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  1. Geochemistry and soil characteristics of sediment core GeoB4234

    Freudenthal, Tim; Wagner, Thomas; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Zabel, Matthias; Wefer, Gerold
    Stable isotopes of sedimentary nitrogen and organic carbon are widely used as proxy variables for biogeochemical parameters and processes in the water column. In order to investigate alterations of the primary isotopic signal by sedimentary diagenetic processes, we determined concentrations and isotopic compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN), organic nitrogen (ON), total nitrogen (TN), and total organic carbon (TOC) on one short core recovered from sediments of the eastern subtropical Atlantic, between the Canary Islands and the Moroccan coast. Changes with depth in concentration and isotopic composition of the different fractions were related to early diagenetic conditions indicated by pore water...

  2. Geochemistry and soil characteristics of sediment core GeoB4234

    Freudenthal, Tim; Wagner, Thomas; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Zabel, Matthias; Wefer, Gerold
    Stable isotopes of sedimentary nitrogen and organic carbon are widely used as proxy variables for biogeochemical parameters and processes in the water column. In order to investigate alterations of the primary isotopic signal by sedimentary diagenetic processes, we determined concentrations and isotopic compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN), organic nitrogen (ON), total nitrogen (TN), and total organic carbon (TOC) on one short core recovered from sediments of the eastern subtropical Atlantic, between the Canary Islands and the Moroccan coast. Changes with depth in concentration and isotopic composition of the different fractions were related to early diagenetic conditions indicated by pore water...

  3. Pore-water chemistry of abyssal Arabian Sea surface sediments

    Grandel, Sibylle; Rickert, Dirk; Schlüter, Michael; Wallmann, Klaus
    Benthic fluxes and pore-water compositions of silicic acid, nitrate and phosphate were investigated for surface sediments of the abyssal Arabian Sea during four cruises (1995-1998). Five sites located in the northern (NAST), western (WAST), central (CAST), eastern (EAST), and southern (SAST) Arabian Sea were revisited during intermonsoonal periods after the NE- and SW-Monsoon. At these sites, benthic fluxes of remineralized nutrients from the sediment to the bottom water of 36-106, 102-350 and 4-16 mmol/m**2/yr were measured for nitrate, silicic acid and phosphate, respectively. The benthic fluxes and pore-water compositions showed a distinct regional pattern. Highest fluxes were observed in the...

  4. Pore-water chemistry of abyssal Arabian Sea surface sediments

    Grandel, Sibylle; Rickert, Dirk; Schlüter, Michael; Wallmann, Klaus
    Benthic fluxes and pore-water compositions of silicic acid, nitrate and phosphate were investigated for surface sediments of the abyssal Arabian Sea during four cruises (1995-1998). Five sites located in the northern (NAST), western (WAST), central (CAST), eastern (EAST), and southern (SAST) Arabian Sea were revisited during intermonsoonal periods after the NE- and SW-Monsoon. At these sites, benthic fluxes of remineralized nutrients from the sediment to the bottom water of 36-106, 102-350 and 4-16 mmol/m**2/yr were measured for nitrate, silicic acid and phosphate, respectively. The benthic fluxes and pore-water compositions showed a distinct regional pattern. Highest fluxes were observed in the...

  5. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) V1.4

    Pfeil, Benjamin; Olsen, Are; Bakker, Dorothee C E; Hankin, Steven; Koyuk, Heather; Kozyr, Alexander; Malczyk, Jeremy; Manke, Ansley; Metzl, Nicolas; Sabine, Christopher L; Akl, John; Alin, Simone R; Bellerby, Richard G J; Borges, Alberto Vieira; Boutin, Jacqueline; Brown, Peter J; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chavez, Francisco P; Chen, Arthur; Cosca, Catherine E; Fassbender, Andrea J; Feely, Richard A; González-Dávila, Melchor; Goyet, Catherine; Hardman-Mountford, Nicolas; Heinze, Christoph; Hood, E Maria; Hoppema, Mario; Hunt, Christopher W; Hydes, David; Ishii, Masao; Johannessen, Truls; Jones, Steve D; Key, Robert M; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lourantou, Anna; Merlivat, Liliane; Midorikawa, Takashi; Mintrop, Ludger J; Miyazaki, Chihiro; Murata, Akihiko; Nakadate, Akira; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Omar, Abdirahman M; Padín, Xose Antonio; Park, Geun-Ha; Paterson, Kristina; Pérez, Fiz F; Pierrot, Denis; Poisson, Alain; Ríos, Aida F; Santana-Casiano, Juana Magdalena; Salisbury, Joe; Sarma, Vedula V S S; Schlitzer, Reiner; Schneider, Bernd; Schuster, Ute; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Steinhoff, Tobias; Suzuki, Toru; Takahashi, Taro; Tedesco, Kathy; Telszewski, Maciej; Thomas, Helmuth; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tjiputra, Jerry; Vandemark, Doug; Veness, Tony; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watson, Andrew J; Weiss, Ray F; Wong, Chi Shing; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki
    A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put...

