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Datasets with PANGAEA technical keyword @ORFOISatBIGSET2

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 5.130

  1. Alkenone analyses of sediment cores from the western Arabian Sea

    Budziak, Dörte
    Records of total organic carbon (TOC) and C37 alkenones were used as indicators for past primary productivity in the western and eastern Arabian Sea. Data from GeoB 3005, an open ocean site in the western Arabian Sea upwelling area, are compared with similar records of GeoB 3007 from the Owen Ridge, Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 723 from the continental margin off Oman and MD 900963 from the eastern Arabian Sea. TOC/C37 alkenone records together with other proxies used to reconstruct upwelling intensity, indicate periods of high productivity in tune with precessional forcing all over the Arabian Sea. Based on...

  2. Phospholipids in sediments of the deep Arabian Sea

    Boetius, Antje; Lochte, Karin
    Eight different sites from 2300 to 4420 m water depth in the Arabian Sea were sampled for a biochemical quantification of phospholipid concentrations in the sediments. This method serves as a measure of microbial biomass in marine sediments comprising all small-sized organisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and metazoa. Phospholipid concentrations can be converted to carbon units as an estimate of total microbial biomass in the sediments. The average phospholipid concentrations in the surface sediments (0-1 cm) of the 4 abyssal sites ranged from 7 nmol cm?3 at the southern site (SAST, 10°N 65°E, 4425 m) to 29 nmol/cm**3 at the...

  3. Bacterial activity in sediments of the deep Arabian Sea

    Boetius, Antje; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Lochte, Karin
    In the Arabian Sea, productivity in the surface waters and particle flux to the deep sea are controlled by monsoonal winds. The flux maxima during the South-West (June-September) and the North-East Monsoon (December-March) are some of the highest particle fluxes recorded with deep-sea sediment traps in the open ocean. Benthic microbial biomass and activities in surface sediments were measured for the first time in March 1995 subsequent to the NE-monsoon and in October 1995 subsequent to the SW-monsoon. These measurements were repeated in April/May 1997 and February/March 1998, at a total of six stations from 1920 to 4420 m water...

  4. Pore-water chemistry of abyssal Arabian Sea surface sediments

    Grandel, Sibylle; Rickert, Dirk; Schlüter, Michael; Wallmann, Klaus
    Benthic fluxes and pore-water compositions of silicic acid, nitrate and phosphate were investigated for surface sediments of the abyssal Arabian Sea during four cruises (1995-1998). Five sites located in the northern (NAST), western (WAST), central (CAST), eastern (EAST), and southern (SAST) Arabian Sea were revisited during intermonsoonal periods after the NE- and SW-Monsoon. At these sites, benthic fluxes of remineralized nutrients from the sediment to the bottom water of 36-106, 102-350 and 4-16 mmol/m**2/yr were measured for nitrate, silicic acid and phosphate, respectively. The benthic fluxes and pore-water compositions showed a distinct regional pattern. Highest fluxes were observed in the...

  5. A review of Si particle fluxes in the modern ocean

    Ragueneau, Olivier; Tréguer, Paul; Leynaert, Aude; Anderson, Robert F; Brzezinski, Mark A; DeMaster, David J; Dugdale, Richard; Dymond, Jack R; Fischer, Gerhard; Francois, Roger; Heinze, Christoph; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Martin-Jézéquel, Véronique; Nelson, David M; Quéguiner, Bernard
    Due to the major role played by diatoms in the biological pump of CO2, and to the presence of silica-rich sediments in areas that play a major role in air-sea CO2 exchange (e.g. the Southern Ocean and the Equatorial Pacific), opal has a strong potential as a proxy for paleoproductivity reconstructions. However, because of spatial variations in the biogenic silica preservation, and in the degree of coupling between the marine Si and C biogeochemical cycles, paleoreconstructions are not straitghtforward. A better calibration of this proxy in the modern ocean is required, which needs a good understanding of the mechanisms that...

  6. Living benthic foraminifera of the western and southern Arabian Sea

    Heinz, Petra; Hemleben, Christoph
    Sediments from the western and southern part of the Arabian Sea were collected periodically in the spring intermonsoon between March and May 1997 and additionally at the end of the Northeast Monsoon in February 1998. Assemblages of Rose Bengal stained, living deep-sea benthic foraminifera, their densities, vertical distribution pattern, and diversity were analysed after the Northeast Monsoon and short-time changes were recorded. In the western Arabian Sea, foraminiferal numbers increased steadily between March and the beginning of May, especially in the smaller size classes (30-63 µm, 63-125 µm). At the same time, the deepening of the foraminiferal living horizon, variable...

  7. Planktonic foraminifera in the Arabian Sea

    Ivanova, Elena V; Schiebel, Ralf; Singh, Arun Deo; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Niebler, Hans-Stefan; Hemleben, Christoph
    Variations in primary productivity (PP) have been reconstructed in eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic parts of the Arabian Sea over the past 135 000 years applying principal component analysis and transfer function to planktic foraminiferal assemblages. Temporal variation in paleoproductivity is most pronounced in the mesotrophic northern (NAST site) and oligotrophic eastern (EAST site) Arabian Sea, and comparatively weak in the western eutrophic GeoB 3011-1 site in the upwelling area off Oman. Higher PP during interglacials (250-320 g C/m**2 year) than during cold stages (210-270 g C/m**2 year) at GeoB 3011-1 could have been caused by a strengthened upwelling during intensified...

