Zur Effizienz von Schieneninfrastrukturbau-vorhaben am Beispiel des Brenner-Basistunnels.Die Zukunft der Schiene mit Milliardeninvestitionen verbaut? - Kummer, Sebastian; Nagl, Philipp; Schlaak, Jan-Philipp
Cost overrun has become a major issue regarding infrastructure projects. Especially in regard to railway infrastructure and the construction of tunnels, building costs are regularly exceeding the original estimates. This article discusses the reasons for this apparently common fact. In addition, reasons for and consequences of misassigned infrastructure investments are pointed out and a concept called "lifetime-based infrastructure controlling" to improve the efficiency of infrastructure projects is outlined. To highlight the importance of this field of research the serious consequences of wrong investments in infrastructure are shown by discussing the current "Brenner-Basistunnel"-project in Austria. (author's abstract)
Preparing business students for cooperation in multidisciplinary new venture teams: empirical insights from a business planning course - Lüthje, Christian; Prügl, Reinhard Wilhelm
Interdisciplinary cooperation among people trained in technical and economic fields has been
identified as an important success factor in new venture teams. However, empirical findings
also indicate that individuals often refuse to engage in close and trustful relationships with
representatives of other disciplines. Thus the question arises whether education programs on
interdisciplinary cooperation may be suitable to prepare students for future activities in multifunctional
business start-up teams.
In this study, we investigate the psychological effects of an interdisciplinary business
planning course held at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration
with the intention of promoting cooperation between technology-oriented professionals and
business management students. The findings show that this...
Finding commercially attractive user innovations:
A test of lead user theory - Franke, Nikolaus; von Hippel, Eric; Schreier, Martin
Firms and governments are increasingly interested in learning to exploit the value of lead
user innovations for commercial advantage. Improvements to lead user theory are needed to
inform and guide these efforts. In this paper we empirically test and confirm the basic tenants of
lead user theory. We also discover some new refinements and related practical applications.
Using a sample of users and user-innovators drawn from the extreme sport of kite surfing,
we analyze the relationship between the commercial attractiveness of innovations developed by
users and the intensity of the lead user characteristics those users display. We provide a first
empirical analysis of the independent effects of...
Prädikatoren der Qualität von Geschäftsideen:
Eine empirische Analyse eines Online-Ideen-Forums - Franke, Nikolaus; Hienerth, Christoph
Online-Ideen-Foren sind eine Möglichkeit, den "Match" zwischen Ideenträger und Ideenumsetzer effizienter zu gestalten. Sie schaffen allerdings ein neues Problem, denn meist werden in den Foren sehr schnell sehr viele Ideen online gestellt - gute genauso wie schlechte. Ihre einzelne Bewertung ist aufwändig. Es stellt sich daher die Frage, wie ein interessierter Umsetzer die guten Ideen in effizienter Weise identifizieren kann. Die
vorliegende empirische Untersuchung zeigt, dass v.a. objektive "technische" Merkmale der Ideen eine signifikante Prognoseverbesserung erlauben. (Autorenref.)
What you are is what you like -
similarity biases in venture capitalists -
evaluations of start-up teams - Franke, Nikolaus; Gruber, Marc; Harhoff, Dietmar; Henkel, Joachim
This paper extends recent research studying biases in venture capitalist's decision-making. We
contribute to this literature by analyzing biases arising due to similarity between a venture capitalist
and members of a venture team. We summarize the psychological foundations of such similarity
effects and derive a set of hypotheses regarding the impact of similarity on the assessement of team
quality. Using data from a conjoint experiment with 51 respondents, we find that venture capitalists
tend to favor teams that are similar to themselves w.r.t. the type of training and professional
experience. Our results have important implications for academics and practitioners alike. (author's abstract)
Measuring Success in Family Businesses: The Concept of Configurational Fit - Hienerth, Christoph; Keßler, Alexander
The problems associated with measuring success in small businesses are primarily caused by a lack of comparable data due to the ambiguity of success and by subjective biases. Success evaluation is dominated by the estimates of business owners, who tend to overestimate overall
success and internal strengths. However, reliable success measurement instruments would be useful for small business owners/managers as well as small business policymakers.
The main purposes of this article are to compare various measures of success, to explore the differences in their outcomes, and to analyze whether a model of success measurement using configurational fit can be used to overcome...
The Six Identities of Marketing:
A Vector Quantization of Research Approaches - Franke, Nikolaus; Mazanec, Josef
Purpose: This article provides an empirical identification of groups of marketing scholars
who share common beliefs about the role of science and the logic of scientific discovery.
Design: We use Topology Representing Network quantization to empirically identify classes
of marketing researchers within a representative sample of marketing professors.
Findings: We find six distinct classes of marketing scholars. They differ with regard to
popularity (size) and productivity (levels of publication output). Comparing the sub-samples
of German-speaking and US respondents shows cross-cultural differences.
Value: The study enhances our understanding of the current scientific orientation(s) of
marketing. It may help to motivate marketing scholars to ponder on their own positions and
Labour tax policies and strategic offshoring under unionised oligopoly - Rocha-Akis, Silvia
In a model with a unionised immobile labour force we analyse how labour taxes and transfers towards unemployed workers are optimally cho- sen when a welfare maximising government faces oligopolistic and partly mobile firms. We consider two polar types of government: one whose objective consists of maximising the sum of domestic producer's and con- sumers' surplus and one that aims at maximising employed and unem- ployed workers' payoffs. We show that depending on the combination of foreign labour costs, the degree of domestic union bargaining power, and the sunk costs of relocation, the former type of government may choose to...
