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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 10.817

  1. Discarge compilation from The Global River Discharge (RivDIS) Project

    Vörösmarty, Charles J; Fekete, B M; Tucker, B A
    The Global River Discharge (RivDIS) data set contains monthly discharge measurements for 1018 stations located throughout the world. The period of record varies widely from station to station, with a mean of 21.5 years. These data were digitized from published UNESCO archives by Charles Voromarty, Balaze Fekete, and B.A. Tucker of the Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC) at the University of New Hampshire. River discharge is typically measured through the use of a rating curve that relates local water level height to discharge. This rating curve is used to estimate discharge from the observed water level. The rating curves are periodically...

  2. Discarge compilation from The Global River Discharge (RivDIS) Project

    Vörösmarty, Charles J; Fekete, B M; Tucker, B A
    The Global River Discharge (RivDIS) data set contains monthly discharge measurements for 1018 stations located throughout the world. The period of record varies widely from station to station, with a mean of 21.5 years. These data were digitized from published UNESCO archives by Charles Voromarty, Balaze Fekete, and B.A. Tucker of the Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC) at the University of New Hampshire. River discharge is typically measured through the use of a rating curve that relates local water level height to discharge. This rating curve is used to estimate discharge from the observed water level. The rating curves are periodically...

  3. Discarge compilation from The Global River Discharge (RivDIS) Project

    Vörösmarty, Charles J; Fekete, B M; Tucker, B A
    The Global River Discharge (RivDIS) data set contains monthly discharge measurements for 1018 stations located throughout the world. The period of record varies widely from station to station, with a mean of 21.5 years. These data were digitized from published UNESCO archives by Charles Voromarty, Balaze Fekete, and B.A. Tucker of the Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC) at the University of New Hampshire. River discharge is typically measured through the use of a rating curve that relates local water level height to discharge. This rating curve is used to estimate discharge from the observed water level. The rating curves are periodically...

  4. Stable oxygen isotope in opal and seawater

    Anders, Tania-Maria
    Sauerstoff-Isotopenuntersuchungen wurden an frischem Diatomeenopal aus der obersten Wassersäule, Diatomeen aus Kulturen, sowie an sedimentärem Diatomeenopal durchgeführt, um die Anwendbarkeit von d18O-Signalen aus marinen Diatomeen für paläozeanographische Fragestellungen zu untersuchen. Diatomeenopal ist, besonders aus Sedimentproben, schwierig anzureichern. Physikalische und chemische Verfahren müssen mehrfach angewendet werden, um Proben zu erhalten, die den für Sauerstoff-Isotopenmessungen erforderlichen Reinheitsgrad aufweisen. Die Ausgangskonzentration an Diatomeen im Probenmaterial wirkt sich hierbei erheblich auf den Erfolg der Reinigung aus. Verläßliche und reproduzierbare d18O-Werte können nur an sehr reinen Diatomeenproben bestimmt werden. Mittels mikroskopischer Untersuchungen (Durchlichtmikroskopie, Rasterelektronenrnikroskopie), Röntgendiffraktametrie und geochernischer Analysen am ICP-MS können z.T. Art und Menge von Verunreinigungen...

  5. Stable oxygen isotope in opal and seawater

    Anders, Tania-Maria
    Sauerstoff-Isotopenuntersuchungen wurden an frischem Diatomeenopal aus der obersten Wassersäule, Diatomeen aus Kulturen, sowie an sedimentärem Diatomeenopal durchgeführt, um die Anwendbarkeit von d18O-Signalen aus marinen Diatomeen für paläozeanographische Fragestellungen zu untersuchen. Diatomeenopal ist, besonders aus Sedimentproben, schwierig anzureichern. Physikalische und chemische Verfahren müssen mehrfach angewendet werden, um Proben zu erhalten, die den für Sauerstoff-Isotopenmessungen erforderlichen Reinheitsgrad aufweisen. Die Ausgangskonzentration an Diatomeen im Probenmaterial wirkt sich hierbei erheblich auf den Erfolg der Reinigung aus. Verläßliche und reproduzierbare d18O-Werte können nur an sehr reinen Diatomeenproben bestimmt werden. Mittels mikroskopischer Untersuchungen (Durchlichtmikroskopie, Rasterelektronenrnikroskopie), Röntgendiffraktametrie und geochernischer Analysen am ICP-MS können z.T. Art und Menge von Verunreinigungen...