  8. Distribution of diatoms, coccolithophores and planktic foraminifera in the Arabian Sea

    Schiebel, Ralf; Zeltner, A; Treppke, Ute F; Waniek, Joanna J; Bollmann, Jörg; Rixen, Tim; Hemleben, Christoph
    The distribution of diatoms, coccolithophores and planktic foraminifers mirrored the hydrographic and trophic conditions of the surface ocean (0-100 m) across the upwelling area off the Oman coast to the central Arabian Sea during May/June 1997 and July/August 1995. The number of diatoms was increased in waters with local temperature minimum and enhanced nutrient concentration (nitrate, phosphate, silicate) caused by upwelling. Vegetative cells of Chaetoceros dominated the diatom assemblage in the coastal upwelling area. Towards the more nutrient depleted and stratified surface waters to the southeast, the number of diatoms decreased, coccolithophore and planktic foraminiferal numbers increased, and floral and...

  9. Aerosols over the Arabian Sea

    Tindale, Neil; Pease, P
    This paper provides an overview of dust transport pathways and concentrations over the Arabian Sea during 1995. Results indicate that the transport and input of dust to the region is complex, being affected by both temporally and spatially important processes. Highest values of dust were found off the Omani coast and in the entrance to the Gulf of Oman. Dust levels were generally lower in summer than the other seasons, although still relatively high compared to other oceanic regions. The Findlater jet, rather than acting as a source of dust from Africa, appears to block the direct transport of dust...

  10. Benthic foraminifera in surface sediments of the Arabian Sea

    Heinz, Petra; Hemleben, Christoph
    Assemblages of living deep-sea benthic foraminifera, their densities, vertical distribution pattern, and diversity, were investigated in the intermonsoon period after the northeast monsoon in the Arabian Sea in spring 1997. Foraminiferal numbers show a distinct gradient from north to south, with a maximum of 623 foraminifera in 50 cm**3 at the northern site. High percentages of small foraminifera were found in the western and northern part of the Arabian Sea. Most stations show a typical vertical distribution with a maximum in the first centimeter and decreasing numbers with increasing sediment depths. But at the central station, high densities can be...

  11. Lead 210 concentrations in sediments of the Arabian Sea

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Witte, Ursula; Graf, Gerhard
    In order to evaluate bioturbation in abyssal Arabian-Sea sediments of the Indus fan profiles of 210Pb (half-life: 22.3 yr) and 234Th (half-life: 24.1 d) were measured in cores collected during September and October 1995 and April 1997, respectively. The density and composition of epibenthic megafauna and lebensspuren were determined in vertical seafloor photographs during April 1997. Mean eddy-diffusive mixing coefficients according to the distribution of excess 210Pb ( 210Pb-DB) were 0.072±0.028, 0.068±0.055, 0.373±0.119, 0.037±0.009 and 0.079±0.119 cm**2 yr**-1 in the northern, western, central, eastern and southern abyssal Arabian sea, respectively. Mean eddy-diffusive mixing coefficients according to the distribution of excess...

  12. Living benthic foraminiferal assemblages in surface samples of the Arabian Sea

    Kurbjeweit, Frank; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Schiebel, Ralf; Hemleben, Christoph; Pfannkuche, Olaf; Wallmann, Klaus; Schäfer, Priska
    The distribution, biomass, and diversity of living (Rose Bengal stained) deep-sea benthic foraminifera (>30 µm) were investigated with multicorer samples from seven stations in the Arabian Sea during the intermonsoonal periods in March and in September/October, 1995. Water depths of the stations ranged between 1916 and 4425 m. The distribution of benthic foraminifera was compared with dissolved oxygen, % organic carbon, % calcium carbonate, ammonium, % silica, chloroplastic pigment equivalents, sand content, pore water content of the sediment, and organic carbon flux to explain the foraminiferal patterns and depositional environments. A total of six species-communities comprising 178 living species were identified...

  13. Pigment concentrations in surface sediments of the Arabian Sea

    Pfannkuche, Olaf; Sommer, Stefan; Kähler, A
    As part of the large-scale, interdisciplinary deep-sea study "BIGSET", the relationship between the monsoon-induced regional and temporal variability of POC deposition and the small-sized benthic community was investigated at several sites 2316-4420 m deep in the Arabian Sea during four cruises between 1995 and 1998. Vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of chloroplastic pigments (a measure of phytodetritus deposition), readily soluble protein and activity, and biomass parameters of the small-sized benthic community (Electron Transport System Activity (ETSA); bacterial ectoenzymatic activity (FDA turnover) and DNA concentrations) were measured concurrently with the vertical fluxes of POC and chloroplastic pigments. Sediment chlorophyll a (chl....

