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Deep Blue at the University of Michigan (72,404 recursos)
Deep Blue is the University of Michigan's permanent, safe, and accessible service for representing our rich intellectual community. Its primary goal is to provide access to the work that makes Michigan a leader in research, teaching, and creativity.

Psychiatry, Department of

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 560

1. Traumatic Brain Injury in Children — A Review of Pharmacological Approaches to Acquired ADHD (Poster) - Nosheen, Saadia; Gih, Daniel
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a common condition seen in both adults and children, can lead to cognitive, social and physical complications. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) induced by TBI in children (secondary ADHD or ADHD/TBI) is one consequence that has limited discussion in the literature. This poster reviews the psychopharmacologic treatment options available, their effectiveness, and what is currently under study.

2. Observed Information in Semiparametric Models - Murphy, Susan A.; van der Vaart, A. W.

3. Semiparametric Likelihood Ratio Inference - Murphy, Susan A.; van der Vaart, A. W.

4. Asymptotic Theory for the Frailty Model - Murphy, Susan A.

5. Heat Maps: A Technique for Classifying and Analyzing Drinking Behavior - Krentzman, Amy R.; Robinson, Elizabeth; Jester, Jennifer M.; Perron, Brian
Heat maps are presented here as an innovative technique for evaluating longitudinal drinking outcomes. The Life Transitions Study followed alcohol dependent individuals for 2.5 years during 2004–2009 in a Midwestern city (N = 364). The TimeLine Follow- Back obtained drinking information. Heat map results were compared with those obtained using growth mixture modeling. Heat map classes differed significantly on baseline clinical and demographic indicators. Data were gathered with support from NIAAA R01AA014442.

6. Effects of alcoholism severity and smoking on executive neurocognitive function - Glass, Jennifer M.; Buu, Anne; Adams, Kenneth M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Zucker, Robert A.
Aims  Neurocognitive deficits in chronic alcoholic men are well documented. Impairments include memory, visual–spatial processing, problem solving and executive function. The cause of impairment could include direct effects of alcohol toxicity, pre-existing cognitive deficits that predispose towards substance abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders and abuse of substances other than alcohol. Cigarette smoking occurs at higher rates in alcoholism and has been linked to poor cognitive performance, yet the effects of smoking on cognitive function in alcoholism are often ignored. We examined whether chronic alcoholism and chronic smoking have effects on executive function. Methods  Alcoholism and smoking were examined in a community-recruited...

7. Really Underage Drinkers: Alcohol Use Among Elementary Students - Donovan, John E.; Leech, Sharon L.; Zucker, Robert A.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Puttler, Leon I.; Wong, Maria M.; Looman, Wendy S.
Despite the current societal concern with underage drinking, little attention has been paid to alcohol use within the preadolescent population. This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the 2003 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, that was organized and chaired by John E. Donovan. The intent of the symposium was to kick start research on alcohol use among elementary school children by reviewing what is known regarding drinking in childhood. Presentations included (1) The Epidemiology of Children's Alcohol Use, by John E. Donovan; (2) The Validity of Children's Self-Reports of Alcohol Use, by Sharon...

8. Underage Drinking: A Developmental Framework - Masten, Ann; Faden, Vivian; Zucker, Robert; Spear, Linda

9. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: University of Michigan Addiction Research Center (UMARC)- development, evolution, direction - Zucker, Robert
A historical summary is provided of the evolution of the University of Michigan Addiction Research Center (UMARC)since its origins in 1988. Begun as an National Institutes of Health (NIH) research center within a Department of Psychiatry and focused solely upon alcohol and aging, early work emphasized treatment efficacy, differential outcome studies and characterization of the neurophysiological and behavioral manifestations of chronic alcoholism. Over the last 15 years, UMARC has extended its research focus along a number of dimensions: its developmental reach has been extended etiologically by studies of risk early in the life span, and by way of work on...

