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Communication Studies, Department of
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From IndiaFM.com to Radio Ceylon: New media and the making of the Bombay film industry - Punathambekar, Aswin
Prior studies of the Bombay film industry have focused on film in isolation, despite broadcasting and digital media shaping the circulation and reception of films and film music in fundamental ways. Through a case study of Indiafm.com, this article analyzes the role played by dot-com companies in the film industry’s construction of an overseas market over the past decade. It also highlights the importance of examining how other ‘new media’ technologies and institutions – radio, state-regulated television (Doordarshan), VCRs and the video business, cable and satellite television – have shaped the cultural geography of Hindi cinema and Bombay’s status as...
Browse and Search Patterns in a Digital Image Database - Frost, Carolyn Olivia; Taylor, Bradley; Noakes, Anna; Markel, Stephen; Torres, Deborah; Drabenstott, Karen M.
A prototype image retrieval system with browse and search capabilities was developed to investigate patterns of searching a collection of digital visual images, as well as factors, such as image size, resolution, and download speed, which affect browsing. The subject populations were art history specialists and non-specialists. Through focus group interviews, a controlled test, post-test interviews and an online survey, data was gathered to compare preferences and actual patterns of use in browsing and searching. While specialists preferred direct search to browsing, and generalists used browsing as their preferred mode, both user groups found each mode to play a role...
Preemptive and reactive spending in U.S. House races - Goldenberg, Edie N.; Traugott, Michael W.; Baumgartner, Frank R.
This paper examines the spending behavior of candidates for the U.S. House of Representatives. Particular attention is paid to the timing of receipts and expenditures over the complete 2-year election cycle. Incumbents raise and spend large amounts of money very early in the race, and this preemptive spending may have a great impact on the selection of challengers and therefore on electoral outcomes. In addition, a model of reactive spending is tested for the general election period. Incumbents' expenditures are a function of the underlying partisan division in the district, the strength of the challenge, and candidates' feelings of vulnerability....
Congressional campaign effects on candidate recognition and evaluation - Goldenberg, Edie N.; Traugott, Michael W.
To date, most congressional scholars have relied upon a standard model of American electoral behavior developed in the presidential setting. This research extends our knowledge of Congressmen's incumbency advantages and their sources. Candidate preference is viewed as a function of the relative recognition and evaluation of incumbents and their challengers, as well as of Democrats and Republicans. In the recognition model, contact with voters and media effects are quite important, but there is no direct role for party identification. Evaluation is a function of personal contact and party identification, and media variables are insignificant. Relative recognition, relative evaluation, and party...
Public evaluations of the presidential nomination process - Petrella, Margaret; Traugott, Michael W.
The evaluation of presidential nomination reforms has been the topic of elite discussion and debate, with little attention paid to popular evaluations. Public attitudes toward a number of reforms to the presidential nomination process were evaluated through survey data collected in 1988. The evaluations included campaign costs, debates, the influence of consultants, and the role of the media. The analysis suggests that there is a relatively high level of popular satisfaction with these dimensions of the current system. Popular concern about the nomination process is focused in two areas—the roles of money and the media. There is a strong suggestion...
Proximal Peer-Level Effects of a Small-Group Selected Prevention on Aggression in Elementary School Children: An Investigation of the Peer Contagion Hypothesis - Morales, Julie; Guerra, Nancy G.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul
Examined peer contagion in small group, selected prevention programming over one school year. Participants were boys and girls in grades 3 (46 groups, 285 students) and 6 (36 groups, 219 students) attending school in low-resource, inner city communities or moderate resource urban communities. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling (observations within individuals within groups) indicated that individual change in aggression over time related to the average aggression of others in the intervention group. The individual child was “pulled” toward peers’ mean level of aggression; so the intervention appeared to reduce aggression for those high on aggression, and to make those low on...
Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in Cross-Generational Research on Parenting and Child Aggressive Behavior - Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul
The four studies in this special issue represent important advances in research on the intergenerational transmission of aggressive behavior. In this commentary, we review the key features and findings of these studies, as well as our own cross-generational study of aggression, the Columbia County Longitudinal Study. Next, we consider important theoretical issues (e.g., defining and operationalizing “raggression” and “parenting” assessing reciprocal effects of parenting and child aggression; identifying the ages at which aggression should be assessed across generations; broadening the investigation of contextual and individual factors). We then discuss several methodological issues (e.g., determining the most informative measurement intervals for...
Normative Influences on Aggression in Urban Elementary School Classrooms - Henry, David; Guerra, Nancy; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Tolan, Patrick; Eron, Leonard D.; VanAcker, Richard
We report a study aimed at understanding the effects of classroom normative influences on individual aggressive behavior, using samples of 614 and 427 urban elementary school children. Participants were assessed with measures of aggressive behavior and normative beliefs about aggression. We tested hypotheses related to the effects of personal normative beliefs, descriptive classroom norms (the central tendency of classmates' aggressive behavior), injunctive classroom normative beliefs (classmates' beliefs about the acceptability of aggression), and norm salience (student and teacher sanctions against aggression) on longitudinal changes in aggressive behavior and beliefs. Injunctive norms affected individual normative beliefs and aggression, but descriptive norms...
The Influence of American Urban Culture on the Development of Normative Beliefs About Aggression in Middle-Eastern Immigrants - Souweidane, Violet; Huesmann, L. Rowell
The effects of a community's culture on children's and adolescents' normative beliefs about the appropriateness of aggression were examined. One hundred forty-seven high school students and 103 fourth graders participated in a survey of normative beliefs; 69 high school and 44 elementary school students were of Middle-Eastern background. Although there were no differences in the beliefs of immigrant and nonimmigrant fourth graders, adolescents born in the United States were more accepting of aggression than those who immigrated from the Middle East. Moreover, adolescents who immigrated to the U.S. at age 12 or later were less accepting of aggression than those...
Childhood predictors of adult criminality: are all risk factors reflected in childhood aggressiveness? - Huesmann, L. Rowell; Eron, Leonard D.; Dubow, Eric F.
Background Early aggressive behaviour is one of the best predictors of adult criminality. Aim To assess the degree to which family background variables, parental beliefs and behaviour and child intelligence predict child aggression and adult criminality. Method Data were used from the Colombia County Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal study of 856 children in third grade in New York, in 1959–60. Adult measures of criminal behaviour, child measures taken at age eight, child peer-nominated aggression, child's peer-nominated popularity, child's IQ and parental measures at eight years were used. Results Aggressive children were less intelligent, less popular, rejected more by their parents,...