  6. A review of Si particle fluxes in the modern ocean

    Ragueneau, Olivier; Tréguer, Paul; Leynaert, Aude; Anderson, Robert F; Brzezinski, Mark A; DeMaster, David J; Dugdale, Richard; Dymond, Jack R; Fischer, Gerhard; Francois, Roger; Heinze, Christoph; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Martin-Jézéquel, Véronique; Nelson, David M; Quéguiner, Bernard
    Due to the major role played by diatoms in the biological pump of CO2, and to the presence of silica-rich sediments in areas that play a major role in air-sea CO2 exchange (e.g. the Southern Ocean and the Equatorial Pacific), opal has a strong potential as a proxy for paleoproductivity reconstructions. However, because of spatial variations in the biogenic silica preservation, and in the degree of coupling between the marine Si and C biogeochemical cycles, paleoreconstructions are not straitghtforward. A better calibration of this proxy in the modern ocean is required, which needs a good understanding of the mechanisms that...

  7. A review of Si particle fluxes in the modern ocean

    Ragueneau, Olivier; Tréguer, Paul; Leynaert, Aude; Anderson, Robert F; Brzezinski, Mark A; DeMaster, David J; Dugdale, Richard; Dymond, Jack R; Fischer, Gerhard; Francois, Roger; Heinze, Christoph; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Martin-Jézéquel, Véronique; Nelson, David M; Quéguiner, Bernard
    Due to the major role played by diatoms in the biological pump of CO2, and to the presence of silica-rich sediments in areas that play a major role in air-sea CO2 exchange (e.g. the Southern Ocean and the Equatorial Pacific), opal has a strong potential as a proxy for paleoproductivity reconstructions. However, because of spatial variations in the biogenic silica preservation, and in the degree of coupling between the marine Si and C biogeochemical cycles, paleoreconstructions are not straitghtforward. A better calibration of this proxy in the modern ocean is required, which needs a good understanding of the mechanisms that...

  8. Carbonate and Thorium concentrations of South Atlantic sediments

    Goldberg, Edward D; Griffin, John J
    Rates of sedimentation of pelagic sediments in the South Atlantic have been determined using the ionium/thorium methodology. Values of the order of several millimeters per thousand years for sediments were found in the deposits in the valleys of the mid-Atlantic ridge. The equatorial deposits showed higher rates of accumulation than the corresponding deposits at higher latitudes, probably reflecting the added influx of materials to the sea floor from tropical rivers through the equatorial current systems. The deposits in the ridge valleys showed marked changes in sedimentation rates at about 115,000 years ago, at which time the present rates changed from...

  9. Carbonate and Thorium concentrations of South Atlantic sediments

    Goldberg, Edward D; Griffin, John J
    Rates of sedimentation of pelagic sediments in the South Atlantic have been determined using the ionium/thorium methodology. Values of the order of several millimeters per thousand years for sediments were found in the deposits in the valleys of the mid-Atlantic ridge. The equatorial deposits showed higher rates of accumulation than the corresponding deposits at higher latitudes, probably reflecting the added influx of materials to the sea floor from tropical rivers through the equatorial current systems. The deposits in the ridge valleys showed marked changes in sedimentation rates at about 115,000 years ago, at which time the present rates changed from...