10. A Developmental Perspective on Underage Alcohol Use - Masten, Ann; Faden, Vivian; Zucker, Robert; Spear, Linda
Underage alcohol use can be viewed as a developmental phenomenon because many kinds of developmental changes and expectations appear to influence this behavior and also because it has consequences for development. Data on alcohol use, abuse, and dependence show clear age-related patterns. Moreover, many of the effects that alcohol use has on the drinker, in both the short and long term, depend on the developmental timing of alcohol use or exposure. Finally, many developmental connections have been observed in the risk and protective factors that predict the likelihood of problem alcohol use in young people. Therefore, efforts to understand and...

11. Early Developmental Processes and the Continuity of Risk for Underage Drinking and Problem Drinking - Zucker, Robert; Donovan, John; Masten, Ann; Mattson, Margaret; Moss, Howard
Developmental pathways to underage drinking emerge before the second decade of life. Many scientists, however, as well as the general public, continue to focus on proximal influences surrounding the initiation of drinking in adolescence, such as social, behavioral, and genetic variables related to availability and ease of acquisition of the drug, social reinforcement for its use, and individual differences in drug responses. In the past 20 years, a considerable body of evidence has accumulated on the early (often much earlier than the time of the first drink) predictors and pathways of youthful alcohol use and abuse. These early developmental influences involve numerous...

12. Self-concept disturbances: Cognitive vulnerability for early drinking and early drunkenness in adolescents at high risk for alcohol problems - Corte, Colleen; Zucker, Robert
We tested the hypotheses that adolescents with few positive and many negative self-schemas would drink and get drunk earlier than adolescents with many positive and few negative selfschemas. Adolescents (N=264) from an ongoing prospective family study of alcoholism [Zucker,R. A., Fitzgerald, H., Refior, S., Puttler, L., Pallas, D., & Ellis, D. (2000). The clinical and social ecology of childhood for children of alcoholics: Description of a study and implications for a differentiated social policy. In H. Fitzgerald, B. Lester, & B. Zuckerman (Eds.), Children of addiction: Research, health, and policy issues (pp. 109–141). New York, NY: Routledge Falmer] were assessed at...

13. Characterizing the Life Stressors of Children of Alcoholic Parents - Hussong, Andrea; Bauer, Daniel; Huang, Wenjing; Chassin, Laurie; Zucker, Robert
The current study examined differences between children of alcoholic (COAs) and nonalcoholic parents in their experience of negative life events across 3 longitudinal studies together spanning the first 3 decades of life. The authors posited that COAs would differ from their peers in the life domains in which they are vulnerable to stressors, in the recurrence of stressors, and in the severity of stressors. Scale- and item-level analyses of adjusted odds ratios based on stressors across 7 life domains showed that COAs consistently reported greater risk for stressors in the family domain. COAs were also more likely to experience stressors repetitively...

14. Alcoholism Effects on Social Migration and Neighborhood Effects on Alcoholism Over the Course of 12 Years - Buu, Anne; Mansour, MaryAnn; Wang, Jing; Refior, Susan; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert
Background: Although a short-term effect of neighborhood characteristics on individual alcohol abuse has been demonstrated by a quasi-experimental residential mobility study, the observed effect of alcohol problem involvement on place of residence and residential character has not been studied. We test the alcoholism effect on place of residence, and we also attempt to replicate the neighborhood-to-alcoholism effect. Methods: A sample of 206 Caucasian men (average age was 33) who were systematically recruited for alcoholism through a court record search of drunk driving offenses and doorto-door canvassing, in a 4-county-wide area were followed up at 3-year intervals in a prospective study of the course...

15. Childhood sleep problems, early onset of substance use and behavioral problems in adolescence - Wong, Maria; Brower, Kirk; Zucker, Robert
Background: Very few prospective studies examine the relationship between childhood sleep problems and subsequent substance use. In this study, we examined how sleep problems at ages 3–8 predicted onset of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence. We also investigated the relationships between childhood sleep problems and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods: Study participants were 292 boys and 94 girls from a community sample of high risk families and controls in an ongoing longitudinal study. Results: Controlling for parental alcoholism, sleep problems at ages 3-8 predicted onset of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among boys and onset of alcohol use among girls....

