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University of Twente Publications (61.821 recursos)

University of Twente Repository provides publications of UT scientific staff, in many cases full text and publicly available.

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  1. Social touch technology: extending the reach of social touch through haptic technology

    Huisman, Gijs
    The skin not only protects the body from harm but, through receptors found in the skin, also enables the sense of touch. The sense of touch is used to obtain information about the world outside the body, for example, the shape and weight of a book or the texture of its cover. However, the sense of touch also has an important affective function that becomes clearly apparent in social touch interactions such as hugging someone or stroking someone’s back. Social touch plays a vital role in the physical, cognitive, and emotional development of infants, can have positive effects on a person’s...

  2. Some decision theory for course placement

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    This paper addresses the problem of how to place students in a sequence of hierarchically related courses from an (empirical) Bayesian point of view. Based on a minimal set of assumptions, it is shown that optimal mastery rules for the courses are always monotone and a nonincreasing function of the scores on the placement test. On the other hand, placement rules are not generally monotone but have a form depending on the specific shape of the probability distributions and utility functions in force. The results are further explored for a class of linear utility functions. Numerous illustrations and tables present...

  3. Statistical aspects of optimal treatment assignment

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    The issues of treatment assignment is ordinarily dealt with within the framework of testing aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis. ATI research mostly uses linear regression techniques, and an ATI exists when the aptitude treatment (AT) regression lines cross each other within the relevant interval of the aptitude variable. Consistent with this approach is the use of the points of interaction of AT regression lines as treatment-assignment rule. The replacement of such rules by monotone, nonrandomized (Bayes) rules is proposed. Both continuous and dichotomous criteria for treatment success are considered. An example of the latter is evaluated using a mastery test....

  4. Assessing inconsistencies in standard setting with the Angoff or Nedelsky technique

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    A latent trait method is presented to investigate the possibility that Angoff or Nedelsky judges specify inconsistent probabilities in standard setting techniques for objectives-based instructional programs. It is suggested that judges frequently specify a low probability of success for an easy item but a large probability for a hard item. The responses of 156 pupils to a 25-item test from a tenth grade physics course were inspected by eight Angoff and nine Nedelsky judges. The latent trait analysis produced 18 items showing a satisfactory fit to the Rasch model. Serious errors of specification were found and errors were considerably larger...

  5. Advances in the application of decision theory to test-based decision making

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    This paper reviews recent research in the Netherlands on the application of decision theory to test-based decision making about personnel selection and student placement. The review is based on an earlier model proposed for the classification of decision problems, and emphasizes an empirical Bayesian framework. Classification decisions with threshold utility are discussed to provide an example of the application of Bayesian theory to test-based decision making. Test results from the 1981 administration of the Eindtoets Basisonderwijs are analyzed with respect to the type of secondary education chosen by Dutch students at the end of primary education: lower vocational education, lower...

  6. Optimizing incomplete sample designs for item response model parameters

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    Several models for optimizing incomplete sample designs with respect to information on the item parameters are presented. The following cases are considered: (1) known ability parameters; (2) unknown ability parameters; (3) item sets with multiple ability scales; and (4) response models with multiple item parameters. The models are able to cope with hierarchical structures in the population of examinees as well as the domain of content, and allow for practical constraints with respect to such items as test content, curricular differences between groups, or time available for item administration. An example with test data from a national assessment study illustrates...

  7. Simple estimators for the simple latent class mastery testing model

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    Latent class models for mastery testing differ from continuum models in that they do not postulate a latent mastery continuum but conceive mastery and non-mastery as two latent classes, each characterized by different probabilities of success. Several researchers use a simple latent class model that is basically a simultaneous application of the binomial error model to both mastery classes. W. A. Reulecke (1977) presents a version of this model that assumes that non-masters guess blindly, with a probability of success equal to the reciprocal of the number of alternatives. Assuming a loss ratio, these models enable the derivation of an...

  8. The use of moment estimators for mixtures of two binomials with one known success parameter

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    Occasionally, situations arise where mixtures of two binomials with one known success parameter are met. An example in educational testing is the mastery or random guessing model in which an examinee is supposed either to master the items or not to master them and to guess blindly. This paper gives moment estimators for such mixtures and presents results from a Monte Carlo investigation into their statistical properties. The results suggest excellent estimators that can safely be used in most instances. It also indicates how the properties of these estimators relate to those of moment estimators for the case in which...

  9. A latent trait method for determining inconsistencies in the use of the Angoff and Nedelsky techniques of standard setting

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    It has often been argued that all techniques of standard setting are arbitrary and likely to yield different results for different techniques or persons. This paper deals with a related but hitherto ignored aspect of standard setting, namely, the possibility that Angoff or Nedelsky judges misspecify the probabilities of the borderline student's success on the items because they do not use the psychometric properties of the items consistently. A latent trait method is proposed to estimate such misspecifications, and an index of consistency is defined that can be used for deciding whether standards are set consistently enough for use in...

  10. Passing score and length of a mastery test: An old problem appraoched anew

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    A classical problem in mastery testing is the choice of passing score and test length so that the mastery decisions are optimal. This problem has been addressed several times from a variety of viewpoints. In this paper, the usual indifference zone approach is adopted, with a new criterion for optimizing the passing score. Specifically, manipulation of probabilities of misclassification of masters versus non-masters is not incorporated into the scheme. Rather, explicit parameters are introduced to account for differences in loss between misclassifying a true master and a non-master. It appears that, under the assumption of the binomial error model, this...