  10. Lipids and nitrogen isotopes of deep-water corals

    Kiriakoulakis, Kostas; Fisher, Elizabeth; Wolff, George A; Freiwald, André; Grehan, Anthony J; Roberts, Murray J
    The lipid and organic nitrogen isotopic (delta15N) compositions of two common deep-water corals (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata) collected from selected locations of the NE Atlantic are compared to the composition of suspended particulate organic matter, in order to determine their principle food source. Initial results suggest that they may feed primarily on zooplankton. This is based on the increased abundances of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and alcohols and the different ratios of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, 22:6/20:5 of the corals when compared to those of the suspended particulate organic matter. There is enrichment in L. pertusa of mono-unsaturated fatty acids...

  11. Lipids and nitrogen isotopes of deep-water corals

    Kiriakoulakis, Kostas; Fisher, Elizabeth; Wolff, George A; Freiwald, André; Grehan, Anthony J; Roberts, Murray J
    The lipid and organic nitrogen isotopic (delta15N) compositions of two common deep-water corals (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata) collected from selected locations of the NE Atlantic are compared to the composition of suspended particulate organic matter, in order to determine their principle food source. Initial results suggest that they may feed primarily on zooplankton. This is based on the increased abundances of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and alcohols and the different ratios of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, 22:6/20:5 of the corals when compared to those of the suspended particulate organic matter. There is enrichment in L. pertusa of mono-unsaturated fatty acids...

  12. Calcareous dinoflagellate cycst in the mid-Cenomanian Boreal realm

    Wendler, Jens E; Gräfe, Kai-Uwe; Willems, Helmut
    A transect from the bathyal to proximal shelf facies of the Boreal Realm was investigated to compare spatial and temporal distribution changes of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts (c-dinocysts) throughout the mid-Cenomanian in order to gain information on the ecology of these organisms. Pithonelloideae dominated the cyst assemblages to more than 95% on the shelf, a prevalence that can be observed throughout most of the Upper Cretaceous. The affinity of this group with the dinoflagellates, which is still controversially discussed, can be confirmed, based on evidence from morphological features and distribution patterns. The consistent prevalence of Pithonella sphaerica and P. ovalis in...

  13. Calcareous dinoflagellate cycst in the mid-Cenomanian Boreal realm

    Wendler, Jens E; Gräfe, Kai-Uwe; Willems, Helmut
    A transect from the bathyal to proximal shelf facies of the Boreal Realm was investigated to compare spatial and temporal distribution changes of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts (c-dinocysts) throughout the mid-Cenomanian in order to gain information on the ecology of these organisms. Pithonelloideae dominated the cyst assemblages to more than 95% on the shelf, a prevalence that can be observed throughout most of the Upper Cretaceous. The affinity of this group with the dinoflagellates, which is still controversially discussed, can be confirmed, based on evidence from morphological features and distribution patterns. The consistent prevalence of Pithonella sphaerica and P. ovalis in...

  14. Pollen records and datings of five sediment profiles from Oder valley in Germany

    Jahns, Susanne
    High-resolution Holocene pollen profiles from lakes Großer Krebssee and Felchowsee, in the Lower Oder valley, north-eastern Germany, are presented. The Großer Krebssee profile includes a Late-glacial sequence. These investigations have been carried out in the context of a programme of archaeological excavation. AMS radiocarbon dates (26 in all) based on pollen concentrates have been used to provide a chronology for the pollen records. Holocene forest history and human impact are reconstructed for contrasting landscapes, namely, the Neuenhagener Oderinsel in the Lower Oderbruch (Großer Krebssee profile) and the more fertile Uckermärker Hügelland (Felchowsee profile) that lies immediately to the north. Both...