  6. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) V1.4

    Pfeil, Benjamin; Olsen, Are; Bakker, Dorothee C E; Hankin, Steven; Koyuk, Heather; Kozyr, Alexander; Malczyk, Jeremy; Manke, Ansley; Metzl, Nicolas; Sabine, Christopher L; Akl, John; Alin, Simone R; Bellerby, Richard G J; Borges, Alberto Vieira; Boutin, Jacqueline; Brown, Peter J; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chavez, Francisco P; Chen, Arthur; Cosca, Catherine E; Fassbender, Andrea J; Feely, Richard A; González-Dávila, Melchor; Goyet, Catherine; Hardman-Mountford, Nicolas J; Heinze, Christoph; Hood, E Maria; Hoppema, Mario; Hunt, Christopher W; Hydes, David; Ishii, Masao; Johannessen, Truls; Jones, Stephen D; Key, Robert M; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lourantou, Anna; Merlivat, Liliane; Midorikawa, Takashi; Mintrop, Ludger J; Miyazaki, Chihiro; Murata, Akihiko; Nakadate, Akira; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Omar, Abdirahman M; Padín, Xose Antonio; Park, Geun-Ha; Paterson, Kristina; Pérez, Fiz F; Pierrot, Denis; Poisson, Alain; Ríos, Aida F; Santana-Casiano, Juana Magdalena; Salisbury, Joe; Sarma, Vedula V S S; Schlitzer, Reiner; Schneider, Bernd; Schuster, Ute; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Steinhoff, Tobias; Suzuki, Toru; Takahashi, Taro; Tedesco, Kathy; Telszewski, Maciej; Thomas, Helmuth; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tjiputra, Jerry; Vandemark, Doug; Veness, Tony; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watson, Andrew J; Weiss, Ray F; Wong, Chi Shing; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki
    A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put...

  7. Nutrients at time series station KERFIX

    Jeandel, Catherine; Ruiz-Pino, Diana; Gjata, Elvis; Poisson, Alain; Brunet, Christian; Charriaud, Edwige; Dehairs, Frank; Delille, Daniel; Fiala, Michel; Fravalo, Charles; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Park, Young-Hyang; Pondaven, Philippe; Quéguiner, Bernard; Razouls, Suzanne; Shauer, Bernard; Tréguer, Paul
    Between January 1990 and March 1995, the research project KERFIX undertook the first regular noncoastal multiyear acquisition of parameters related to the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean at a time series station located at 50°40' S-68°25' E, 60 miles southwest of the Kerguelen Islands. The objectives of KERFIX are (1) to monitor the ocean/atmosphere CO2 and O2 exchanges and to understand which processes govern these exchanges (2) to observe and interpret the seasonal and interannual variability of the production, flux, decomposition and dissolution of carbon and associated elements at this location. In addition, micropaleontological studies describe the present and...

  8. Nutrients at time series station KERFIX

    Jeandel, Catherine; Ruiz-Pino, Diana; Gjata, Elvis; Poisson, Alain; Brunet, Christian; Charriaud, Edwige; Dehairs, Frank; Delille, Daniel; Fiala, Michel; Fravalo, Charles; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Park, Young-Hyang; Pondaven, Philippe; Quéguiner, Bernard; Razouls, Suzanne; Shauer, Bernard; Tréguer, Paul
    Between January 1990 and March 1995, the research project KERFIX undertook the first regular noncoastal multiyear acquisition of parameters related to the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean at a time series station located at 50°40' S-68°25' E, 60 miles southwest of the Kerguelen Islands. The objectives of KERFIX are (1) to monitor the ocean/atmosphere CO2 and O2 exchanges and to understand which processes govern these exchanges (2) to observe and interpret the seasonal and interannual variability of the production, flux, decomposition and dissolution of carbon and associated elements at this location. In addition, micropaleontological studies describe the present and...