  11. Applications of decision theory to test-based decision making

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    The use of Bayesian decision theory to solve problems in test-based decision making is discussed. Four basic decision problems are distinguished: (1) selection; (2) mastery; (3) placement; and (4) classification, the situation where each treatment has its own criterion. Each type of decision can be identified as a specific configuration of one or more of the following elements: a test that provides the scores on which the decisions are based; one or more treatments with respect to which decisions are made; and one or more criteria by which the successes of treatments are measured. For each type of decision, further...

  12. Multidimensional adaptive testing with a minimum error-variance criterion

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    The case of adaptive testing under a multidimensional logistic response model is addressed. An adaptive algorithm is proposed that minimizes the (asymptotic) variance of the maximum-likelihood (ML) estimator of a linear combination of abilities of interest. The item selection criterion is a simple expression in closed form. In addition, it is shown how the algorithm can be adapted if the interest is in a test with a "simple information structure." The statistical properties of the adaptive ML estimator are demonstrated for a two-dimensional item pool with several linear combinations of the two abilities.

  13. A procedure for empirical initialization of adaptive testing algorithms

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    In constrained adaptive testing, the numbers of constraints needed to control the content of the tests can easily run into the hundreds. Proper initialization of the algorithm becomes a requirement because the presence of large numbers of constraints slows down the convergence of the ability estimator. In this paper, an empirical initialization of the algorithm is proposed based on the statistical relation between the ability variable and background variables known prior to the test. The relation is modeled using a two-parameter logistic version of an item response theory (IRT) model with manifest predictors discussed in A.H. Zwinderman (1991). An empirical...

  14. Assembling tests for the measurement of multiple abilities

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    It is proposed that the assembly of tests for the measurement of multiple abilities be based on targets for the (asymptotic) variance functions of the estimators in each of the abilities. A linear programming model is presented that can be used to computerize the assembly process. Several cases of test assembly dealing with multidimensional abilities are distinguished, and versions of the model applicable to each of these cases are discussed. An empirical example of a test assembly program from a two-dimensional mathematics item pool concludes the paper.

  15. Stochastic order in dichotomous item response models for fixed tests, research adaptive tests, or multiple abilities

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    Dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models can be viewed as families of stochastically ordered distributions of responses to test items. This paper explores several properties of such distributiom. The focus is on the conditions under which stochastic order in families of conditional distributions is transferred to their inverse distributions, from two families 'of related distributions to a third family, or from multivariate conditional distributions to a marginal distribution. The main results are formulated as two theorems that apply immediately to dichotomous IRT models. One theorem holds for unidimensional models with fixed item parameters. The other theorem holds for models with...

  16. On the estimation of the proportion of masters in criterion-referenced testing

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    J.A. Emrick's (1971) model is a latent class model of mastery testing that can be used to estimate the proportion of masters in a given population. A. Hamerle (1980), in a recent paper on this model, has proposed an estimator for the proportion of masters that is claimed to constitute a maximum likelihood approach. It is indicated that Hamerle is not quite correct in his presentation of Emrick's model and that his estimator is not maximum likelihood. An estimator is provided using the method of moments; this estimator appears to have the same shape as Hamerle's estimator, but should be...

  17. Bayesian item selection criteria for adaptive testing

    Linden, Wim J. van der
    R.J. Owen (1975) proposed an approximate empirical Bayes procedure for item selection in adaptive testing. The procedure replaces the true posterior by a normal approximation with closed-form expressions for its first two moments. This approximation was necessary to minimize the computational complexity, involved in a fully Bayesian approach, but is no longer necessary given the computational power currently available in adaptive testing. This paper suggests several item selection criteria for adaptive testing that are all based on the use of the true posterior. Some of the statistical properties of the ability estimator produced by the secriteria are discussed and empirically...

  18. Calculating balanced incomplete block design for educational assessment

    Linden, Wim J. van der; Carlson, James E.
    A popular design in large scale' educational assessments is the balanced incomplete block design. The design assumes that the item pool is split into a set of blocks of items that are assigned to assessment booklets. This paper shows how the technique of 0-1 linear programming can be used to calculate a balanced incomplete block design. Several structural as well as practical constraints on this type of design are formulated as linear (in)equalities. In addition, possible objective functions to optimize the design are discussed. The technique is demonstrated using an item pool from the 1996 Grade 8 Mathematics National Assessment...

  19. Designing item pools for computerized adaptive testing

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Linden, Wim J. van der
    A method of item pool design is proposed that uses an optimal blueprint for the item pool calculated from the test specifications. The blueprint is a document that specifies the attributes that the items in the computerized adaptive test (CAT) pool should have. The blueprint can be a starting point for the item writing process, and it can be used to assemble item pools in a system of rotating pools from a master pool. The blueprint is also useful for item pool maintenance. Designing the blueprint begins with analyzing the specifications for the CAT, a step amounting to the formation...

  20. A coach in your pocket: on chronic cancer-related fatigue and physical behavior

    Wolvers, Maria Dorethea Jacoba
    Fatigue is a common and distressing long-term consequence of cancer. Chronic cancer-related fatigue affects work ability, hampers in maintaining social relations, and impacts patients’ well-being. Most treatments for chronic cancer-related fatigue focus to some extend on changing physical behavior, but there is a large variability in the way they do this. This thesis focuses on an online intervention that targets physical behavior by using an ambulant activity coach. In this ambulant activity feedback therapy (AAF), a physiotherapist guides patients following a nine week intervention protocol. The ambulant activity coach, consisting of a hip worn accelerometer and a smartphone, provides feedback...

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