  15. Pollen records and datings of five sediment profiles from Oder valley in Germany

    Jahns, Susanne
    High-resolution Holocene pollen profiles from lakes Großer Krebssee and Felchowsee, in the Lower Oder valley, north-eastern Germany, are presented. The Großer Krebssee profile includes a Late-glacial sequence. These investigations have been carried out in the context of a programme of archaeological excavation. AMS radiocarbon dates (26 in all) based on pollen concentrates have been used to provide a chronology for the pollen records. Holocene forest history and human impact are reconstructed for contrasting landscapes, namely, the Neuenhagener Oderinsel in the Lower Oderbruch (Großer Krebssee profile) and the more fertile Uckermärker Hügelland (Felchowsee profile) that lies immediately to the north. Both...

  16. Pollen record and dating of a sediment profile from Ücker Valley in Germany

    Jahns, Susanne
    A high-resolution Late Pleistocene and Middle to Late Holocene pollen profile of regional significance is presented. The coring site is located in a mire between two lakes. Ober- and Unter-Ückersee, in Brandenburg, north-eastern Germany. The study was carried out in an archaeological context. It provides information about the history of vegetation, climate and human impact in the Ücker river valley and the surrounding hills, the Uckermärker Hügelland. Hence, it is an important contribution for the reconstruction of the past vegetation of this area of Brandenburg. Seven AMS 14C-dates based on pollen concentrates provide a chronology for the middle Holocene part...

  17. Pollen record and dating of a sediment profile from Ücker Valley in Germany

    Jahns, Susanne
    A high-resolution Late Pleistocene and Middle to Late Holocene pollen profile of regional significance is presented. The coring site is located in a mire between two lakes. Ober- and Unter-Ückersee, in Brandenburg, north-eastern Germany. The study was carried out in an archaeological context. It provides information about the history of vegetation, climate and human impact in the Ücker river valley and the surrounding hills, the Uckermärker Hügelland. Hence, it is an important contribution for the reconstruction of the past vegetation of this area of Brandenburg. Seven AMS 14C-dates based on pollen concentrates provide a chronology for the middle Holocene part...

  18. Comparison of glacial/interglacial carbonate concentrations in Atlantic sediments

    Balsam, William L; McCoy, F M J
    To assess the regional effects of glaciation on sedimentation in the Atlantic Ocean we compare sediment types, distributions, and rates between Recent (core top) and last glacial maximum (LGM: ~18,000 years B.P.) stratigraphic levels. Based upon smear slides and carbonate analyses in 178 cores we find that glacial age carbonate content is generally lower than Recent. During both the Recent and LGM, carbonate content shows an east/west asymmetry with western basins exhibiting lower carbonate values. Input of ice-rafted detritus into the North Atlantic during LGM time interrupts this topographic control on carbonate distribution considerably farther south than at present; in...

  19. Comparison of glacial/interglacial carbonate concentrations in Atlantic sediments

    Balsam, William L; McCoy, F M J
    To assess the regional effects of glaciation on sedimentation in the Atlantic Ocean we compare sediment types, distributions, and rates between Recent (core top) and last glacial maximum (LGM: ~18,000 years B.P.) stratigraphic levels. Based upon smear slides and carbonate analyses in 178 cores we find that glacial age carbonate content is generally lower than Recent. During both the Recent and LGM, carbonate content shows an east/west asymmetry with western basins exhibiting lower carbonate values. Input of ice-rafted detritus into the North Atlantic during LGM time interrupts this topographic control on carbonate distribution considerably farther south than at present; in...

  20. Clay mineral assemblages in the western Baltic Sea

    Gingele, Franz; Leipe, Thomas
    Surface samples and nine cores from the western Baltic Sea and marginal water bodies were investigated for clay mineral composition. The clay mineral assemblages of recent sediments are rather homogeneous. Variations result mainly from the erosion of different glacial source deposits. High percentages of illite and low kaolinite/chlorite and quartz/feldspar ratios are characteristic for this glacial source. Advection of kaolinite-rich suspensions from the North Sea is believed to account for higher kaolinite/chlorite ratios in the Mecklenburg Bight. A contribution of the rivers Trave and Oder to the western Baltic Sea is indicated by increased smectite values in marginal water bodies....

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