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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (75.279 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 310

  1. Salmonella enterica Prevalence in The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center Environment

    Albers, Amy
    Salmonella is an important enteric pathogen of humans and animals. In a veterinary teaching hospital, the health risk associated with direct Salmonella exposure threatens the safety of patients, staff, and students. The objectives of this study are to measure the frequency of Salmonella in The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSU-VMC) hospital environment, and determine if there are resident Salmonella strains which are maintained. Samples were aseptically collected with an electrostatic cloth from twenty combined floor drains from the equine (n = 10) and food animal (n = 10) areas of the OSU-VMC between February 16, 2015, and November...

  2. The Influence of Dietary Energy Source on Microbial Diversity in the Equine Gastrointestinal Tract

    Willibey, Alyssa
    Horses are commonly fed diets that contain different sources of energy including starch, fiber and fats. These different energy sources may be digested and absorbed in differing segments of the gastrointestinal tract, thereby altering the gut microbiome. Six mature Miniature Horse geldings (7.5 ± 3.5 yr; 134.5 ± 39.5 kg) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin Square design to evaluate the effect of different dietary energy sources on the microbial diversity of the equine gastrointestinal tract. Diets consisted of mixed grass hay plus one of three energy supplements (oats, beet pulp, rice bran) at two levels (high: 75%...

  3. Understanding Variables that Impact Plasma Carotenoid Stability during Storage for High Performance Liquid Chromotography (HPLC) Analysis

    Uhl, Katherine
    Carotenoids are pigments ubiquitous in fruits and vegetables and noted as bioactive compounds affecting health. Understanding the relationship between carotenoids and health relies on precise and accurate analytical methods. The goal of the project was to understand factors that affect the stability of carotenoids from human plasma. If samples could be stored for a longer period of time, there would be more flexibility to extract samples, store and analyze in batches without fear of carotenoid degradation. Human plasma was obtained and tested for initial levels of carotenoids. The plasma was aliquoted, frozen, thawed and extracted according to a previously published...

  4. Variation in Milk Urea Nitrogen

    Joldrichsen, Marisa
    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is commonly used as an indicator of protein utilization by the dairy cow, and it has been used in some countries as a reference for the amount of N excreted by dairy animals for its environmental implications. The purpose of this study was to investigate some factors that may effect the concentrations of MUN. MUN was evaluated using Dairy Herd Improvement data on individual cows (n=1325) that had been collected from Ohio herds (n=22) between January 2015 and July 2016. The data collected included herd, cow, breed, date of milk sampling, days in milk (DIM), milking...

  5. Dietary Prebiotics and Arachidonic Acid (ARA) Modulate Intestinal Injury Following Acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis in Formula-Fed Piglets

    Chucta, Emily
    Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances are among the most common health challenges faced by the suckling neonate, and dietary interventions aimed to modulate inflammation and microbial colonization may provide a prophylactic option to enhance GI development. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of supplemental ARA or prebiotics (alone or combined) on intestinal inflammation and the microbiome in an acute dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. Day-old pigs were randomized among 4 diets (0.5% arachidonic acid (ARA; control); 4g/L galactooligosaccharide + 4 g/L polydextrose (PRE); 2.5% ARA, and PRE+ARA; n=24/diet, and were fed 3 times per d for 21d....

  6. Describing Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Science of Agriculture to a Diverse Audience

    Gase, Donald, Jr.
    The purpose of this study was to describe preservice teachers’ perceptions of teaching science of agriculture curriculum to diverse audiences. Lyon (2009) concluded that many teachers lack a background knowledge of diverse families. Kritzer & Bovill (2012) cited that most teachers from rural settings have little to no exposure to diversity in a classroom setting. Batchelder (2008) concluded that the best way to develop more diversity awareness and understanding into K- 12 classrooms, is to have teachers go through training techniques in multicultural perspectives. Skepple (2014) concluded that preservice teachers’ inadequacies in cultural diversity knowledge can be modified by teacher...

  7. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)

    Chaudhri, Taimur
    The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), part of the People’s Republic of China’s Belt and Road initiative, is a collection of infrastructure, energy, and technology projects currently being constructed throughout The Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the western Xinjiang region of China. CPEC, coined as a “game changer” by Pakistani officials, is the most recent manifestation of a burgeoning relationship between China and Pakistan. China is financing the projects through a network of zero-interest loans, grants, and low-interest loans to the Pakistani government with a total planned investment of 45 billion USD. The main goal of CPEC is increased economic connectivity...

