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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (75.784 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Pharmacy

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 22

  1. Antipsychotic Drugs Influence Dopamine Neuron Terminals via Action on D2-receptors and Vesicles

    Klausing, Alex
    Dopamine D2 antagonist antipsychotic drugs share the effects of increasing dopamine synthesis, dopamine neuron firing rate, and dopamine and DOPAC levels. These antagonists all raise extracellular dopamine to approximately 163% of control and DOPAC levels to approximately 200% of control without changing tissue level of dopamine. Variability in striatal tissue DOPAC level (190 – 350% of control) and rates of dopamine synthesis (190‐378% of control) reported after administration of various antipsychotic drugs gives evidence that these parameters are influenced by factors besides the antagonism of the D2 receptor. We used a computational model of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum to determine what parameters other than D2 receptors...

  2. Mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK1/2) regulates ischemia-induced neurogenesis and morphological maturation

    Yujia, Liu
    Pathophysiological conditions such as cerebral ischemia (stroke) trigger the production of new neurons in the hippocampus dentate gyrus. The functional significance of ischemia-induced neurogenesis is believed to be the regeneration of lost cells, thus contributing to post-stroke recovery. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms by which this process is regulated are still under investigation. Recent data from our lab indicate a role for mitogen and stress-activated protein kinases (MSK1/2) in the regulation of hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation after repeated seizure insult. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that MSK1/2 signaling is a regulator of ischemia-induced neurogenesis and neuronal morphological...

  3. Identification of NF-κB Inhibitors from Watercress

    Patel, Krishna
    Watercress, Nasturtium officinale W.T. Aiton, a member of the Brassicaceae family[1], is highly consumed in salad mixes and contains many phytochemicals[2]. As part of the cancer chemoprevention drug discovery program, watercress was tested in a panel of bioassays. The small scale hexane extract of watercress exhibited over 65% NF-kB inhibition at a concentration of 50 µM. NF-κB is a hallmark for cancer and disregulation of NF-κB has also been linked to inflammation and auto immune diseases[3]. Three isolated samples from the hexane extract were tested in assays for biological activity. While the large scale hexane extract of watercress did not...

  4. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation of Taxodium distichum

    Gromovsky, Anthony
    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease with a high incidence of infection and, in some cases, the potential to be fatal. This disease is largely entrenched in poverty, making access to effective and inexpensive diagnoses, treatments, and disease control unattainable for countless infected individuals. The need for affordable, more effective, and less toxic treatments has led us to the preparation and testing of plant extracts for screening against L. donovani parasites. Fractionation of the cones of a North American plant, found on The Ohio State University (OSU) campus and identified at the herbarium of The Ohio State University Museum of Biological...

  5. Evaluating decision-making in patients with epilepsy

    Strazar, Abbey
    Experience has demonstrated that when epilepsy patients are given advice about changes to their drug regimen, a portion follow it. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine why epilepsy patients do or do not follow suggested advice to change their drug therapy. Four weeks after their clinic visit, 100 patients were sent a survey asking them about the prescriber-recommended drug regimen changes, whether they followed the advice, and the main reasons. Fifty-one responses were received. Nearly all (48/51, 94%) reported that they did follow the suggested advice for changes in their drug regimen. Their reasons included the desire...

  6. Synthesis of Allosteric Modulators for Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Young, Jason
    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) can be found throughout the human nervous system. The receptors regulate a multitude of functions, including development, inflammation, and movement. They also serve as the receptor site for nicotine, an extremely addictive drug. Novel therapeutic strategies for breaking this addiction involve synthesis of negative allosteric modulators that could deactivate the binding site for nicotine on these receptors. However, because many subtypes of the nAChR exist, it is difficult to target one without affecting others. This study aims to synthesize a series of analogs of compound 16, an arylsulfonyl piperazine-containing compound that was previously shown to display...

  7. The effects of age-related changes in color vision on the ability of older adults to properly take medication

    Skomrock, Lindsay
    Background: Prescription compliance is a complex issue, affected by physical, psychological, and emotional factors. Changes in color vision due to the normal aging process are an aspect of declining physical functioning that has not been addressed in relation to prescription compliance. Objective: To establish a relationship between medication selection and color vision loss in older adults. Methods: This study with healthy younger adults, age 18-26, used a pair of yellow-lens glasses and colored beads to simulate medication selection in older adults compared with a control group of similarly aged adults not wearing the lenses. Medication selection was quantified by correct bead selection...

  8. A Randomized, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Impact of Healthcare Information Exchange between Community Pharmacists and an Epilepsy Clinic

    DeNiro, Eileen
    No embargo

  9. Mechanistic Studies of Pentamidine Analogs on Leishmania donovani Promastigotes

    Nzimiro, Sandra
    A three-year embargo was granted for this item.

