Sauerstoff-Isotopenuntersuchungen wurden an frischem Diatomeenopal aus der obersten Wassersäule, Diatomeen aus Kulturen, sowie an sedimentärem Diatomeenopal durchgeführt, um die Anwendbarkeit von d18O-Signalen aus marinen Diatomeen für paläozeanographische Fragestellungen zu untersuchen.
Diatomeenopal ist, besonders aus Sedimentproben, schwierig anzureichern. Physikalische und chemische Verfahren müssen mehrfach angewendet werden, um Proben zu erhalten, die den für Sauerstoff-Isotopenmessungen erforderlichen Reinheitsgrad aufweisen. Die Ausgangskonzentration an Diatomeen im Probenmaterial wirkt sich hierbei erheblich auf den Erfolg der Reinigung aus.
Verläßliche und reproduzierbare d18O-Werte können nur an sehr reinen Diatomeenproben bestimmt werden. Mittels mikroskopischer Untersuchungen (Durchlichtmikroskopie, Rasterelektronenrnikroskopie), Röntgendiffraktametrie und geochernischer Analysen am ICP-MS können z.T. Art und Menge von Verunreinigungen...
Ragueneau, Olivier; Tréguer, Paul; Leynaert, Aude; Anderson, Robert F; Brzezinski, Mark A; DeMaster, David J; Dugdale, Richard; Dymond, Jack R; Fischer, Gerhard; Francois, Roger; Heinze, Christoph; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Martin-Jézéquel, Véronique; Nelson, David M; Quéguiner, Bernard
Due to the major role played by diatoms in the biological pump of CO2, and to the presence of silica-rich sediments in areas that play a major role in air-sea CO2 exchange (e.g. the Southern Ocean and the Equatorial Pacific), opal has a strong potential as a proxy for paleoproductivity reconstructions. However, because of spatial variations in the biogenic silica preservation, and in the degree of coupling between the marine Si and C biogeochemical cycles, paleoreconstructions are not straitghtforward. A better calibration of this proxy in the modern ocean is required, which needs a good understanding of the mechanisms that...
Vink, Annemiek; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Boeckel, Babette; Esper, Oliver; Kinkel, Hanno; Volbers, Andrea N A; Willems, Helmut; Zonneveld, Karin A F
Individual planktonic microfossil species, or assemblage groups of different species, are often used to, qualitatively and/or quantitatively, reconstruct past (sub)surface-water conditions of the world's oceans and seas. Until now, little information has been available on the surface sediment distribution patterns and paleoenvironmental reconstruction potential of coccolith, calcareous dinoflagellate cyst and organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages of the South and equatorial Atlantic, especially at the species level. This paper (i) summarizes the distributions of these three phytoplanktonic microfossil groups in numerous Atlantic surface sediments from 20°N-50°S and 30°E-65°W and determines their relationship with the physicochemical and trophic conditions of the overlying (sub)surface-waters,...
Meggers, Helge; Freudenthal, Tim; Nave, Silvia Osorio; Targarona, Jordi; Abrantes, Fatima F; Helmke, Peer
The Canary Islands region occupies a key position with respect to biogeochemical cycles, with the zonal transition from oligotrophic to nutrient-rich waters and the contribution of Saharan dust to the particle flux. We present the distribution of geochemical proxies (TOC, carbonate, d15N, d13Corg, C/N-ratio) and micropaleontological parameters (diatoms, dinoflagellates, foraminifera, pteropods), in 80 surface-sediment samples in order to characterise the influence of coastally upwelled water on the domain of the subtropical gyre.
Results of the surface-sediment analyses confirmed the high biomass gradient from the coast to the open ocean inferred from satellite data of surface chlorophyll or SST. The distribution of...
Kuhn, Gerhard; Usbeck, Regina
Müller, Peter J; Fischer, Gerhard
We analysed long-chain alkenones in sinking particles and surface sediments from the filamentous upwelling region off Cape Blanc, NW Africa, to evaluate the transfer of surface water signals into the geological record. Our study is based on time-series sediment trap records from 730 m (1990-1991) to 2195-3562 m depth (1988-1991). Alkenone fluxes showed considerable interannual variations and no consistent seasonality. The average flux of C37 and C38 alkenones to the deep traps was 1.9 µg/m**2/d from March 1988 to October 1990 and sevenfold higher in the subsequent year. Alkenone fluxes to the shallower traps were on average twice as high...
