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Datasets of project "European Project on Ocean Acidification"

Mostrando recursos 41 - 60 de 1.177

  1. Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes during experiments with phytoplankton Emiliania huxleyi (CS369), 2009

    Gao, Kunshan; Ruan, Zuoxi; Villafañe, Virginia E; Helbling, E Walter; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre
    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration affects calcification in most planktonic calcifiers. Both reduced or stimulated calcification under high CO2 have been reported in the widespread coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. This might affect the response of cells to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) by altering the thickness of the coccolith layer. Here we show that in the absence of UVR, the calcification rates in E. huxleyi decrease under lowered pH levels (pHNBS of 7.9 and 7.6; pCO2 of 81 and 178 Pa or 804 and 1759 ppmv, respectively) leading to thinned coccolith layers, whereas photosynthetic carbon...

  2. Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes during experiments with phytoplankton Emiliania huxleyi (CS369), 2009

    Gao, Kunshan; Ruan, Zuoxi; Villafañe, Virginia E; Helbling, E Walter; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre
    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration affects calcification in most planktonic calcifiers. Both reduced or stimulated calcification under high CO2 have been reported in the widespread coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. This might affect the response of cells to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 280-400 nm) by altering the thickness of the coccolith layer. Here we show that in the absence of UVR, the calcification rates in E. huxleyi decrease under lowered pH levels (pHNBS of 7.9 and 7.6; pCO2 of 81 and 178 Pa or 804 and 1759 ppmv, respectively) leading to thinned coccolith layers, whereas photosynthetic carbon...

  3. Seawater carbonate chemistry in Ischia, Italy, 2008

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Martin, Sophie; Ransome, Emma; Fine, M; Turner, Suzanne M; Rowley, Sonia J; Tedesco, Dario; Buia, Maria-Cristina
    The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years1. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO2 where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H+ in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100. Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost...

  4. Seawater carbonate chemistry in Ischia, Italy, 2008

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Martin, Sophie; Ransome, Emma; Fine, M; Turner, Suzanne M; Rowley, Sonia J; Tedesco, Dario; Buia, Maria-Cristina
    The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years1. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO2 where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H+ in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100. Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost...

  5. Seawater carbonate chemistry and calcification during experiments with corals, 2003

    Marubini, Francesca; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Cuif, Jean-Pierre
    Biogenic calcification is influenced by the concentration of available carbonate ions. The recent confirmation of this for hermatypic corals has raised concern over the future of coral reefs because [CO3] is a decreasing function of increasing pCO2 in the atmosphere. As one of the overriding features of coral reefs is their diversity, understanding the degree of variability between species in their ability to cope with a change in [CO3] is a priority. We cultured four phylogenetically and physiologically different species of hermatypic coral (Acropora verweyi, Galaxea fascicularis, Pavona cactus and Turbinaria reniformis) under 'normal' (280 µmol/kg) and 'low' (140 µmol/kg)...

  6. Seawater carbonate chemistry and calcification during experiments with corals, 2003

    Marubini, Francesca; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Cuif, Jean-Pierre
    Biogenic calcification is influenced by the concentration of available carbonate ions. The recent confirmation of this for hermatypic corals has raised concern over the future of coral reefs because [CO3] is a decreasing function of increasing pCO2 in the atmosphere. As one of the overriding features of coral reefs is their diversity, understanding the degree of variability between species in their ability to cope with a change in [CO3] is a priority. We cultured four phylogenetically and physiologically different species of hermatypic coral (Acropora verweyi, Galaxea fascicularis, Pavona cactus and Turbinaria reniformis) under 'normal' (280 µmol/kg) and 'low' (140 µmol/kg)...

  7. Seawater carbonate chemistry and calcification during experiments with corals, 2003

    Marubini, Francesca; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Cuif, Jean-Pierre
    Biogenic calcification is influenced by the concentration of available carbonate ions. The recent confirmation of this for hermatypic corals has raised concern over the future of coral reefs because [CO3] is a decreasing function of increasing pCO2 in the atmosphere. As one of the overriding features of coral reefs is their diversity, understanding the degree of variability between species in their ability to cope with a change in [CO3] is a priority. We cultured four phylogenetically and physiologically different species of hermatypic coral (Acropora verweyi, Galaxea fascicularis, Pavona cactus and Turbinaria reniformis) under 'normal' (280 µmol/kg) and 'low' (140 µmol/kg)...

