University of Twente Publications
University of Twente Repository provides publications of UT scientific staff, in many cases full text and publicly available.
Type = Article
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 19.597
To use or not to use: guidelines for researchers using data from online social networking sites - Wynsberghe, Aimee van; Been, Henry; Keulen, Maurice van
The universal and ubiquitous use of computing technologies confronts us with new ethical dilemmas on a daily basis. In the current age of abundant information sharing and gathering, social networking sites (SNSs) are now thought of as incredible resources for collecting data on individuals. The question of interest for computer scientists, engineers and ethicists alike asks: what are the ethical limits for using data obtained from online SNSs? To date, no practical guidelines exist for assisting researchers in either experiments or in the creation of products using data obtained from online SNSs. The following paper gives a general discussion of...
Towards a reference architecture of fuel-based carbon management systems in the logistics industry - Iacob, M.E.; Sinderen, M.J. van; Steenwijk, M.; Verkroost, P.
The current practice in the logistics industry is to calculate the carbon footprint of transportation activities based on the distance covered, using long-term fuel consumption averages per kilometer. However, fuel consumption may actually vary over time, because of differences in road characteristics, traffic situations, driving behavior, etc. Therefore, distance-based emission calculations are not accurate. Our approach is fuel-based and it calculates transport greenhouse gas emissions by obtaining the actual fuel consumption during trips via board computers installed in vehicles. Thus, we propose an architecture for a fuel-based Logistics Carbon Management System (LCMS) that monitors and collects real-time data about the...
Outcomes of a population-based series of early breast cancer patients with micrometastases and isolated tumour cells in axillary lymph nodes - Heiden-van der Loo, M.; Schaapveld, M.; Ho, V.K.Y.; Siesling, S.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Peeters, P.H.M.
Background Axillary lymph node staging is traditionally important to provide prognostic information to guide further treatment. However, the relevance of isolated tumour cells (ITC) or micrometastases in axillary nodes and the need for adjuvant treatment remain uncertain.
Patients and methods Data from 18 370 patients with pT1–2 breast cancer with pN0, pN0i+ or pN1mi were analysed. The primary end point was 5-year disease-free survival (locoregional recurrence, distant metastases or contralateral breast cancer).
Results Five-year disease-free survival was 89.9% [95% confidence interval 89.5% to 90.4%]; and did not differ significantly between groups. After adjusting for prognostic factors (including treatment), patients with...
Ethicist as Designer: A Pragmatic Approach to Ethics in the Lab - Wynsberghe, Aimee van; Robbins, Scott
Contemporary literature investigating the significant impact of technology on our lives leads many to conclude that ethics must be a part of the discussion at an earlier stage in the design process i.e., before a commercial product is developed and introduced. The problem, however, is the question regarding how ethics can be incorporated into an earlier stage of technological development and it is this question that we argue has not yet been answered adequately. There is no consensus amongst scholars as to the kind of ethics that should be practiced, nor the individual selected to perform this ethical analysis. One...
A method for integrating ethics into the design of robots - Wynsberghe, Aimee van
Purpose – With the rapid and pervasive introduction of robots into human environments, ethics scholars along with roboticists are asking how ethics can be applied to the discipline of robotics. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concrete example of incorporating ethics into the design process of a robot in healthcare.
Design/methodology/approach – The approach for including ethics in the design process of care robots used in this paper is called the Care-Centered Value Sensitive Design (CCVSD) approach. The CCVSD approach presented here provides both an outline of the components demanding ethical attention as well as a step-by-step...
Vakmanschap in onze high tech gezondheidszorg? Over de kunst van het "elektronische" zorgen - Coeckelbergh, Mark
De hedendaagse gezondheidszorg steunt op elektronische informatie- en communicatietechnologie. Denk maar aan de computers die overal gebruikt worden en het gebruik van internet bij het zoeken naar informatie over gezondheid, elektronische voorschriften, medische expertsystemen, chip implantaten, zorgrobots, gezondheidsd|>|>s op mobiele telefoons, elektronische patiëntendossiers, enzovoort. Soms worden deze elektronische technologieën ook gebruikt om zorg op afstand te verlenen, bijvoorbeeld om de medische toestand van ouderen en chronisch zieken in de gaten te houden. Het gebruik van elektronische technologie-en in de gezondheidszorg roept echter ook ethische vragen op. Is het wel veilig om met een zorgrobot om te gaan? Respecteert een elektronisch...
