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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 253

  1. Alkenone analyses of sediment cores from the western Arabian Sea

    Budziak, Dörte
    Records of total organic carbon (TOC) and C37 alkenones were used as indicators for past primary productivity in the western and eastern Arabian Sea. Data from GeoB 3005, an open ocean site in the western Arabian Sea upwelling area, are compared with similar records of GeoB 3007 from the Owen Ridge, Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 723 from the continental margin off Oman and MD 900963 from the eastern Arabian Sea. TOC/C37 alkenone records together with other proxies used to reconstruct upwelling intensity, indicate periods of high productivity in tune with precessional forcing all over the Arabian Sea. Based on...

  2. Geochemistry, fluxes and nitrogen isotopic composition data of traps LP1 and EBC2-1 and cores GeoB4242-4 and Geo4301-1

    Freudenthal, Tim; Neuer, Susanne; Meggers, Helge; Davenport, Robert; Wefer, Gerold
    We compare total and biogenic particle fluxes and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (d15N) at three mooring sites along a productivity gradient in the Canary Islands region with surface sediment accumulation rates and sedimentary d15N. Higher particle fluxes and sediment accumulation rates, and lower d15N were observed in the upwelling influenced eastern boundary region (EBC) compared to the oligotrophic sites north of Gran Canaria [European Station for Time-Series in the Ocean, Canary Islands (ESTOC]] and north of La Palma (LP). The impact of organic matter degradation and lateral particle advection on sediment accumulation was quantified with respect to the multi-year flux...

  3. Geochemistry and soil characteristics of sediment core GeoB4234

    Freudenthal, Tim; Wagner, Thomas; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Zabel, Matthias; Wefer, Gerold
    Stable isotopes of sedimentary nitrogen and organic carbon are widely used as proxy variables for biogeochemical parameters and processes in the water column. In order to investigate alterations of the primary isotopic signal by sedimentary diagenetic processes, we determined concentrations and isotopic compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN), organic nitrogen (ON), total nitrogen (TN), and total organic carbon (TOC) on one short core recovered from sediments of the eastern subtropical Atlantic, between the Canary Islands and the Moroccan coast. Changes with depth in concentration and isotopic composition of the different fractions were related to early diagenetic conditions indicated by pore water...

  4. X-ray fluorescence measurements and bulk organic carbon analyses of ODP Hole 175-1075A

    Jahn, Britta; Schneider, Ralph R; Müller, Peter J; Donner, Barbara; Röhl, Ursula
    Records of organic matter accumulation, organic carbon isotopic composition and iron content covering the last 1.7 Ma are presented for the Congo Fan Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1075, and are compared with their counterparts from ODP Site 663 in the equatorial upwelling region. They are discussed with regard to variations in African precipitation and Congo River discharge and in the context of changes in trade-wind-driven marine productivity for the tropical Atlantic at periodicities typical of Milankovitch forcing. On the Congo Fan, elevated total organic carbon mass accumulation rates (TOC MAR) and Fe intensities occur predominantly during interglacial periods when...

  5. High resolution study of sediment core GeoB3606-1

    Romero, Oscar E; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Schneider, Ralph R; Wefer, Gerold
    Based on a high-resolution analysis of the diatom signal and biogenic bulk components at site GeoB3606-1 (25°S, off Namibia), we describe rapid palaeoceanographic changes in the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) from early MIS 3 through to the early Holocene (55 000 to 7 000 14C yr BP). Coastal upwelling strongly varied at 25°S from MIS 3 through to MIS 2. The abrupt decrease in the accumulation rate of biogenic silica and diatoms from MIS 3 into MIS 2 records rapid oceanographic changes in the BUS off Namibia. During MIS 3, leakage of excess H4SiO4 acid from the Southern Ocean into...

  6. Analysis of minerals from Arctic Ocean sediments

    Vogt, Christoph
    The Arctic Ocean System is a key player regarding the climatic changes of Earth. Its highly sensitive ice Cover, the exchange of surface and deep water masses with the global ocean and the coupling with the atmosphere interact directly with global climatic changes. The output of cold, polar water and sea ice influences the production of deep water in the North Atlantic and controls the global ocean circulation ("the conveyor belt"). The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets which not only affect the sedimentation in the Arctic Ocean but also are supposed to induce the...

  7. Geochemical investigations of sediment profiles in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea

    Voelker, Antje H L
    High-, i.e. 15-140-yr-resolution climate records from sediment cores 23071, 23074, and PS2644 from the Nordic Seas were used to recon:;truct changes in the surface and deep water circulation during marine isotope stages 1-5.1, i.e. the last 82 000 yr. From this the causal links between the paleoceanographic signals and the Dansgaard-Oeschger events 1-21 revealed in 0180-ice-core records from Greenland were determined. The stratigraphy of the cores is based on the planktic 0180 curves, the minima of which were directly correlated with the GISP2-0180 record, numerous AMS 14C ages, and some ash layers. The planktic d18O and dl3C curves of all three...

