Design and analysis of a high-efficiencyv high-voltage class-D power output stage - Ma, Haifeng; Zee, Ronan van der; Nauta, Bram
The analysis and design of a highly-efficient 80 V class-D power stage design in a 0.14 μm SOI-based BCD process is described. It features immunity to the on-chip supply bounce, realized by internally regulated floating supplies, variable driving strength for the gate driver, and an efficient 2-step level shifter design. Fast switching transition and low switching loss are achieved with 94% peak efficiency for the complete class-D power stage in the realized chip.
Coaxial stub resonator for online monitoring early stages of corrosion - Hoog, Natalia A.; Mayer, Mateo J.J.; Miedema, Henk; Olthuis, Wouter; Berg, Albert van den
Here we demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a new type of flow-through sensor to assess the corrosion rate of metal surfaces. The method can be applied to all situations where metals are exposed to a corrosive (fluidic) environment, including, for instance, the interior of pipes and tubes. Our sensing device is based on the operating principle of a quarter wave length open-ended coaxial stub resonator. The method described here can be applied for on-line monitoring corrosion.
Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of self-assembled monolayer conformation and spatial uniformity on silver surfaces - Wiedemair, Justyna; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; Berg, Albert van den; Carlen, Edwin T.
We apply well-characterized silver nanowire grating (Ag-NWG) plasmonic surfaces as a Raman surface spectroscopy tool, which is based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), to study the surface conformation characteristics of amine terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The surface conformation has implications for amine group availability, which is important when SAMs are used as linking layers for the binding of secondary molecules. Two different alkanethiols with different alkane chain lengths, namely 2-aminoethanethiol (cysteamine, CEA) and 11-aminoundecanethiol (AUT), are investigated. It is shown that both alkanethiols bind to Ag surfaces forming corresponding Ag-thiolates, however surface conformations, which are related to the ordering...
A novel side electrode configuration integrated in fused silica microsystems for synchronous optical and electrical spectroscopy - Sukas, Sertan; Schreuder, Erik; Wagenaar, Bjorn de; Swennenhuis, Joost; Berg, Albert van den; Terstappen, Leon; Le Gac, Séverine
We present a novel electrode configuration consisting of coplanar side electrode pairs integrated at the half height of the microchannels for the creation of a homogeneous electric field distribution as well as for synchronous optical and electrical measurements. For the integration of such electrodes in fused silica microsystems, a dedicated microfabrication method was utilized, whereby an intermediate bonding layer was applied to lower the temperature for fusion bonding to avoid thereby metal degradation and subsequently to preserve the electrode structures. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of our devices with integrated electrodes for single cell electrical lysis and simultaneous fluorescence and...
A Survey of Provably Secure Searchable Encryption - Bösch, Christoph; Hartel, Pieter; Jonker, Willem; Peter, Andreas
We survey the notion of provably secure Searchable Encryption (SE) by giving a complete and comprehensive overview of the two main SE techniques: Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) and Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS). Since the pioneering work of Song, Wagner and Perrig (IEEE S&P ’00), the field of provably secure SE has expanded to the point where we felt that taking stock would provide benefit to the community.
The survey has been written primarily for the non-specialist who has a basic information security background. Thus, we sacrifice full details and proofs of individual constructions in favor of an overview...
Failing Political Representation or a Change in Kind? Models of Representation and Empirical Trends in Europe - Thomassen, J.J.A.; Ham, C.T. van
This article reviews Peter Mair’s argument on the failure of political parties and the subsequent failure of representative democracy in Europe. It develops a conceptual framework to test the validity of Mair’s argument against competing interpretations of the development of representative democracy. It identifies three ideal typical models of representative democracy that seem to have succeeded each other over time: cleavage-based democracy, competitive democracy, and audience democracy. The article proposes specific empirical hypotheses for political parties and voters in each of these periods and provides empirical evidence to test the validity of these hypotheses. It concludes with a discussion of...
The Effects on Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits of Introducing Virtual Manipulatives Within a Physical Manipulatives-Oriented Curriculum - Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Jong, Ton de
This study investigates whether Virtual Manipulatives (VM) within a Physical Manipulatives (PM)-oriented curriculum affect conceptual understanding of electric circuits and related experimentation processes. A pre–post comparison study randomly assigned 194 undergraduates in an introductory physics course to one of five conditions: three experimental conditions with different PM and VM sequences and two control conditions with only PM or VM. Conceptual tests assessed students’ understanding. Instructors’ journals, video data, and interviews provided process-related data. Results showed interplay between manipulative and circuit types. For simple circuits, PM and VM use similarly impacted students’ understanding. However, VM better facilitated understanding than PM for...
