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Deep Blue at the University of Michigan (72,414 recursos)
Deep Blue is the University of Michigan's permanent, safe, and accessible service for representing our rich intellectual community. Its primary goal is to provide access to the work that makes Michigan a leader in research, teaching, and creativity.

Social Sciences: Economics, Department of (UM-Dearborn)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 34

1. Religion, Warrior Elites, and Property Rights - Hull, Brooks B.; Bold, Frederick
In 1119 C.E., King Baldwin II of Jerusalem granted nine French knights space in the Al Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount over the ruins of Solomon’s Temple to create the headquarters of a new monastic order: The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici). The Knights Templar, or Templars, as they have become known, grew in wealth and power after that modest beginning to become an influential and pervasive organization throughout Western Europe until the years before their suppression by King Philip of France in 1307. The Templars were only one of...

2. The Economics of Misbehavior, Love, and Marriage Contract Enforcement - Hull, Brooks B.
Individuals allocate time between production of goods shared by family members and goods consumed only by the individual. Individuals are inclined to misbehave by giving less time to production of shared goods than is preferred by the family. In some cultures, strict family control reduces misbehavior. Marriage for love is an innovation in marriage contract enforcement adopted by cultures with specific characteristics. Analysis of cultures in the Human Relations Area Files supports the theory.

3. An Economics Perspective Ten Years After the NAB Case - Hull, Brooks B.
The U.S. Justice Department brought suit against the National Association of Broadcasters in 1979, charging that the NAB Television Code restricted the supply of advertising. This paper examines implications of a collusive code, concluding that the code did not successfully serve this purpose. Television station sale prices were no higher in markets with a high proportion of code subscriber stations. Stations in single station markets were no less likely to subscribe to the code. Finally, rates of return on broadcast firm and network stocks did not change when the antitrust case was settled.

4. Has the Wedding Between Economics and Anthropology Been Cancelled? Economic Theory and Polygamy - Hull, Brooks B.
This paper uses data from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of the Human Relations Area Files to test implications of family economic theory related to multiple marriage. As the theory predicts, actions which interfere with the marriage market make most participants worse off. In particular, in those cultures which forbid polygyny, the value of a wife falls. Polygyny disappears in more complex economies, economies in which the value of the quantity of children is relatively less important than the quality of children.

5. Rezoning the Afterlife: Religion and Property Rights in the Middle Ages - Hull, Brooks B.
This paper reviews an economic theory of religion and uses the theory to explain changes in attitudes toward hell, heaven, and divine retribution in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The hypothesis is straightforward. Religion serves a number of important functions, one of which is to provide an alternative to the state and to the local community in enforcing good social behavior in general and property rights in particular. As the nature of the state's power, of the influence of the local community, and of economic activity change, religious doctrine changes in a manner predictable by economic theory. Although applied...

6. Again Greene: The Economics of the NAB Case - Hull, Brooks B.; Foster, Carroll B.
Commonly in antitrust cases against trade associations, the courts have made decisions based on a rule of reason, evaluating the harm caused by the association rather than proscribing per se a given activity. Had Judge Greene evaluated the harm caused by the NAB Television Code, only one decision was possible: the code was not evil. Although restricting the number of commercials does (indirectly) increase price of commercials, the code was widely ignored. Nor could it be expected to succeed in the large and diverse number of broadcast markets. In any case, the broadcast market was changing significantly during and since...

7. An OPEC in Fantasyland? The NAB Television Code as Cartel (revised) - Hull, Brooks B.; Foster, Carroll B.
The U.S. Justice Department filed suit against the National Association of Broadcasters in 1979, charging that its Television Code restricted the supply of advertising. Had the case, which was settled by consent decree in 1982, gone to trial under a "rule of reason," the cartel effects of the code would have been examined. This paper employs a number of statistical techniques to see if the code provided cartel benefits. The results suggest that the decision to become a code member cannot be ascribed to cartel effects of the code.

8. The Effect of "Foreign" and Local Visitors on Granting Park Concessions - Hull, Brooks B.
If parks have particular characteristics, park managers should grant firms exclusive right to provide products or services within the park. The particular characteristics include that park development is only attractive to foreign visitors, that foreign visitors are only valuable for the currency they spend, and that development and congestion reduce the park's value to domestic visitors. Permitting monopoly to provide development means maximizing net revenue from sale of services to foreigners. Monopoly concessions also mean less development is produced than with competing concessions. Less development and fewer foreign visitors mean increased value to domestic visitors.

9. The Economics of Misbehavior and Love in Marriage - Hull, Brooks B.
This paper presents a mathematical model examining the role of love in marriage. This paper extends the new theory of marriage, especially that developed by Becker, by examining the effect sharing of family output has on individual family member incentives. This paper models techniques used by families to assure proper member behavior and, in particular, the role of love as an enforcement tool. The model suggests a number of testable implications which provide fertile ground for future research.