  8. Sedimentology of the Okhotsk Sea

    Nürnberg, Dirk; Tiedemann, Ralf
    On the basis of two sedimentary records from the central Sea of Okhotsk, we reconstruct the closely coupled glacial/interglacial changes in terrigenous flux, marine productivity, and sea ice coverage over the past 1.1 Myr. The correspondance of our sedimentary records to the China loess grain size record (China loess particle timescale, CHILOPARTS) suggests that environmental changes in both the Sea of Okhotsk area and in SE Asia were closely related via the Siberian atmospheric high-pressure cell. During full glacial times our records point to a strong Siberian High causing northerly wind directions, the extension of the sea ice cover, and...

  9. Lipid biomarkers in urface sediments of the Southeast Atlantic

    Schefuß, Enno; Versteegh, Gerard J M; Jansen, J H Fred; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S
    Surface sediments from the eastern South Atlantic were investigated for their lipid biomarker contents and bulk organic geochemical characteristics to identify sources, transport pathways and preservation processes of organic components. The sediments cover a wide range of depositional settings with large differences in mass accumulation rates. The highest marine organic carbon (OC) contributions are detected along the coast, especially underlying the Benguela upwelling system. Terrigenous OC contributions are highest in the Congo deep-sea fan. Lipid biomarker fluxes are significantly correlated to the extent of oxygen exposure in the sediment. Normalization to total organic carbon (TOC) contents enabled the characterization of...

  10. Radionuclide analyses, and sedimentation and accumulation rates of sediment core PS2319-1

    Francois, Roger; Frank, Martin; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M; Bacon, Michael P
    There is increasing evidence indicating that syndepositional redistribution of sediment on the seafloor by bottom currents is common and can significantly affect sediment mass accumulation rates. Notwithstanding its common incidence, this process (generally referred to as sediment focusing) is often difficult to recognize. If redistribution is near synchronous to deposition, the stratigraphy of the sediment is not disturbed and sediment focusing can easily be overlooked. Ignoring it, however, can lead to serious misinterpretations of sedimentary fluxes, particularly when past changes in export flux from the overlying water are inferred. In many instances, this problem can be resolved, at least for...

  11. Temperature reconstruction of sediment core SO9-93KL

    Schulz, Hartmut; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; von Rad, Ulrich; Rolf, Christian
    The Toba volcanic event, one of the largest eruptions during the Quaternary, is documented in marine sediment cores from the northeastern Arabian Sea. On the crest of the Murray Ridge and along the western Indian continental margin, we detected distinct concentration spikes and ash layers of rhyolithic volcanic shards near the marine isotope stage 5-4 boundary with the chemical composition of the "Youngest Toba Tuff". Time series of the Uk'37-alkenone index, planktic foraminiferal species, magnetic susceptibility, and sediment accumulation rates from this interval show that the Toba event occurred between two warm periods lasting a few millennia. Using Toba as...

  12. Sand fraction, carbonate and organic carbon contents of ODP Hole 175-1085A

    Diester-Haass, Lieselotte; Meyers, Philip A; Vidal, Laurence; Wefer, Gerold
    Site 1085 is located on the continental rise of southwest Africa at a water depth of 1713 m off the mouth of the Orange River in the Cape Basin. The site is part of the suite of locations drilled during Leg 175 on the Africa margin to reconstruct the onset and evolution of the elevated biological productivity associated with the Benguela Current upwelling system (Wefer, Berger, Richter, et al., 1998, doi:10.2973/odp.proc.ir.175.1998). Three sediment samples were collected per section from Cores 170-1085A-28H through 45X (251-419 mbsf) to provide a survey of the sediment record of paleoproductivity from the middle late Miocene...

  13. Radionuclides of bulk and terrigenous surface sediments in the Southern Ocean

    Walter, Hans-Jürgen; Hegner, Ernst; Diekmann, Bernhard; Kuhn, Gerhard; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M
    Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of Late Quaternary surface sediment and sediment cores from the south Atlantic and southeast Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean are used to constrain the provenance and transport mechanisms of their terrigenous component. We report isotopic and mineralogical data for core samples from three localities, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 41°S and the northern and southern Scotia Sea. In addition, data for surface sediment samples from the south Atlantic and southeast Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean are presented. The variations of Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the bulk sediment samples in all cores were...

  14. Geochemistry of Fe-Mn crusts in sediments of the Central Indian Ridge

    Kuhn, Thomas; Bau, M; Blum, Nevin; Halbach, Peter
    Layered Fe-Mn crusts from the off-axis region of the first segment of the Central Indian Ridge north of the Rodrigues Triple Junction were studied geochemically and mineralogically. Vernadite (delta-MnO2) is the main mineral oxide phase. 230Thxs and Co concentrations suggest high growth rates of up to 29 mm/Myr and a maximum age of the basal crust layer of 1 Ma. Whereas most of the major and minor elements show concentrations which are typical of hydrogenetic formation, Co, Pb, Ni and Ti concentrations are strikingly lower. Concentrations and distribution of the strictly trivalent rare-earths and yttrium (REY) are typical of hydrogenetic...