  14. Global compilation of benthic data sets I

    Seiter, Katherina; Hensen, Christian; Schröter, Jürgen; Zabel, Matthias
    Approaches to quantify the organic carbon accumulation on a global scale generally do not consider the small-scale variability of sedimentary and oceanographic boundary conditions along continental margins. In this study, we present a new approach to regionalize the total organic carbon (TOC) content in surface sediments (<5 cm sediment depth). It is based on a compilation of more than 5500 single measurements from various sources. Global TOC distribution was determined by the application of a combined qualitative and quantitative-geostatistical method. Overall, 33 benthic TOC-based provinces were defined and used to process the global distribution pattern of the TOC content in...

  15. Global data compilation of benthic data sets II

    Seiter, Katherina; Hensen, Christian; Zabel, Matthias
    In this study we present a global distribution pattern and budget of the minimum flux of particulate organic carbon to the sea floor (J POC alpha). The estimations are based on regionally specific correlations between the diffusive oxygen flux across the sediment-water interface, the total organic carbon content in surface sediments, and the oxygen concentration in bottom waters. For this, we modified the principal equation of Cai and Reimers [1995] as a basic monod reaction rate, applied within 11 regions where in situ measurements of diffusive oxygen uptake exist. By application of the resulting transfer functions to other regions with...

  16. Stable isotope ratios of foraminifera from various DSDP/ODP sites

    Zachos, James C; Stott, Lowell D; Lohmann, Kyger C
    The equator to high southern latitude sea surface and vertical temperature gradients are reconstructed from oxygen isotope values of planktonic and benthic foraminifers for the following five time intervals: late Paleocene, early Eocene, early middle Eocene, late Eocene, and early Oligocene. Paleotemperatures are calculated using standard oxygen isotope/temperature equations with adjustments to account for (1) variations in sea water delta18O related to changes in global ice volume over time and (2) latitudinal gradients in surface water delta18O. These reconstructions indicate that sea-surface temperatures (SST) of the Southern Oceans in the early Eocene were as high as 15°C, whereas temperatures during...

  17. Ge/Si record of marine biogenic opal

    Shemesh, Aldo; Mortlock, Richard A; Froelich, Philip N
    We have determined germanium/silicon ratios in purified diatoms and radiolarians from siliceous sediments in Holocene core tops, one late Pleistocene piston core, and four high-latitude Southern Ocean Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sites ranging in age from Holocene to Oligocene. High-latitude Holocene diatoms in the 10- to 38-µm size fraction ([Ge/Si]opal = 0.693 +/- 0.039 * 10**-6) faithfully record the present oceanic ratio ([Ge/Si]seawater = 0.699 +/- 0.004 * 10**-6). This confirms that diatoms from siliceous oozes are monitors of seawater Ge/Si and may record past changes in rates of delivery of weathering products to the sea from continental and...

  18. Calcium carbonate global LGM Burial rate data

    Catubig, Nina R; Archer, David E; Francois, Roger; deMenocal, Peter B; Howard, William R; Yu, Ein-Fen
    Global databases of calcium carbonate concentrations and mass accumulation rates in Holocene and last glacial maximum sediments were used to estimate the deep-sea sedimentary calcium carbonate burial rate during these two time intervals. Sparse calcite mass accumulation rate data were extrapolated across regions of varying calcium carbonate concentration using a gridded map of calcium carbonate concentrations and the assumption that accumulation of noncarbonate material is uncorrelated with calcite concentration within some geographical region. Mean noncarbonate accumulation rates were estimated within each of nine regions, determined by the distribution and nature of the accumulation rate data. For core-top sediments the regions...

  19. Age determination of North Atlantic sediment cores

    Bard, Édouard; Fairbanks, Richard G; Maurice, Pierre; Duprat, Josette M; Moyes, Jean; Duplessy, Jean-Claude
    Coupled measurements of delta18O and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C in a particular species of planktonic foraminifera may be used to calculate sea-level estimates for the last deglaciation. Of critical importance for this type of study is a knowledge of the seasonality of foraminiferal growth, which can be provided by delta18O measurements of modern shells (core tops, plankton tows). Isotopic (delta18O, AMS-14C dating) and faunal records (transfer function sea surface temperature) were obtained from two cores in the North Atlantic at about 37°N. The locations were chosen to obtain high sedimentation rate records removed from the major ice-melt discharge areas...

  20. Size distribution of Holocene planktic foraminifer assemblages

    Schmidt, Daniela N; Renaud, Sabrina; Bollmann, Jörg; Schiebel, Ralf; Thierstein, Hans R
    The size of any organism is influenced by the surrounding ecological conditions. In this study, we investigate the effects of such factors on the size spectra of planktic foraminiferal assemblages from Holocene surface sediments. We analyzed assemblages from 69 Holocene samples, which cover the major physical and chemical gradients of the oceans. On a global scale, the range of sizes in assemblages triples from the poles to the tropics. This general temperature-related size increase is interrupted by smaller sizes at temperatures characteristic of the polar and subtropical fronts, at 2°C and 17°C, respectively, as well as in upwelling areas. On...

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