Habitusforschung in der Wiener Elektronischen Musikszene - Frass, Johannes; Frotzler, Martin; Hartner, Michael; Kiennast, Herbert
Within the field of creative industries the topic of this research is dedicated to an analysis of the "habitus" of the producers of electronic music, based on the "theory of habitus" of the french sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. According to Bourdieu, a "social field" is affected by specific attributes of the people involved in the field. "Habitus" can be defined as a system of dispositions. The "social field" in our research is restricted to producers of electronic music. Geographically the field is limited to the area of Vienna. Based on Bourdieus theory we discuss the following research question: What specific characteristics...
Policy agents as catalysts of knowledge links in the biotechnology sector - Trippl, Michaela; Gabain, Joshua von; Tödtling, Franz
The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of public policy in promoting interorganisational knowledge links in the biotechnology sector. Despite the significance of such interactions and the policy efforts devoted to them, there is a limited understanding of how different initiatives from various policy levels contribute to the formation of specific knowledge linkages within the biotechnology industry. The paper identifies four main types of knowledge exchange, including market relations, spillovers, formal co-operations and informal networking. Drawing on evidence from the Vienna biotechnology cluster we intend to show how national and regional policy programmes and government actions function...
Lebensläufe österreichischer Chefredakteure. Eine Ressourcenanalyse nach Pierre Bourdieu. - Beltzung, Louise; Kittenberger, Axel; Mayer, Susanne
This research study is about the lives of editors-in-chief of Austrian daily newspapers after 1945 zooming in on socialeconomic factors. The analysis is based on Pierre Bourdieu's three capital sources - economic, cultural, and social capital. Patterns with regard to the dominance of these capital sources in the lives of editors-in-chief can be observed and lead to the distinction into four different cohorts. Besides, four different ahistorical ideal types of curriculum vitae can be identified that show in each case a different dominance of the capital sources. In these ideal types every editor-in-chief of the research is included. Women take...
Object-oriented Computation of Sandwich Estimators - Zeileis, Achim
Sandwich covariance matrix estimators are a popular tool in applied regression modeling for performing inference that is robust to certain types of model misspecification. Suitable implementations are available in the R system for statistical computing for certain model fitting functions only (in particular lm()), but not for other standard regression functions, such as glm(), nls(), or survreg(). Therefore, conceptual tools and their translation to computational tools in the package sandwich are discussed, enabling the computation of sandwich estimators in general parametric models. Object orientation can be achieved by providing a few extractor functions-most importantly for the empirical estimating functions-from which...
The 'Shadow of Succession'. A Non-Parametric Matching Approach. - Diwisch, Sandra; Voithofer, Peter; Weiss, Christoph
The paper analyses the relationship between succession and firm performance. Applying a non-parametric matching approach on a panel of roughly 4,000 Austrian family firms we evaluate the impact of past succession as well as future succession plans on employment growth. Analysing succession plans, we do not find a 'shadow of succession' effect. No significant difference in employment growth is found between firms that plan to transfer the firm in the next ten years and those who do not. In contrast, past succession exerts a significant and positive employment growth effect which becomes stronger over time. Thus, our findings provide support...
Kinderkonzerte als Mittel der Distinktion. Soziologische Betrachtung von Kinderkonzerten in Wien anhand von Pierre Bourdieus kultursoziologischem Ansatz. - Aicher, Linda
Based on qualitative interviews, this paper explores how classical children's concerts serve as a means of "social distinction" (Bourdieu) for upper class families. Firstly, the paper presents a description of Vienna's children's concert scene for classical music and elaborates on Bourdieu's cultural-sociological approach. Secondly, the interrelation between knowledge about music and the accumulation of cultural capital, which emphasizes an individual's position in social space (Bourdieu), is investigated. The empirical data show that only children whose parents possess relatively high amounts of cultural and economic capital attend children's concerts. By taking their children to those cultural events, parents not only aim...
A Note on the Folding Coupler - Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef
Perfect Gibbs sampling is a method to turn Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers into exact generators for independent random vectors. We show that a perfect Gibbs sampling algorithm suggested in the literature is not always generating from the correct distribution. (author's abstract)
Evaluating Model-based Trees in Practice - Zeileis, Achim; Hothorn, Torsten; Hornik, Kurt
A recently suggested algorithm for recursive partitioning of statistical models (Zeileis, Hothorn and Hornik, 2005), such as models estimated by maximum likelihood or least squares, is evaluated in practice. The general algorithm is applied to linear regression, logisitic regression and survival regression and applied to economical and medical regression problems. Furthermore, its performance with respect to prediction quality and model complexity is compared in a benchmark study with a large collection of other tree-based algorithms showing that the algorithm yields interpretable trees, competitive with previously suggested approaches. (author's abstract)
José Martís Denken über Wirtschaft - Andiel, Herta; Cayuelas Franco, Carmen
José Martí (1853-1895) is well known as the spiritual leader of Cuban independence and revolution. The famous writer and intellectual has left a rich legacy of political commentaries, speeches, poems and letters. Many of these texts have been published in both, North and South America. This article examines José Martí's reflections on economic matters and dwells on the economic relevance of his political writings. His texts are contextualised in the specific Latin American conjuncture at the end of 19th century. From this point of view some of his most important texts have to be understood as political interventions in favour...