Dupont, Lydie M; Beug, Hans-Jürgen; Stalling, H; Tiedemann, Ralf
Ocean Drilling Program Site 658 at 21°N off northwest Africa has a high sedimentation rate and a high concentration of pollen grains and is thus very suitable for detailed pollen analysis.
The time scale for the upper 100 m (the last 670 k.y.) of Site 658 is based on biostratigraphic data and isotope stratigraphy. The pollen record has been divided into 34 zones. These are classified into 7 zone types covering a range from very arid to rather humid conditions.
The sequence shows a long-term climatic decline: strong glacial stages were found only after 480 k.y. and strong interglacial stages only before...
Wien, Katharina; Holz, Christine; Kölling, Martin; Schulz, Horst D
This study of sediments from the Cap Timiris Canyon demonstrates that geochemical data can provide reliable age-depth correlation even of highly turbiditic cores and attempts to improve our understanding of how turbidite emplacement is linked to climatic-related sea-level changes. The canyon incises the continental margin off NW Africa and is an active conduit for turbidity currents. In sediment cores from levee and intrachannel sites turbidites make up 6-42% of sediment columns. Age models were fitted to all studied cores by correlating downcore element data to dated reference cores, once turbidite beds had been removed from the dataset. These age models...
Pflaumann, Uwe; Sarnthein, Michael; Ficken, Katherine; Grothmann, Alexandra; Winkler, Amelie
Site 958 was drilled to monitor the late Neogene history of both continental aridity in northwestern Africa and the Canary Current distant from nearshore upwelling. Based on magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphic datums, variations in carbonate, coarse fraction components, and the species composition of planktonic foraminifers, as well as using the d18O records of Globigerinoides ruber (white), we established a splice between Holes 958A and 958B and a stratigraphic age scale deciphering Milankovitch cycles. Over the last 630 k.y., sedimentation rates amount to 2.9 cm/k.y., and to 2.05-2.53 cm/k.y. back to the base of the Pleistocene. Extremely low rates of 0.4 cm/k.y. and...
Romero, Oscar E; Lange, Carina Beatriz; Wefer, Gerold
Four years of observations (1988-1991) of downward fluxes of diatoms and silicoflagellates at a trap site off Cape Blanc (ca. 20°N, 20°W), northwest Africa, are presented. Significant variations in flux and species composition were observed as well as a marked drop in the export of biogenic opal (and diatoms) from 1988 to 1989; fluxes remained low thereafter. We hypothesize that this diminution might be related to decreased coastal upwelling intensity and offshore spreading of the typical chlorophyll filament, and/or a lesser silicate content of upwelling waters off Cape Blanc. In addition, the more seaward positioning of the mooring may have...
Seiter, Katherina; Hensen, Christian; Schröter, Jürgen; Zabel, Matthias
Approaches to quantify the organic carbon accumulation on a global scale generally do not consider the small-scale variability of sedimentary and oceanographic boundary conditions along continental margins. In this study, we present a new approach to regionalize the total organic carbon (TOC) content in surface sediments (<5 cm sediment depth). It is based on a compilation of more than 5500 single measurements from various sources. Global TOC distribution was determined by the application of a combined qualitative and quantitative-geostatistical method. Overall, 33 benthic TOC-based provinces were defined and used to process the global distribution pattern of the TOC content in...
Seiter, Katherina; Hensen, Christian; Zabel, Matthias
In this study we present a global distribution pattern and budget of the minimum flux of particulate organic carbon to the sea floor (J POC alpha). The estimations are based on regionally specific correlations between the diffusive oxygen flux across the sediment-water interface, the total organic carbon content in surface sediments, and the oxygen concentration in bottom waters. For this, we modified the principal equation of Cai and Reimers  as a basic monod reaction rate, applied within 11 regions where in situ measurements of diffusive oxygen uptake exist. By application of the resulting transfer functions to other regions with...
Gerhardt, Sabine; Henrich, Rüdiger
Over 300 surface sediment samples from the Central and South Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea were investigated for the preservation state of the aragonitic test of Limacina inflata. Results are displayed in spatial distribution maps and are plotted against cross-sections of vertical water mass configurations, illustrating the relationship between preservation state, saturation state of the overlying waters, and overall water mass distribution. The microscopic investigation of L. inflata (adults) yielded the Limacina dissolution index (LDX), and revealed three regional dissolution patterns. In the western Atlantic Ocean, sedimentary preservation states correspond to saturation states in the overlying waters. Poor preservation...
