Spithoven, Andr??; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Roijakkers, Nadine
Few studies on open innovation (OI)
address OI practices in small and medium-sized
enterprises (SMEs) and how their use of OI and the
resulting benefits differ from those of large enterprises.
The lack of resources in SMEs to engage in
looking outward is said to be a barrier to OI, but at the
same time this shortage is cited as a motive for
looking beyond organisational boundaries for technological
knowledge. We investigate how OI dimensions
impact the innovative performance of SMEs in
comparison to large companies. The key finding is
that the effects of OI practices in SMEs often differ
from those in large firms. SMEs are more effective in
using different OI...
Wang, Yuandi; Roijakkers, Nadine; Vanhaverbeke, Wim
This paper explores how interfirm variations in their in-licensed technology portfolios influence subsequent innovation performance. Existing studies mainly assume licensed technologies are homogeneously accessible to firms, and a prevailing explanation as to why firms vary in their innovation performance lies in differences of absorptive capacity. In this study, we intend to relax this assumption and use data about 186 Chinese indigenous firms to investigate how differences in in-licensing portfolios lead to different effects on innovation performance. We find that firms benefit from prior in-licensing technologies and the result is related to four dimensions of their licensing portfolios. We find that...
VANHAVERBEKE, Wim; Gilsing, Victor; DUYSTERS, Geert
Whereas most of the literature on the benefits of alliances for learning and innovation has taken on a competence perspective, this paper provides an alternative integrated framework based on both a competence and governance point of view. The former focuses on the role of knowledge flows as means to access new knowledge, whereas the latter is centered around the core concepts of opportunism and freeridership in knowledge exchange situations. Although it has generally been acknowledged that competence-based benefits of collaboration may come at a price of elevated risks due to knowledge spillovers and freeridership, such a governance view remains understudied....
Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Vermeersch, Ine; De Zutter, Stijn
Van Zimmeren, Esther; Vanneste, Sven; Matthys, Gert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Van Overwalle, Geertrui
The biopharmaceutical industry is slowly absorbing the idea of collaborative patent licensing models. Recently, two patent pools for developing countries have been launched: the Pool for Open Innovation against Neglected Tropical Diseases initiated by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), which is referred to as the BIO Ventures for Global Health(BVGH) pool, and the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) initiated by UNITAID. Various organisations have recommended using pools or clearinghouses beyond the humanitarian dimension where many patents are owned by many different actors. As a first attempt, MPEG LA, which administers patent pools in various technology fields, is now setting up a clearinghouse for patents...
Wang, Yuandi; Roijakkers, Nadine; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Chen, Jin
China became the second-largest economy behind the USA in 2010. While there is quite some macroeconomic research documenting the technological catching-up of China as a nation, there is only little research studying how individual Chinese firms are catching up. This paper draws on the open innovation perspective to explore how Chinese firms improve their innovative performance. Our empirical analysis is based on a sample of 91 native chinese firms in high-tech industries. The results indicate that Chinese firms widely implement an open innovation approach to strengthen their innovative performance. These firms use 1)technology in-licensing agreements to obtain access to technologies;...
Stolwijk, Claire; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Ortt, J.; Pieters, Michiel; Den Hartigh, Erik; Van Beers, Cees
In studies about the impact of technology sourcing on firm performance, the impact of the technology life cycle has thus far received scant attention. This paper investigates this topic from the knowledge-based perspective. Data was gathered from 22 PLD (Programmable Logic Device) manufacturers in the integrated circuit industry between 1986 and 2005, and used to test two hypotheses based on panel analysis: (1)that strategic alliance networks, as a mode of external technology sourcing, have a positive effect on a firm's innovative and market performance early in the technology life cycle, and (2) that internal development as a mode of internal...
Wang, Yuandi; Roijakkers, Nadine; Vanhaverbeke, Wim
Bai, Zong-qing; Li, B.; Li, W.; Liu, F.; Yperman, J.
In this work, several typical organic sulfur model compounds, including thiophenic and dibenzothiophenic sulfur: and one Chinese coal, Wujiaping, with more organic sulfur were pyrolyzed under 1.0% O-2/Helium (He) and the sulfur forms released were detected by on-line mass spectroscopy in order to investigate the effect and the mechanism of low concentration of oxygen on the removal of the stable organic sulfurs in coal in view of model compounds. The results show that the specific peak temperature of sulfur release is decreased during pyrolysis of the stable thiophenic sulfur model compounds under low concentration of oxygen compared to that under...
De Man, Ard-Pieter; Roijakkers, Nadine
When designing an alliance governance structure, managers have to choose between
approaches based on control or on trust. This article proposes a framework to help
managers decide which of the two is appropriate in a particular situation. The debate in
the literature on control and trust centres on two issues: first, on the question of whether
control and trust are substitutes or complements, and second on the links between
control, trust and risk. This article connects these two debates. Our framework proposes
that whether control and trust are substitutes or complements depends on the level and
type of risk an alliance faces. We argue that in high...
