrogen concentrations. This research hypothesizes that market factors also play an important role in affecting nitrogen concentration in the Mississippi River other than flow and seasonal fluctuation. Using data from USGS measuring eight observation sites along the Mississippi River watershed, this research finds that the relationship between nitrogen prices and nitrogen concentration is negative. Moreover, the elasticity of...

  15. The Effect of Time of Day of Vaccination on Interleukin 10 Gene Expression in Horses

    Connell, Erin
    Vaccinations are used to reduce the severity and duration of future disease in humans and animals by presenting a weakened or killed version of a virus to the immune system. Previous studies show that the immune response can be affected by the concentration of chemical messengers, called cytokines in the blood. Cytokine production has been shown to change throughout the day, so it has been suggested that the immune system would be better able to respond more strongly or quickly at a certain time of day. If this were true, it may be possible to improve vaccine efficacy and improve...

  16. In-Vitro Starch and NDF Digestibility Using Rumen Fluid from Control and Bovamine® Supplemented Cows

    Nelson, Rachel
    Probiotics are commonly fed to dairy cattle to improve feed efficiency and increase milk yield. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a probiotic, (Bovamine®; Nutrition Physiology Company, LLC. Guymon, OK) consisting of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii (PF), on the in vitro digestibility of starch and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Starch and NDF are the primary carbohydrate sources in dairy cattle diets from which they receive energy. There have been mixed results in performance when cows were fed the PF plus LA probiotic in beef and dairy cattle. The hypothesis of this experiment was...

  17. Developing a Crystal Violet Assay to Quantify Biofilm Production Capabilities of Staphylococcus aureus

    Metzler, Antoinette
    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in clinical settings in both humans and animals. This emerging pathogen is among the top three nosocomial pathogens in human and veterinary hospitals due to its ability to survive in these environments for long periods. This survival is likely the result of S. aureus’s production of biofilm: a protective matrix of bacterially secreted proteins that allow colonies to attach to environmental surfaces. Preventing and controlling this pathogen, specifically within small animal veterinary hospitals, becomes critical for two reasons. One, the presence of this pathogen increases the risk of...

  18. Interaction of Retronasal and Orthonasal Perception of Unfamiliar Flavors

    Moeller, Lindsay
    Aroma compounds can be perceived through orthonasal (through the nose—smelling) or retronasal (through the mouth—flavor) mechanisms. These signals are processed by the same receptors and by the same sections of the brain, but are thought to elicit different perceptions, hedonic responses and behaviors. In this experiment, sensory evaluation of unfamiliar flavors by retronasal (flavor) and orthonasal (smell) perception were studied. The unfamiliar flavors used were Yuzu, Carambola, Hibiscus, and Momo. A matching test wherein panelists were given a reference sample containing one of the aroma compounds and told to identify that sample amongst the four unknowns was performed for three...

  19. Mitigation of Methane via Nitrate Feed and Yea-Sacc Supplementation

    Ashworth, Jared
    Dairy cattle are responsible for approximately 128 kg CH4/head compared with swine and beef (1.5 and 53 kg CH4/head, respectively). The aim was to feed nitrate to dairy cows to mitigate ruminal CH4 production by competing with methanogens for H2 produced during fermentation. Selenemonas species of bacteria are stimulated by yeast, so Yea-Sacc® was added to encourage selenomonads to drive DMI and propionate production from lactate. Three squares consisting of 4 lactating Jersey cows each were fed either a diet containing urea or calcium nitrate. Cows were given TMR twice daily with 50 g of a ground corn control or...

  20. IMPACT OF DIET ON Pb BIOACCESSIBILITY FOR WILDLIFE IN VITRO METHODS

    Zearley, Alyssa
    Human activities have introduced Pb into the environment, posing a risk not just to humans, but to wildlife as well. Ecological risk assessment is used to assess risk of stressors, such as lead, to wildlife. Currently, risk assessment relies on the assumption that lead exposure results in complete absorption, i.e. 100% relative bioavailability. In many cases this is inaccurate, as bioavailability of lead decreases depending on the media with which it is consumed. Thus, not knowing the bioavailability of metals can lead to overestimation of exposure, impacting risk assessment and making remediation efforts more expensive. Animal models and in vitro...

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