Effective medium approximations for penetrant sorption in glassy polymers accounting for excess free volume - Ogieglo, Wojciech; Wormeester, Herbert; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck E.
An accurate determination of a penetrant volume fraction in a swollen polymer is of crucial importance in a range of different technologies. Using optical methods, such as in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, it is possible to extract the thickness and refractive index of dry and swollen polymer films. The volume fraction of the penetrant can then be calculated from the change in thickness, or from the refractive index using effective medium approximations. For thermodynamically equilibrated and ideal swollen rubbery polymers, these calculations yield accurate results. However, for glassy polymers the influence of the excess free volume trapped within the polymer network during...
Electrostatic potential wells for on-demand drop manipulation in microchannels - Ruiter, R. de; Pit, A.M.; Martins de Oliviera, V.; Duits, M.H.G.; Ende, H.T.M. van den; Mugele, F.G.
Precise control and manipulation of individual drops are crucial in many lab-on-a-chip applications. We present a novel hybrid concept for channel-based discrete microfluidics with integrated electrowetting functionality by incorporating co-planar electrodes (separated by a narrow gap) in one of the microchannel walls. By combining the high throughput of channel-based microfluidics with the individual drop control achieved using electrical actuation, we acquire the strengths of both worlds. The tunable strength of the electrostatic forces enables a wide range of drop manipulations, such as on-demand trapping and release, guiding, and sorting of drops in the microchannel. In each of these scenarios, the...
Trapping of drops by wetting defects - Mannetje, D.J.C.M. 't; Ghosh, S.; Lagraauw, R.; Otten, S.; Pit, A.M.; Berendsen, C.; Zeegers, J.; Ende, H.T.M. van den; Mugele, F.G.
Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the...
Direct observation of ionic structure of solid-liquid interfaces: a deep look into the Stern Layer - Siretanu, Igor; Ebeling, Daniel; Andersson, Martin P.; Svane Stipp, S.L. Svane; Philipse, Albert; Cohen Stuart, Martin; Ende, Dirk van den; Mugele, Frieder
The distribution of ions and charge at solid-water interfaces plays an essential role in a wide range of processes in biology, geology and technology. While theoretical models of the solid-electrolyte interface date back to the early 20th century, a detailed picture of the structure of the electric double layer has remained elusive, largely because of experimental techniques have not allowed direct observation of the behaviour of ions, i.e. with subnanometer resolution. We have made use of recent advances in high-resolution Atomic Force Microscopy to reveal, with atomic level precision, the ordered adsorption of the mono- and divalent ions that are...
Encased cantilevers for low-noise force and mass sensing in liquids - Ziegler, D.; Klaassen, A.; Bahri, D.; Chmielewski, D.; Nievergelt, A.; Mugele, F.; Sader, J.; Ashby, P.D.
Viscous damping severely limits the performance of resonator based sensing in liquids. We present encased cantilevers that overcome this limitation with a transparent and hydrophobic encasement built around the resonator. Only a few micrometers of the cantilever probe protrude from the encasement and water does not enter the encasement. This maintains high Q-factors and reduces the thermo-mechanical noise levels by over one order of magnitude and reaches minimal detectable forces of 12 fN/•Hz in liquids. These probes expand the frontiers of cantilever based sensing. We discuss their design and fabrication with special focus on squeeze film damping and demonstrate their...
Privacy-Preserving Verification of Clinical Research - Makri, Eleftheria; Everts, Maarten H.; Hoogh, Sebastiaan de; Peter, Andreas; Akker, Harm op den; Hartel, Pieter; Jonker, Willem
We treat the problem of privacy-preserving statistics verification in clinical research. We show that given aggregated results from statistical calculations, we can verify their correctness efficiently, without revealing any of the private inputs used for the calculation. Our construction is based on the primitive of Secure Multi-Party Computation from Shamir's Secret Sharing. Basically, our setting involves three parties: a hospital, which owns the private inputs, a clinical researcher, who lawfully processes the sensitive data to produce an aggregated statistical result, and a third party (usually several verifiers) assigned to verify this result for reliability and transparency reasons. Our solution guarantees...