  10. The synthesis of GdB-texaphyrins as novel multipurpose cancer drugs

    Jordan, Sarah
    3rd Place, Category of "Health Sciences- Laboratory/Cellular," Denman Undergraduate Research Forum, May 2009

  11. γ-H2AX as a DNA damage marker to evaluate Suramin sensitization effect on Cisplatin in pancreatic cancer xenograft

    Patel, Prachi
    Purpose: γ-H2AX, a DNA double strand break marker, was used to evaluate suramin sensitization effect in cisplatin-treated Capan-1-bearing mice xenografts. Methods: Mice bearing pancreatic cancer Capan-1 subcutaneous xenografts were treated with control vehicle, cisplatin (7.5mg/kg), suramin (10mg/kg) combined with cisplatin, or suramin (100mg/kg) combined with cisplatin. Tumor samples were taken on 45th day after initiation of treatment. DNA damage after drug treatment was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining with γ -H2AX antibody. Results: In terms of tumor growth, suramin at low dose enhanced tumor size shrinkage and delayed tumor regrowth compared to cisplatin alone, while high dose suramin antagonized cisplatin effect. Low dose suramin induced more DNA damage indicated by γ-H2AX...

  12. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in BCRP and Effects on Flavopiridol Transport

    Tran, Linda
    Flavopiridol is a promising therapeutic agent currently under phase I and phase II clinical investigation for the treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and other hematologic and solid tumor malignancies. Flavopiridol is a potent inhibitor of CDks (cyclin-dependent kinases), and its cytotoxic activity is associated with the arrest of cells in G1 or G2 phases of the cell cycle.1 Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is a 70 kDA transmembrane transporter involved in multidrug resistance.2 BCRP exports flavopiridol from cells3 resulting in decreased intracellular drug accumulation and resistance to its cytotoxic effects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in BCRP is known to...

  13. An Assessment of Pharmacist & Patient Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Reporting Adverse Drug Reactions in Patients with Epilepsy

    Alyssa, Chen
    ABSTRACT Background: A survey was developed to gather information from both pharmacists and patients with epilepsy on the issue of antiepileptic drug formulation switching. This study looked at the patient-focused issues associated with switching among various forms of the same antiepileptic drug. This switching includes brand to generic, generic to brand and also generic to generic. Finding the right dose of the optimal treatment to prevent seizures in some patients with epilepsy is a complex and sometimes lengthy process. Formulation switching with antiepileptic drugs may have undesirable results such as an increase in seizure activity or an increase in adverse events....

  14. Enhancing the Care of Pregnant Women with Epilepsy: A Focus Group Approach

    Patankar, Chetana
    BACKGROUND: Through a long-standing collaboration with the Medical Center’s Maternal-Fetal Medicine program, a clinical pharmacist from the Comprehensive Epilepsy program works with pregnant women with epilepsy in the High-Risk Obstetrics Clinic. Through this clinical collaboration, it has been observed that some women stop or lower their antiepileptic drug therapy during pregnancy out of concern for their baby. This puts the woman and her baby at risk from increased seizure activity during the pregnancy. PURPOSE: The aim of this qualitative project was to learn why pregnant women may or may not alter their antiepileptic drug therapy. This aim was achieved by...

  15. Computational Simulations of Dopaminergic Varicosities Suggest Two Sources of DOPAC Rather Than Two Populations of Dopamine Storage Vesicles

    Hughes, Rachel
    There are conflicting interpretations as to how many populations of dopamine storage vesicles exist in the nerve terminals of dopaminergic neurons. The goal of this project is to develop a computer simulation model of a dopaminergic varicosity that provides a plausible quantitative description of these populations and a possible set of rules for movement between two populations of vesicles. Both a one-compartment and a two-compartment model were devised for comparison, and it was found that the one-compartment model was able to successfully explain all of the data supporting two populations of storage vesicles in paradigms that stimulate dopaminergic neurons at...

  16. An Evaluation of Medication Adherence and Self-Managment Techniques in Patients with Epilepsy

    McFadden, Linsey
    Denman Undergraduate Forum 2007 participant, OPA Research Forum presenter, OSU College of Pharmacy Research Day presenter

  17. The Role of NOD-Mediated Innate Immune Activation in Lung Epithelia

    Bensman, Timothy J.
    The ability to recognize and remove pathogens that invade the lower airway, while maintaining homeostasis in the lung microenvironment, is an essential function of the innate immune system. An evolving hypothesis in this relatively new area of research is that in addition to maintaining normal host function, the molecular machinery responsible for pathogen recognition and activation of the innate immune response, may also contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases if a break down in normal function occurs [9]. This thesis focuses on the investigation of NOD-like receptor proteins (NLRs) which are involved in intracellular pathogen recognition and activation of the innate...

  18. In Vitro Stability and Pharmacokinetics of Novel Antileishmanial Compounds

    Becker, Kimberly
    Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania, affects millions of people worldwide [6]. Without effective treatment, visceral leishmaniasis is associated with a near 100% fatality rate, whereas other forms can be severely debilitating [6]. Current treatments are not ideal because of toxicity, resistance, expense, and inconvenience [6]. Work to develop new drugs is underway at The Ohio State University and is led by Dr. Karl Werbovetz. Over the past few years Dr. Werbovetz and colleagues have generated a library of antiparasitic compounds known to specifically target Leishmania and trypanosome tubulin. In the first round of derivatization, several...

  19. Separation and Isolation of (S)-Equol: The Biologically Relevant Metabolite of the Isoflavone Daidzein

    Kopec, Rachel
    First Place, CFAES Forum, 2005

  20. Synthesis of Thieno[2,3]-pyrimidines as Candidate Antileishmanial Agents

    Tkacz, Victoria
    Undergraduate Student Government

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