  8. Revision of Diagnostic Morphological Characters in Three Puerto Rican Species of the Termite Genus Heterotermes (Dictyoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Griebenow, Zachary
    Termites of the genus Heterotermes Froggatt (Rhinotermitidae: Heterotermitinae) are pantropical subterranean wood-feeders capable of causing significant structural damage. Despite their economic importance, the taxonomy of Heterotermes remains understudied due to a lack of robust morphological characteristics enabling reliable identification. The aim of this study was to investigate a range of morphometric attributes in three species of Heterotermes previously identified by sequencing of two mitochondrial genes. All samples were collected from the Puerto Rican archipelago (Puerto Rico and Culebra Island) and attributed to either Heterotermes cardini (Snyder), H. convexinotatus (Snyder), or H. tenuis (Hagen). Soldiers were the only caste examined. Soldiers...

  9. Effect of Dietary Yeast Supplementation on the Diversity of Hindgut Microbial Populations in Two-Year-Old Quarter Horse Mares

    Backus, Amanda
    Dietary yeast supplementation has been reported to influence the gastrointestinal microbiome in multiple animal species, including horses, with varying results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary live yeast supplement on the diversity of hindgut microbial populations in 2 yr old Quarter Horse mares. Eight Quarter Horse mares (2.0 ± 0.05 yr) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: yeast or control. All mares received a basal diet consisting of 0.5% BW of a 14% CP pelleted concentrate, with water and mixed grass hay ad libitum and were housed in outdoor paddocks...

  10. U.S. GMO Labeling and Consumer Perceptions

    Berning, Craig
    Farmers have rapidly been adopting genetically modified crop varieties but consumers have a mixed view of this technology. The debate on whether to require mandatory labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on food labels was partially settled on July 29th, 2016 when President Obama signed “S. 764: Biotechnology Disclosure Act” into public law. The law mandates (a) the disclosure of bioengineered ingredients to consumers via a weblink, symbol, or phone number and (b) that a study assess the ability of consumers to access this disclosure information. This work analyzes survey responses from 525 adults to investigate whether U.S. consumers are...

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Agricultural Hashtags on Twitter

    Besancon, Megan
    Hashtags are used on various social media platforms, particularly Twitter, in order to make messages searchable. Through the use of hashtags, individuals and organizations in agriculture tell the story of agriculture by sharing information to educate the public. However, these hashtags can be “hijacked” by non-agricultural sources to share unintended, and often negative messages about food safety, food production, and animal welfare. Hijacked hashtags can ruin the credibility of farmers and agricultural organizations trying to utilize them to educate the public. The researcher sought to understand whether the hashtags #farm365 and #harvest16 were being used by the intended audience to...

  12. Production of pyranoanthocyanin pigments from cyanidin-derivatives with different glycosylation patterns for food colorant use

    Hoehn, Megan
    Traditionally synthetic colorants have been used in food to ensure vibrant and stable colors, but as consumer acceptance decreases and health concerns over synthetic colorants arise, natural colorant use has increased. Anthocyanins (ACN) are natural colorants with limited stability. Pyranoanthocyanins (PACN) are recently discovered, anthocyanin-derived compounds that have increased stability and could function as safe natural food colorants. However, the conversion of the ACN to PACN is not well understood, limiting commercial food application. The purpose of this study was to understand how ACN chemical structure affects PACN formation. It was hypothesized that ACNs possessing more than two sugar moieties...

  13. Perceptions of Preservice Teachers Preparedness' to Teach the Science of Agriculture

    Balint, Shelby
    Preservice Agriscience Education (Ag. Ed.) teachers at The Ohio State University are enrolled in a block of courses prior to student teaching. The block at The Ohio State University was planned following a theory of immersion to prepare and shape Agriscience Education majors for their student teaching semester. The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions of preparedness of the preservice Ag. Ed. students’ who engaged in the immersion block experience. Prior research on preservice Ag. Ed teachers were focused on the preparation for licensure, content knowledge, understanding teacher self-confidence, and variations of agriscience teacher preparation programs. Prior research...