Christensen, John P; Packard, Ted T
Sediments off northwest Africa were assayed for activities of the respiratory electron transport system (ETS) and for primary amino nitrogen. ETS activities were used to compute respiratory oxygen consuption, carbon oxidation, and nitrate reduction rates. Activities were correlated with depth of the water column, and their longshore distribution resembled that of euphotic zone phytoplankton productivity. Protein concentrations were closely correlated with ETS activities. Carbon biomass was calculated from protein and compared with other computed values. The carbon oxidation rate accounted for 13 % of the region's primary production.
Jahnke, Richard A; Emerson, Steven R; Reimers, Clare; Schuffert, Jeffrey D; Ruttenberg, K; Archer, David E
Distributions of pore water O2, NO-2, NO-3, NH+4, Si(OH)4, PO[3-]4, Mn[2+], F-, and T.A. were determined at 15 stations in the eastern equatorial Atlantic. While overall profile characteristics are consistent with previous models of organic matter diagenesis, profile shapes suggest that a deep reaction layer, rich in organic C, is also present at many sites. While it is unlikely that the oxidation of organic C in this layer has had a major effect on the ocean C cycle, pore water profile shapes are significantly altered. Despite exposure to seawater SO[2-]4 concentrations for > 1000 years, decomposition of the organic matter...
Zhao, Meixun; Beveridge, N; Shackleton, Nicholas J; Sarnthein, Michael; Eglinton, Geoffrey
The molecular stratigraphy of Biogeochemical Oceanic Flux Study core 31K (19°N, 20°10'W) and Ocean Drilling Program Hole 658C (20°45'N, 18°35'W) has been studied for C37 alkenone abundances over the past 80 ka at high resolution (~circa 200-500 years). The derived Uk 37' sea surface temperature record for both cores shows a range of temperatures from about 18°C during the last glacial to 21.5°C during the early Holocene. Both records also reveal changes in sea surface temperature as much as 2°-4°C over a few hundred years, which correlate well with similar abrupt climatic changes observed in cores from elsewhere in the...
Broecker, Wallace S; Lao, Yong; Klas, Mieczyslawa; Clark, Elizabeth; Bonani, Georges; Ivy, Susan; Chen, Chin
The CO2 record for air bubbles from the Byrd Station ice core suggest a drawdown in the ocean-atmosphere carbon reservoir during the early Holocene. Such a drawdown would require a corresponding increase in the CO3= ion concentration in the deep sea. We report here the results of a search in Atlantic sediments for evidence that the lysocline showed a corresponding deepening. While both the pteropod and the calcite preservation records we have obtained are consistent with expectation, they are not conclusive.
Abrantes, Fatima F
Diatom abundance and species composition were quantitatively studied in two latest Quaternary (~130 ka to the Present) sequences from the continental margin of northwest Africa. Off this region, coastal upwelling is well developed under the influence of the NE trade winds. Variations in diatom abundance in these cores are inferred to represent changes caused by varying degrees of the upwelling fertility. Times of high productivity are marked by high relative frequencies of Chaetoceros, while low productivity is marked by the dominance of Aulacoseira granulata. Upwelling increased during glacial episodes (isotopic stages 2-4 and 6) relative to isotopic stages 1 and...
Kuhlmann, Holger; Freudenthal, Tim; Helmke, Peer; Meggers, Helge
A set of 43 sediment cores from around the Canary Islands is used to characterise this region, which intersects meridional climatic regimes and zonal productivity gradients in a high spatial resolution. Using rapid and nondestructive core logging techniques we carried out Fe intensity and magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements and created a stack on the basis of five stratigraphic reference cores, for which a stratigraphic age model was available from d18O and 14C analyses on planktonic foraminifera. By correlation of the stack with the Fe and MS records of the other cores, we were able to develop age depth models at...
Zonneveld, Karin A F; Höll, Christine; Janofske, Dorothea; Karwath, Britta; Kerntopf, Beate; Rühlemann, Carsten; Willems, Helmut
An overview is presented of the current state of knowledge on paleo-ecological aspects of calcareous dinoflagellate resting cysts. Apart from literature-based information, a discussion of new results is also provided from Equatorial Atlantic surface plankton samples, surface sediment samples and Late Quaternary sediments from two gravity cores. With the aid of redundancy analysis statistics, variations in the calcareous cyst content of both cores are correlated to variations in total organic carbon (TOC). On a global scale, the calcareous cyst distribution in bottom sediments varies with latitude and inshore-offshore gradients. In the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, enhanced calcareous cyst production can be...