  9. Oxygen concentration at time series station DYNAPROC

    Copin-Montégut, Claire
    Continuous measurements between 0 and 200 m depth were performed every 2 h over two separate periods of four days at a station in the open northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Dyfamed Station) during the Dynaproc cruise in May 1995. Estimates of the daily variations in profiles of temperature, partial pressure of CO2, oxygen, chlorophyll a and nutrients were obtained. The distributions of the various physical and chemical properties were clearly different during the two time series, which were separated by a period of 11 days during which a wind event occurred. The mean daily utilization or production due to biological processes...

  10. Oxygen concentration at time series station DYNAPROC

    Copin-Montégut, Claire
    Continuous measurements between 0 and 200 m depth were performed every 2 h over two separate periods of four days at a station in the open northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Dyfamed Station) during the Dynaproc cruise in May 1995. Estimates of the daily variations in profiles of temperature, partial pressure of CO2, oxygen, chlorophyll a and nutrients were obtained. The distributions of the various physical and chemical properties were clearly different during the two time series, which were separated by a period of 11 days during which a wind event occurred. The mean daily utilization or production due to biological processes...

  11. Carbonate properties and oxygen concentrations at time series station DYFAMED

    Copin-Montégut, Claire; Bégovic, Miléna
    Monthly measurements of pH, alkalinity and oxygen over two years (February 1998-February 2000) at the Dyfamed site in the central zone of the Ligurian-Provençal Basin of the Mediterranean made it possible to assess the vertical distributions (5-2000 m) and the seasonal variations of these properties. Alkalinity varies linearly with salinity between surface water and the Levantine Intermediate Water (marked by a maximum of temperature and salinity). In deep water, total alkalinity is also correlated linearly to salinity, but the slope of the regression line is 15% less. In surface water, the pH at 25°C varies between 7.91 and 8.06 on...

  12. Carbonate properties and oxygen concentrations at time series station DYFAMED

    Copin-Montégut, Claire; Bégovic, Miléna
    Monthly measurements of pH, alkalinity and oxygen over two years (February 1998-February 2000) at the Dyfamed site in the central zone of the Ligurian-Provençal Basin of the Mediterranean made it possible to assess the vertical distributions (5-2000 m) and the seasonal variations of these properties. Alkalinity varies linearly with salinity between surface water and the Levantine Intermediate Water (marked by a maximum of temperature and salinity). In deep water, total alkalinity is also correlated linearly to salinity, but the slope of the regression line is 15% less. In surface water, the pH at 25°C varies between 7.91 and 8.06 on...

  13. Carbonate properties and oxygen concentrations at time series station DYFAMED

    Copin-Montégut, Claire; Bégovic, Miléna
    Monthly measurements of pH, alkalinity and oxygen over two years (February 1998-February 2000) at the Dyfamed site in the central zone of the Ligurian-Provençal Basin of the Mediterranean made it possible to assess the vertical distributions (5-2000 m) and the seasonal variations of these properties. Alkalinity varies linearly with salinity between surface water and the Levantine Intermediate Water (marked by a maximum of temperature and salinity). In deep water, total alkalinity is also correlated linearly to salinity, but the slope of the regression line is 15% less. In surface water, the pH at 25°C varies between 7.91 and 8.06 on...

  14. Chemistry of sediment profile GeoB4906

    Pfeifer, Kerstin; Hensen, Christian; Adler, M; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Weber, Bettina; Schulz, Horst D
    Mineralization of organic matter and the subsequent dissolution of calcite were simulated for surface sediments of the upper continental slope off Gabon by using microsensors to measure O2, pH, pCO2 and Ca2+ (in situ), pore-water concentration profiles of NO3-, NH4+, Fe2+, and Mn2+ and SO42- (ex situ), as well as sulfate reduction rates derived from incubation experiments. The transport and reaction model CoTReM was used to simulate the degradation of organic matter by O2, [NO3]-, Fe(OH)3 and [SO4]2-, reoxidation reactions involving Fe2+ and Mn2+, and precipitation of FeS. Model application revealed an overall rate of organic matter mineralization amounting to...