  14. Evaluation of the Vice President's Conversation on the Future of Extension

    Stollar, Mariah
    In December of 2015, results of the VP Conversation on the Future of Extension were shared at the Annual OSU Extension Conference. Study outputs were released that would guide the programmatic direction of OSU Extension. A year later, conversations within the extension community indicated that the excitement surrounding the VP Conversation and implementation of its findings may have died down, and perceptions were that extension professionals believed there were opportunities to more fully utilize the VP Conversation findings. A need was observed to receive organized, concrete feedback on the VP Conversation to evaluate the project and to determine how the...

  15. Effect of Transition to the Dry Period on Fecal Shedding of Coliform Bacteria in Dairy Cows

    Liebe, Douglas
    On well-managed dairy farms, environmental mastitis leading to clinical mastitis (CM) in dairy cows is common, and the most likely cause identified is certain gram-negative bacteria. Clinical mastitis is a very costly disease for farmers, limiting milk production and saleable milk, as well as negatively affecting milk quality. Previous studies have shown that the dry period is a critical time in the development of new intramammary infections that persist into the next lactation. In some beef feedlot studies, large increases in grain have resulted in increased fecal shedding of E. coli bacteria. Cows are fed primarily a high grain diet...

  16. Honey Bee Foraging Patterns In Rural and Urban Landscapes

    Matcham, Emma Grace
    Honey bees are an important insect for crop pollination and honey production, regularly traveling 5km from their hive to forage for nectar and pollen. In agricultural landscapes they forage on crops and the herbaceous plants on field margins. Honey bees also forage on flowering trees at the edges of forests and ornamental and weed species in urban environments. Bees recruit more foragers to resource locations using the waggle dance language. Other bees observe the dance and interpret the duration and angle of the waggle run to determine the location of the resource relative to the hive. Apiarists keep bee hives...

  17. Hue Expression and Shelf-Life Stability Studies of Natural Blue Food Color in Beverage Model Solution: Clitoria ternatea Extract, Spirulina, Genipa americana, and Gardenia jasminoides Commercially Produced Colorants

    Lavinia, Claudia Gabi
    Color expression and stability of four naturally-derived food colors, butterfly pea, spirulina, huito, and gardenia extracts, was studied and compared to target color of FD&C Blue 1. Storage conditions include three different pH (2.5, 3.5, 4.5) and two temperatures (4oC and 25oC). Color and stability was measured using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and Colorimetry. Butterfly pea showed superior stability over the other natural pigments, but did not show similar color to FD&C Blue 1. Its absorbance did not decrease drastically, nor did the L* and c* values. The h* value of butterfly pea was dissimilar to that of FD&C Blue 1’s. On...

  18. Comparison of the storage stability of starch and pectin black raspberry confections

    Shi, Menghan
    Black raspberries (BRB) are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals and nutrients, such as anthocyanins and ellagitannins. The phenolic compounds in BRB have drawn much attention recently due to their promising anticancer effect. Physicochemical properties such as texture and water content/activity may influence the phenolic compound stability and sensory acceptance during storage. Therefore, finding suitable food matrix with extended shelf life, higher physicochemical stability and production consistency is important in delivering the bioactive compound from BRB in clinical trials. The objective of this study is to assess the physicochemical stability of two different BRB matrices: Starch and pectin based gummies,...

  19. Educational Value of Human-Animal Interactions

    Adamczak, Sara
    Human-animal interactions are inherently multi-disciplinary. However, the influence of human-animal interactions on academic achievement has yet to be evaluated in the literature. Although it has been suggested that animals influence the development of human intelligence (Shepard, 1978), this theory has not been thoroughly tested. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the educational value of human-animal interactions by measuring the effect of a live animal present in a student learning environment. It is hypothesized that the presence of a live animal during a presentation will increase a student’s knowledge about that animal. Sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned...

  20. Identification of Mucin2 as a strong promoter for gut-specific genes

    Woodfint, Rachel
    Abstract As per capita consumption of poultry continues to increase, it is necessary for the poultry industry to optimize production to accommodate the growing demand. Discovery of gut-specific genes could significantly improve poultry production through a better understanding of genes that relate to nutrition, feed efficiency, and the microbiome. In the present study, the Mucin 2 promoter is used to drive overexpression of green florescent protein (GFP) in intestinal tissue. Through comparison of gene expression in different tissues, the gut specificity of Mucin 2 expression was confirmed in mice and humans. RT-PCR data indicates that poultry have Mucin 2 expression...

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