  15. Radionuclides in sediment cores of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Frank, Martin; Gersonde, Rainer; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel M; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Nürnberg, Christine Caroline; Kubik, Peter W; Suter, Martin; Mangini, Augusto
    We present time series of export productivity proxy data including 230Thex-normalized deposition rates (rain rates) of 10Be, dissolution-corrected biogenic Ba, and biogenic opal as well as authigenic U concentrations which are complemented by rain rates of total (detrital) Fe and sea ice indicating diatom abundances from five sediment cores across the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean covering the past 150,000 years. The results suggest that 10Be rain rates and authigenic U concentration cannot serve as quantitative paleoproductivity proxies because they have also been influenced by detrital particle fluxes in the case of 10Be and bulk sedimentation rates (sediment focussing)...

  16. Age determination of lake Holzmar sediments

    Zolitschka, Bernd; Brauer, Achim; Stockhausen, Hagen; Lang, Andreas; Negendank, Jörg F W
    A record extending back to 23 220 calendar yr B.P. was obtained from varved sediments from Lake Holzmaar, Germany, by applying multiple dating methods and interlake comparison with Meerfelder Maar. Variations in the Weichselian inorganic carbon content resulting from intensified eolian activities coincide with proxy parameters of dust accumulation in Greenland. The timing for the end of the last glacial maximum at Holzmaar agrees with the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP2) data but suggests dating discrepancies with the Greenland Ice Core Project data (GRIP). Assuming that periods of maximum dust deposition in the Eifel and Greenland coincide with ice advances...

  17. Organic carbon and biomarker record from the Laptev Sea continental margin

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Niessen, Frank; Siebold, Martina
    In order to understand the processes controlling organic carbon deposition (i.e., primary productivity vs. terrigenous supply) and their paleoceanographic significance, three sediment cores (PS2471, PS2474. and PS2476) from the Laptev Sea continental margin were investigated for their content and composition of organic carbon. The characterization of organic matter indudes the determination of buk parameters (hydrogen index values and C/N ratios) and the analysis of specific biomarkers (n-alaknes, fatty acids, alkenones, and pigments). Total organic carbon (TOC) values vary between 0.3 and 2%. In general, the organic matter from the Laptev Sea continental margin is dominated by terrigenous matter throughout. However. significant...

  18. Organic carbon accumulation in the equatorial Atlantic

    Wagner, Thomas
    Organic geochemical records of the last 940 kyr are presented for equatorial Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites 663 and 664 and discussed with regard to the development of ocean productivity and African paleoclimate. Proportions of marine and terrigenous organic matter (OM) are estimated from elemental, pyrolytic, isotopic, and petrologic data. Spectral analyses reveal a strong power at the eccentricity and obliquity band, indicating a close response of tropical organic sedimentation to the climatic evolution at high latitudes. The orbital covariance of organic carbon with biogenous opal and terrigenous records favor that glacially enhanced dust supply and surface water mixing...

  19. Pliocene-Plistocene deposition of carbonate and organic carbon in ODP Hole 159-959C

    Wagner, Thomas
    During Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 159, four sites (Sites 959-962) were drilled along a depth transect on the Côte d'Ivoire/Ghana Transform Margin. In this study, the Pliocene-Pleistocene history of carbonate and organic carbon accumulation at Hole 959C is reconstructed for the eastern equatorial Atlantic off the Ivory Coast/Ghana based on bulk carbonate, sand fraction, organic carbon, and other organic geochemical records (d13Corg, marine organic matter percentages derived from organic petrology, hydrogen index, C/N). Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentation off the Ivory Coast/Ghana was strongly affected by low mean sedimentation rates, which are attributed to persistently enhanced bottom-water velocities related to the steep topography...

  20. Sedimentology and stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of the Central Arctic

    Nørgaard-Pedersen, Niels; Spielhagen, Robert F; Thiede, Jörn; Kassens, Heidemarie
    Stable oxygen and carbon isotope and sedimentological-paleontological investigations supported by accelerator mass spectrometry 14C datings were carried out on cores from north of 85°N in the eastern central Arctic Ocean. Significant changes in accumulation rates, provenance of ice-rafted debris (IRD), and planktic productivity over the past 80,000 years are documented. During peak glacials, i.e., oxygen isotope stages 4 and 2, the Arctic Ocean was covered by sea ice with decreased seasonal variation, limiting planktic productivity and bulk sedimentation rates. In early stage 3 and during Termination I, major deglaciations of the circum-Arctic regions caused lowered salinities and poor oxygenation of...

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