10. Some Issues in Granting Park Concessions in Smaller Countries - Hull, Brooks B.
If parks have particular characteristics, park managers should grant firms exclusive right to provide products or services within the park. Thus, contrary to the usual case, the manager is wise to allow monopoly provision of park development. The particular characteristics include that park development is only attractive to foreign visitors, that foreign visitors are only valuable for the currency they spend, and that development and congestion reduce the park's value to domestic visitors. A park manager seeks to maximize the sum of foreign currency earnings less production cost of development and consumer surplus of domestic visitors less travel cost. Permitting...

11. Would You Buy a Used Car from this Priest? An Economic Theory of Religion and the Church - Hull, Brooks B.; Bold, Frederick
This paper uses the theory of the firm to explain a variety of characteristics of religious doctrine and behavior. The paper analyzes doctrine about the afterlife, altering events, temporal happiness, and various social goods including property rights enforcement.

12. The Value of a Forest: A Critique of the Groome and Associates IRR Method - Hull, Brooks B.; Sharp, Basil M. H.
The Groome and Associates Internal Rate of Return method for estimating the value of a standing forest is compelling in its simplicity. A forest manager need only be aware of current lumber prices, aware of harvesting cost, and able to estimate the average rate of growth in the value of a tree about to be planted. The technique also produces consistent results. Any forest manager should arrive at the same estimate of value for any forest. However, the simplicity of the method disguises several important errors. The age at which trees are harvested influences a forest's value. If trees are...

13. An OPEC in Fantasyland? The NAB Television Code as Cartel - Hull, Brooks B.
The U.S. Justice Department filed suit against the National Association of Broadcasters in 1979, charging that its Television Code restricted the supply of advertising. Had the case, which was settled by consent decree in 1982, gone to trial under a "rule of reason," the cartel effects of the code would have been examined. This paper employs a "dummy endogenous variable" model to see if the code provided cartel benefits. The results suggest that subscribing stations received higher profits, but that these cannot be unambiguously ascribed to cartel effects of the code.

14. American Commercial Television and the Federal Communications Commission - Hull, Brooks B.
The Federal Communications Commission receives political support from commercial television stations and from television viewers. The main regulatory tool of the FCC is its power to assign television channels to communities and to grant licenses to applicants for those television channels. The FCC has used its regulatory power to establish a geographic pattern of television station locations different than would otherwise have occurred, but a pattern predictable by the theory of government regulation.

15. Product Variety in Religious Markets - Hull, Brooks B.; Bold, Frederick
This paper analyzes the relationship between religious market product variety and church membership. We find that denominational variety is negatively associated with the total level of church membership in U.S. counties. This result appears to contradict the standard religious product variety model. Our data are consistent with a more general view of markets that incorporates the cost to consumers of product variety. Where product variety has significant costs, an increase in variety may reduce total market penetration. The paper suggests market characteristics that might give rise to this situation, characteristics present in the religion market.

16. The Churching of Colonial Connecticut: A Case Study - Hull, Brooks B.; Moran, Gerald F.
The market model of religion asserts in part that clergy respond to incentives. For eighteenth-century European established churches, clergy income was independent of church membership and so clergy tended not to behave in a manner attractive to potential members. By contrast, the established Congregational (Puritan) church of colonial Connecticut featured a structure that rewarded to a significant degree zealous clergy. Clergy were hired and fired at the local level by community members who also voted on local clerical taxes. The market model thus predicts relatively strong church membership. Archival data show that the number of new Puritan congregation members as...

17. A Preliminary Time Series Analysis of Church Activity in Colonial Woodbury, Connecticut - Hull, Brooks B.; Moran, Gerald F.
We examine a small part of the substantial detailed data on church activity for colonial Woodbury, Connecticut. Time series regression analysis suggests that religious activity in Woodbury, as reflected in new church members and baptisms, is influenced by wars and economic activity but not influenced by particular ministers. Regional population trends influence church activity so long as the church is established. Deviations from trend occur because of periodic revivals. The Great Awakening, however, is a continuation of underlying trend.

18. Religion Still Matters - Hull, Brooks B.
Research by Lipford, McCormick, and Tollison and by Hull and Bold shows a negative relationship between church membership and crime rates. The results are important but do not employ the most recent available data. This paper reproduces Hull and Bold’s results using more contemporary 1990 data by United States county. This paper also compares 1980 and 1990 county data. Results are consistent with the earlier research. County crime rates are significantly negatively related to county church membership share. Other factors affecting county crime rates include unemployment, poverty, expenditures on police, population density, and income.

19. Hell, Religion, and Cultural Change - Hull, Brooks B.; Bold, Frederick
This paper's key conclusion is that church doctrine about the afterlife is a function of factors predictable with economic theory. Religion, like government, family, and community can enforce property rights and encourage socially valuable behavior. Religious doctrines about hell as punishment for breaking rules that arguably benefit society will occur in religions in cultures where the church is relatively more influential than the family, community, and government. Statistical material from the Human Relations Area Files tends to support the model's implications as does informal analysis of New England colonial Puritan doctrine about hell.

20. The Economics of Religion: A Survey of Recent Work - Hull, Brooks B.; Iannaccone, Laurence R.
This essay is designed to familiarize readers with the economics of religion, make its literature more accessible, and encourage further contributions to that literature. The essay begins with work on the religious behavior of individuals and households, proceeds to analysis of religious groups and institutions, and concludes with work on religious markets.

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