  8. Seawater carbonate chemistry and encrusting algal communities during a mesocosm experiment, 2007

    Kuffner, Ilsa B; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L; Rodgers, Kuulei S; Mackenzie, Fred T
    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. Here...

  9. Seawater carbonate chemistry and encrusting algal communities during a mesocosm experiment, 2007

    Kuffner, Ilsa B; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L; Rodgers, Kuulei S; Mackenzie, Fred T
    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. Here...

  10. Seawater carbonate chemistry and encrusting algal communities during a mesocosm experiment, 2007

    Kuffner, Ilsa B; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L; Rodgers, Kuulei S; Mackenzie, Fred T
    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. Here...

  11. Seawater carbonate chemistry, cell numbers and growth rate during experiments with dinoflagellates, 2007

    Hansen, Per Juel; Lundholm, Nina; Rost, Bjoern
    The effects of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on the growth of 3 red-tide dinoflagellates (Ceratium lineatum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum minimum) were studied at pH 8.0 and at higher pH levels, depending upon the pH tolerance of the individual species. The higher pH levels chosen for experiments were 8.55 for C. lineatum and 9.2 for the other 2 species. At pH 8.0, which approximates the pH found in the open sea, the maximum growth in all species was maintained until the total DIC concentration was reduced below ~0.4 and 0.2 mM for C. lineatum and the other 2 species, respectively....

  12. Seawater carbonate chemistry, cell numbers and growth rate during experiments with dinoflagellates, 2007

    Hansen, Per Juel; Lundholm, Nina; Rost, Bjoern
    The effects of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on the growth of 3 red-tide dinoflagellates (Ceratium lineatum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum minimum) were studied at pH 8.0 and at higher pH levels, depending upon the pH tolerance of the individual species. The higher pH levels chosen for experiments were 8.55 for C. lineatum and 9.2 for the other 2 species. At pH 8.0, which approximates the pH found in the open sea, the maximum growth in all species was maintained until the total DIC concentration was reduced below ~0.4 and 0.2 mM for C. lineatum and the other 2 species, respectively....

  13. Seawater carbonate chemistry, cell numbers and growth rate during experiments with dinoflagellates, 2007

    Hansen, Per Juel; Lundholm, Nina; Rost, Bjoern
    The effects of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) on the growth of 3 red-tide dinoflagellates (Ceratium lineatum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum minimum) were studied at pH 8.0 and at higher pH levels, depending upon the pH tolerance of the individual species. The higher pH levels chosen for experiments were 8.55 for C. lineatum and 9.2 for the other 2 species. At pH 8.0, which approximates the pH found in the open sea, the maximum growth in all species was maintained until the total DIC concentration was reduced below ~0.4 and 0.2 mM for C. lineatum and the other 2 species, respectively....

  14. Effects of ocean acidification on the growth of calcifying and non-calcifying algae and on jaw/test ratio and test robustness of sea urchins fed the different algae

    Asnaghi, Valentina; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Mangialajo, Luisa; Gazeau, Frédéric; Francour, Patrice; Alliouane, Samir; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre
    Temperate marine rocky habitats may be alternatively characterized by well vegetated macroalgal assemblages or barren grounds, as a consequence of direct and indirect human impacts (e.g. overfishing) and grazing pressure by herbivorous organisms. In future scenarios of ocean acidification, calcifying organisms are expected to be less competitive: among these two key elements of the rocky subtidal food web, coralline algae and sea urchins. In order to highlight how the effects of increased pCO2 on individual calcifying species will be exacerbated by interactions with other trophic levels, we performed an experiment simultaneously testing ocean acidification effects on primary producers (calcifying and...

  15. Effects of ocean acidification on the growth of calcifying and non-calcifying algae and on jaw/test ratio and test robustness of sea urchins fed the different algae

    Asnaghi, Valentina; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Mangialajo, Luisa; Gazeau, Frédéric; Francour, Patrice; Alliouane, Samir; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre
    Temperate marine rocky habitats may be alternatively characterized by well vegetated macroalgal assemblages or barren grounds, as a consequence of direct and indirect human impacts (e.g. overfishing) and grazing pressure by herbivorous organisms. In future scenarios of ocean acidification, calcifying organisms are expected to be less competitive: among these two key elements of the rocky subtidal food web, coralline algae and sea urchins. In order to highlight how the effects of increased pCO2 on individual calcifying species will be exacerbated by interactions with other trophic levels, we performed an experiment simultaneously testing ocean acidification effects on primary producers (calcifying and...