The Moral Standing of Machines: Towards a Relational and Non-Cartesian Moral Hermeneutics - Coeckelbergh, Mark
Should we give moral standing to machines? In this paper, I explore the implications of a relational approach to moral standing for thinking about machines, in particular autonomous, intelligent robots. I show how my version of this approach, which focuses on moral relations and on the conditions of possibility of moral status ascription, provides a way to take critical distance from what I call the “standard” approach to thinking about moral status and moral standing, which is based on properties. It does not only overcome epistemological problems with the standard approach, but can also explain how we think about, experience,...
Non-invasive blood pressure and cardiac index measurements using the Finapres Portapres in an emergency department triage setting - Does, Yuri van der; Loon, Lex M. van; Alsma, Jelmer; Govers, Annebel; Lansdorp, Benno; Rood, Pleunie P.M.; Schuit, Stephanie C.E.
Emergency department (ED) patients are triaged to determine the urgency of care. The Finapres Portapres (FP) measures blood pressure (BP) and cardiac output (CO) non-invasively, and may be of added value in early detection of patients at risk for hemodynamic compromise.
Compare non-invasive BP measurements using FP and standard automated sphygmomanometry. Compare FP cardiac index (CI), CO corrected for body surface area, of normotensive patients, to chart-based physician estimate of shock, to discover if there is additional value in CI measurements in triage.
ED Patients requiring BP measurement in triage were included. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP were measured using both...
Evaluating a Professional Development Programme for Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Science Subject - Visser, Talitha C.; Coenders, Fer G.M.; Terlouw, Cees; Pieters, Jules
This study aims to evaluate a professional development programme that prepares and assists teachers with the implementation of a multidisciplinary science module, basing the evaluation on participants’ reactions, the first level of Guskey’s five-level model for evaluation (2002). Positive evaluations at the higher levels in Guskey's model are thought to depend upon those at the first level, that is, teachers' positive appreciation for the professional development programme. Different instruments (questionnaires, e-mail correspondence, and interviews) were used at various stages in the four-part professional development programme. The data were categorised by the stage in the programme to which they pertained: individual...
Toward Conceptual Clarity: A Multidimensional, Multilevel Model of Professional Learning Communities in Dutch Elementary Schools - Sleegers, Peter; Brok, Perry den; Verbiest, Eric; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.
Despite the popularity of professional learning communities (PLCs) among researchers, practitioners, and educational policy makers, studies on PLCs differ significantly on the dimensions and capacities used to conceptualize them. Further, the interrelatedness of different dimensions and capacities within PLCs is not often well conceived nor examined in terms of learning at multiple (individual, team, school) levels. In an effort to address this gap, this study assesses the multidimensional, multilevel nature of PLCs using data from 992 teachers from 76 Dutch elementary schools. Findings indicate that professional learning communities within elementary schools can be conceptualized and assessed by 3 strongly interconnected...
The artifactual mind: overcoming the ‘inside–outside’ dualism in the extended mind thesis and recognizing the technological dimension of cognition - Aydin, Ciano
This paper explains why Clark’s Extended Mind thesis is not capable of sufficiently grasping how and in what sense external objects and technical artifacts can become part of our human cognition. According to the author, this is because a pivotal distinction between inside and outside is preserved in the Extended Mind theorist’s account of the relation between the human organism and the world of external objects and artifacts, a distinction which they proclaim to have overcome. Inspired by Charles S. Peirce’s philosophy of mind, in particular, the author tries to find a way out of this ‘inside–outside’ fallacy. External objects,...
Information ethics in the context of smart devices - Roux, Brian; Falgoust, Michael
In this paper, we employ Extended Cognition as a background for a series of thought experiments about privacy and common used information technology devices. Laptops and smart phones are now widely used devices, but current privacy standards do not adequately address the relationship between the owners of these devices and the information stored on them. Law enforcement treats laptops and smart phones are potential sources of information about criminal activity, but this treatment ignores the use of smart devices as extensions of users’ cognitive capability. In Philosophy of Mind, Extended Cognition is a metaphysical theory about the relationship between consciousness...
The digital divide shifts to differences in usage - Deursen, Alexander J.A.M. van; Dijk, Jan A.G.M. van
In a representative survey of the Dutch population we found that people with low levels of education and disabled people are using the Internet for more hours a day in their spare time than higher educated and employed populations. To explain this finding, we investigated what these people are doing online. The first contribution is a theoretically validated cluster of Internet usage types: information, news, personal development, social interaction, leisure, commercial transaction and gaming. The second contribution is that, based on this classification, we were able to identify a number of usage differences, including those demonstrated by people with different...