  15. Chemistry of sediment profile GeoB4906

    Pfeifer, Kerstin; Hensen, Christian; Adler, M; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Weber, Bettina; Schulz, Horst D
    Mineralization of organic matter and the subsequent dissolution of calcite were simulated for surface sediments of the upper continental slope off Gabon by using microsensors to measure O2, pH, pCO2 and Ca2+ (in situ), pore-water concentration profiles of NO3-, NH4+, Fe2+, and Mn2+ and SO42- (ex situ), as well as sulfate reduction rates derived from incubation experiments. The transport and reaction model CoTReM was used to simulate the degradation of organic matter by O2, [NO3]-, Fe(OH)3 and [SO4]2-, reoxidation reactions involving Fe2+ and Mn2+, and precipitation of FeS. Model application revealed an overall rate of organic matter mineralization amounting to...

  16. Oxygen microprofiles and porewater chemistry in sediments of the Skagerrak

    Bakker, Joop F; Helder, Wim
    Sediment porewater oxygen profiles were measured with micro and needle electrodes in sediment cores of 27 stations in the Skagerrak (northeastern North Sea). Oxygen penetration depth ranged from 3 to 20 mm depth. Fluxes estimated from the oxygen gradients varied from 3 to 18 mmol m**-2 d**-1. Oxygen penetration and flux depend on water depth, but possibly more on the hydrological conditions, related to the import of fresh organic matter by primary production in the water column. Oxygen fluxes were not related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Stations in the eastern part of the Skagerrak...

  17. Oxygen microprofiles and porewater chemistry in sediments of the Skagerrak

    Bakker, Joop F; Helder, Wim
    Sediment porewater oxygen profiles were measured with micro and needle electrodes in sediment cores of 27 stations in the Skagerrak (northeastern North Sea). Oxygen penetration depth ranged from 3 to 20 mm depth. Fluxes estimated from the oxygen gradients varied from 3 to 18 mmol m**-2 d**-1. Oxygen penetration and flux depend on water depth, but possibly more on the hydrological conditions, related to the import of fresh organic matter by primary production in the water column. Oxygen fluxes were not related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Stations in the eastern part of the Skagerrak...

  18. Benthic oxygen flixes on the Washington shelf and slope

    Archer, David E; Devol, Alan H
    Benthic oxygen fluxes calculated from in situ microelectrode profiles arc compared with benthic flux chamber O2 uptake measurements on a transect of eight stations across the continental shelf and three stations on the slope of Washington State. Station depths ranged from 40 to 630 m and bottom-water oxygen concentrations were 127-38 µM. The fluxes measured by the two methods were similar on the slope, but on the shelf, the chamber flux exceeded the microelectrode flux by as much as a factor of 3-4. We attribute this difference to pore-water irrigation, a process which apparently accounts for the oxidation of a...

  19. Benthic oxygen flixes on the Washington shelf and slope

    Archer, David E; Devol, Alan H
    Benthic oxygen fluxes calculated from in situ microelectrode profiles arc compared with benthic flux chamber O2 uptake measurements on a transect of eight stations across the continental shelf and three stations on the slope of Washington State. Station depths ranged from 40 to 630 m and bottom-water oxygen concentrations were 127-38 µM. The fluxes measured by the two methods were similar on the slope, but on the shelf, the chamber flux exceeded the microelectrode flux by as much as a factor of 3-4. We attribute this difference to pore-water irrigation, a process which apparently accounts for the oxidation of a...

  20. Nutrients of pore water in sediments of the central equatorial Pacific

    Martin, William R; Bender, Michael L; Leinen, Margaret W; Orchardo, J
    Shipboard whole-core squeezing was used to measure pore water concentration vs depth profiles of [NO3]-, O2 and SiO2 at 12 stations in the equatorial Pacific along a transect from 15°S to 11°N at 135°W. The [NO3]- and SiO2 profiles were combined with fine-scale resistivity and porosity measurements to calculate benthic fluxes. After using O2 profiles, coupled with the [NO3]- profiles, to constrain the C:N of the degrading organic matter, the [NO3]- fluxes were converted to benthic organic carbon degradation rates. The range in benthic organic carbon degradation rates is 7-30 ?mol cm**-2 y**-1, with maximum values at the equator and...

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