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Datasets of project "Biogeochemical Fluxes of Matter and Energy in the Deep Sea"
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Phospholipids in sediments of the deep Arabian Sea - Boetius, Antje; Lochte, Karin
Eight different sites from 2300 to 4420 m water depth in the Arabian Sea were sampled for a biochemical quantification of phospholipid concentrations in the sediments. This method serves as a measure of microbial biomass in marine sediments comprising all small-sized organisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and metazoa. Phospholipid concentrations can be converted to carbon units as an estimate of total microbial biomass in the sediments. The average phospholipid concentrations in the surface sediments (0-1 cm) of the 4 abyssal sites ranged from 7 nmol cm?3 at the southern site (SAST, 10°N 65°E, 4425 m) to 29 nmol/cm**3 at the...
Bacterial activity in sediments of the deep Arabian Sea - Boetius, Antje; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Lochte, Karin
In the Arabian Sea, productivity in the surface waters and particle flux to the deep sea are controlled by monsoonal winds. The flux maxima during the South-West (June-September) and the North-East Monsoon (December-March) are some of the highest particle fluxes recorded with deep-sea sediment traps in the open ocean. Benthic microbial biomass and activities in surface sediments were measured for the first time in March 1995 subsequent to the NE-monsoon and in October 1995 subsequent to the SW-monsoon. These measurements were repeated in April/May 1997 and February/March 1998, at a total of six stations from 1920 to 4420 m water...
Pore-water chemistry of abyssal Arabian Sea surface sediments - Grandel, Sibylle; Rickert, Dirk; Schlüter, Michael; Wallmann, Klaus
Benthic fluxes and pore-water compositions of silicic acid, nitrate and phosphate were investigated for surface sediments of the abyssal Arabian Sea during four cruises (1995-1998). Five sites located in the northern (NAST), western (WAST), central (CAST), eastern (EAST), and southern (SAST) Arabian Sea were revisited during intermonsoonal periods after the NE- and SW-Monsoon. At these sites, benthic fluxes of remineralized nutrients from the sediment to the bottom water of 36-106, 102-350 and 4-16 mmol/m**2/yr were measured for nitrate, silicic acid and phosphate, respectively. The benthic fluxes and pore-water compositions showed a distinct regional pattern. Highest fluxes were observed in the...
Living benthic foraminifera of the western and southern Arabian Sea - Heinz, Petra; Hemleben, Christoph
Sediments from the western and southern part of the Arabian Sea were collected periodically in the spring intermonsoon between March and May 1997 and additionally at the end of the Northeast Monsoon in February 1998. Assemblages of Rose Bengal stained, living deep-sea benthic foraminifera, their densities, vertical distribution pattern, and diversity were analysed after the Northeast Monsoon and short-time changes were recorded. In the western Arabian Sea, foraminiferal numbers increased steadily between March and the beginning of May, especially in the smaller size classes (30-63 µm, 63-125 µm). At the same time, the deepening of the foraminiferal living horizon, variable...
Benthic foraminifera in surface sediments of the Arabian Sea - Heinz, Petra; Hemleben, Christoph
Assemblages of living deep-sea benthic foraminifera, their densities, vertical distribution pattern, and diversity, were investigated in the intermonsoon period after the northeast monsoon in the Arabian Sea in spring 1997. Foraminiferal numbers show a distinct gradient from north to south, with a maximum of 623 foraminifera in 50 cm**3 at the northern site. High percentages of small foraminifera were found in the western and northern part of the Arabian Sea. Most stations show a typical vertical distribution with a maximum in the first centimeter and decreasing numbers with increasing sediment depths. But at the central station, high densities can be...
Lead 210 concentrations in sediments of the Arabian Sea - Turnewitsch, Robert; Witte, Ursula; Graf, Gerhard
In order to evaluate bioturbation in abyssal Arabian-Sea sediments of the Indus fan profiles of 210Pb (half-life: 22.3 yr) and 234Th (half-life: 24.1 d) were measured in cores collected during September and October 1995 and April 1997, respectively. The density and composition of epibenthic megafauna and lebensspuren were determined in vertical seafloor photographs during April 1997. Mean eddy-diffusive mixing coefficients according to the distribution of excess 210Pb ( 210Pb-DB) were 0.072±0.028, 0.068±0.055, 0.373±0.119, 0.037±0.009 and 0.079±0.119 cm**2 yr**-1 in the northern, western, central, eastern and southern abyssal Arabian sea, respectively. Mean eddy-diffusive mixing coefficients according to the distribution of excess...
Living benthic foraminiferal assemblages in surface samples of the Arabian Sea - Kurbjeweit, Frank; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Schiebel, Ralf; Hemleben, Christoph; Pfannkuche, Olaf; Wallmann, Klaus; Schäfer, Priska
The distribution, biomass, and diversity of living (Rose Bengal stained) deep-sea benthic foraminifera (>30 µm) were investigated with multicorer samples from seven stations in the Arabian Sea during the intermonsoonal periods in March and in September/October, 1995. Water depths of the stations ranged between 1916 and 4425 m. The distribution of benthic foraminifera was compared with dissolved oxygen, % organic carbon, % calcium carbonate, ammonium, % silica, chloroplastic pigment equivalents, sand content, pore water content of the sediment, and organic carbon flux to explain the foraminiferal patterns and depositional environments.
A total of six species-communities comprising 178 living species were identified...
Pigment concentrations in surface sediments of the Arabian Sea - Pfannkuche, Olaf; Sommer, Stefan; Kähler, A
As part of the large-scale, interdisciplinary deep-sea study "BIGSET", the relationship between the monsoon-induced regional and temporal variability of POC deposition and the small-sized benthic community was investigated at several sites 2316-4420 m deep in the Arabian Sea during four cruises between 1995 and 1998. Vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of chloroplastic pigments (a measure of phytodetritus deposition), readily soluble protein and activity, and biomass parameters of the small-sized benthic community (Electron Transport System Activity (ETSA); bacterial ectoenzymatic activity (FDA turnover) and DNA concentrations) were measured concurrently with the vertical fluxes of POC and chloroplastic pigments. Sediment chlorophyll a (chl....