  16. Seawater chemistry, nutrients, chlorophyll a, and growth rate of Phaeocystis globosa during experiments

    Hoogstraten, Astrid; Peters, M; Timmermans, Klaas R; de Baar, Hein J W
    Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) is an ecologically dominating phytoplankton species in many areas around the world. It plays an important role in both the global sulfur and carbon cycles, by the production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and the drawdown of inorganic carbon. Phaeocystis globosa has a polymorphic life cycle and is considered to be a harmful algal bloom (HAB) forming species. All these aspects make this an interesting species to study the effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, due to anthropogenic carbon emissions. Here, the combined effects of three different dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations (CO2(aq)) (low: 4 µmol/kg, intermediate: 6-10 µmol/kg and...

  17. Seawater chemistry, nutrients, chlorophyll a, and growth rate of Phaeocystis globosa during experiments

    Hoogstraten, Astrid; Peters, M; Timmermans, Klaas R; de Baar, Hein J W
    Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) is an ecologically dominating phytoplankton species in many areas around the world. It plays an important role in both the global sulfur and carbon cycles, by the production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and the drawdown of inorganic carbon. Phaeocystis globosa has a polymorphic life cycle and is considered to be a harmful algal bloom (HAB) forming species. All these aspects make this an interesting species to study the effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, due to anthropogenic carbon emissions. Here, the combined effects of three different dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations (CO2(aq)) (low: 4 µmol/kg, intermediate: 6-10 µmol/kg and...

  18. Seawater chemistry, nutrients, chlorophyll a, and growth rate of Phaeocystis globosa during experiments

    Hoogstraten, Astrid; Peters, M; Timmermans, Klaas R; de Baar, Hein J W
    Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) is an ecologically dominating phytoplankton species in many areas around the world. It plays an important role in both the global sulfur and carbon cycles, by the production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and the drawdown of inorganic carbon. Phaeocystis globosa has a polymorphic life cycle and is considered to be a harmful algal bloom (HAB) forming species. All these aspects make this an interesting species to study the effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, due to anthropogenic carbon emissions. Here, the combined effects of three different dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations (CO2(aq)) (low: 4 µmol/kg, intermediate: 6-10 µmol/kg and...

  19. pH and calcium change in the microenvironment of a benthic foraminifer (Ammonia sp.) and its size during experiments

    Glas, Martin S; Langer, Gerald; Keul, Nina
    Calcareous foraminifera are well known for their CaCO3 shells. Yet, CaCO3 precipitation acidifies the calcifying fluid. Calcification without pH regulation would therefore rapidly create a negative feedback for CaCO3 precipitation. In unicellular organisms, like foraminifera, an effective mechanism to counteract this acidification could be the externalization of H+ from the site of calcification. In this study we show that a benthic symbiont-free foraminifer Ammonia sp. actively decreases pH within its extracellular microenvironment only while precipitating calcite. During chamber formation events the strongest pH decreases occurred in the vicinity of a newly forming chamber (range of gradient about 100 µm) with...

  20. pH and calcium change in the microenvironment of a benthic foraminifer (Ammonia sp.) and its size during experiments

    Glas, Martin S; Langer, Gerald; Keul, Nina
    Calcareous foraminifera are well known for their CaCO3 shells. Yet, CaCO3 precipitation acidifies the calcifying fluid. Calcification without pH regulation would therefore rapidly create a negative feedback for CaCO3 precipitation. In unicellular organisms, like foraminifera, an effective mechanism to counteract this acidification could be the externalization of H+ from the site of calcification. In this study we show that a benthic symbiont-free foraminifer Ammonia sp. actively decreases pH within its extracellular microenvironment only while precipitating calcite. During chamber formation events the strongest pH decreases occurred in the vicinity of a newly forming chamber (range of gradient about 100 µm) with...

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