16. Disaggregating the Distal, Proximal, and Time-Varying Effects of Parent Alcoholism on Children’s Internalizing Symptoms - Hussong, A. M.; Cai, I.; Curran, P. J.; Flora, D. B.; Chassin, L. A.; Zucker, R. A.
Abstract We tested whether children show greater internalizing symptoms when their parents are actively abusing alcohol. In an integrative data analysis, we combined observations over ages 2 through 17 from two longitudinal studies of children of alcoholic parents and matched controls recruited from the community. Using a mixed modeling approach, we tested whether children showed elevated mother- and child-reported internalizing symptoms(a) at the same time that parents showed alcohol-related consequences (time-varying effects), (b) if parents showed greater alcohol-related consequences during the study period (proximal effects), and (c) if parents had a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism that predated the study period(distal effects). No support...

17. Anticipating problem alcohol use developmentally from childhood into middle adulthood: what have we learned? - Zucker, Robert
This commentary reviews and comments on six major longitudinal studies from the United States, Great Britain and Finland, that test predictive models of drinking and problem drinking behavior across a developmental span of one to two generations. The large Ns, in two instances involving population samples, and the broad and study-overlapping variable domains make this collection of studies unique and of special interest vis-à-vis the issue of cross-study replicability of findings. Significant cross-study commonalities are noted, involving the strong cross-study replicability of an undercontrol/externalizing domain as both a childhood and adolescent predictor of problem drinking outcomes in early to middle adulthood, the relative autostability of heavy...

18. Parent, Family, and Neighborhood Effects on the Development of Child Substance Use and Other Psychopathology from Preschool to the Start of Adulthood - Buu, Anne; DiPiazza, Cydney; Wang, Jing; Puttler, Leon; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert
Abstract Objective: We examined the long-term effects of childhood familial and neighborhood risk on adolescent substance use and psychiatric symptomatology. Method: This study used data from an ongoing two-decade long study that recruited alcoholic and neighborhood control families through fathers’ drunk driving records and door-to-door canvassing in a four county area. The sample included 220 male, initially 3-5 year old children of the participant families, who received in-home assessments at baseline and thereafter at three-year intervals. Parental lifetime psychopathology and offspring symptomatology at ages 18-20 were assessed by semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Census tract variables were used to indicate neighborhood characteristics. Results: The isomorphic...

19. Temperament Pathways to Childhood Disruptive Behavior and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Testing a Cascade Model - Martel, Michelle; Pierce, Laura; Nigg, Joel; Jester, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth; Puttler, Leon; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert
Abstract Temperament traits may increase risk for developmental psychopathology like Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviors during childhood, as well as predisposing to substance abuse during adolescence. In the current study, a cascade model of trait pathways to adolescent substance abuse was examined. Component hypotheses were that (a) maladaptive traits would increase risk for inattention/hyperactivity, (b) inattention/hyperactivity would increase risk for disruptive behaviors, and (c) disruptive behaviors would lead to adolescent substance abuse. Participants were 674 children (486 boys) from 321 families in an ongoing, longitudinal high risk study that began when children were 3 years old. Temperament traits assessed were reactive control, resiliency, and negative emotionality, using examiner ratings on the California Q-Sort....

20. Anticipating Problem Drinking Risk from Preschoolers' Antisocial Behavior: Evidence for a Common Delinquency-Related Diathesis Model - Mayzer, Roni; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Zucker, Robert
Objective: Early first drinking (EFD) experiences predict later alcohol problems. However, the longitudinal pathway from early childhood leading to EFD has not been well delineated. Based on documented links between drinking behaviors and chronic antisocial behaviors, this article tests a common diathesis model in which precursive patterns of aggression and delinquent behaviorVfrom preschool onwardVanticipate EFD. Method: Participants were 220 male children and their parents in a high risk for substance use disorder prospective study. Early first drinking was defined as having had a first drink by 12 to 14 years of age. Stacked structural equation models and configural frequency analyses were used to compare those with...

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