Roijakkers, Nadine; de Man, Ard-Pieter; Gubbels, Ivo
Dankzij digitalisering en liberalisering ontstaat convergentie tussen
voorheen gescheiden sectoren. Deze convergentie kan organisatorisch onder meer
gerealiseerd worden door het gebruik van allianties. Dit artikel onderzoekt hoe een
bepaald type convergentie wordt gerealiseerd met behulp van verschillende allianties.
Wij concluderen dat allianties inderdaad worden ingezet voor convergentie, dat convergentie
plaatsvindt tussen bestaande markten en rondom creatie van nieuwe markten,
maar dat geen verschillende alliantievormen worden gebruikt voor deze twee vormen
van Zimmeren, Esther; Vanneste, Sven; Matthijs, Gert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Van Overwalle, Geertrui
The biopharmaceutical industry is slowly absorbing the idea of collaborative patent licensing models. Recently, two patent pools for developing countries have been launched: the Pool for Open Innovation against Neglected Tropical Diseases initiated by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), which is referred to as the BIO Ventures for Global Health (BVGH) pool, and the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) initiated by UNITAID. Various organizations have recommended using pools or clearinghouses beyond the humanitarian dimension where many patents are owned by many different actors. As a first attempt, MPEG LA, which administers patent pools in various technology fields, is now setting up a clearinghouse for...
Cloodt, Myriam; Hagedoorn, John; Roijakkers, Nadine
This paper presents an analysis of some major historical trends in inter-firm R&D
partnering in the international software industry during the period 1970–1999.
Our research demonstrates an overall growth pattern of newly made R&D
partnerships and reveals the important role played by leading firms. We also
examine the emergence of various R&D networks in the software industry,
indicating the change from sparse and disconnected inter-firm R&D networks to
dense and well-connected networks since the second half of the 1980s.
de Man, Ard-Pieter; Roijakkers, Nadine; de Graauw, Henk
As alliances are mainly used in dynamic industries, extant theory assumes that
alliance governance structures undergo frequent changes. This article aims to show, however,
that some governance structures are more robust in dealing with internal and external
dynamics than others. We develop propositions about the characteristics that need to
be built into an alliance for it to be robust. These propositions are grounded in a case
study of the KLM–Northwest alliance. After frequent changes in the governance structure
of their alliance, KLM and Northwest found a model that has withstood turbulence in the
airline industry for over a decade. This model, the virtual joint venture, has among...
Wang, Yuandi; Roijakkers, Nadine; Vanhaverbeke, Wim
This paper primarily intends to broaden the scope of open
innovation (OI) by connecting this concept to the literature on national systems of innovation (NSI). The main assumption behind this paper is that OI entails new types of governance structures that enable companies to tap into widely
distributed knowledge bases through rapidly proliferating technology markets. Given that the current state of research within NSI literature has shifted towards a functional approach, the various proposed functional portfolios within NSI are supposed to coevolve with the mechanisms that coordinate innovation activities (i.e., hierarchical, network, and technology markets). Establishing a relationship between OI and NSI...
Wang, Yuandi; Vanhaverbeke, Wim; Roijakkers, Nadine
This paper investigates the impact of open innovation on national systems of innovation. The open innovation concept has become widely established among scholars and practitioners. However, an overview of its impact on national innovation systems is still lacking. Given that the innovating firm is at the core of national innovation systems, a better understanding of shifting innovation strategies at the firm level is of fundamental importance to the actions of policy-makers within the national innovation systems framework. Based on the main analytical approaches of national innovation systems and the current state of open innovation research, we argue that open innovation...
van de Vrande, Vareska; VANHAVERBEKE, Wim; DUYSTERS, Geert
Innovating firms often invest in a number of different technology projects, in different stages of development, using a wide range of distinct technology sourcing modes, such as strategic alliances, joint ventures, and mergers and acquisitions. Recently, firms have also gained an increasing awareness of the potential benefits of corporate venture capital investments. This paper investigates the particular role of corporate venture capital investments in the technology sourcing portfolio of firms. More specifically, we focus on the extent to which corporate venture capital investments are additive or complementary to other modes of technology sourcing when explaining the innovative performance of firms....
Chen, Jin; Chen, Yufen; VANHAVERBEKE, Wim
It is commonly accepted nowadays that external knowledge sources are important for firms' innovative performance. However, it is still not clear, what dimensions of firms' external knowledge search strategy are crucial in determining their innovation success and whether these search strategies are contingent on different innovation modes. In this study, we analyse how the innovative performance is affected by the scope, depth, and orientation of firms' external search strategies. We apply this analysis to firms using STI (science, technology and innovation) and DUI (doing, using and interacting) innovation modes. Based on a survey among firms in China, we find that...
de Jong, Jeroen P. J.; Kalvet, Tarmo; VANHAVERBEKE, Wim
Open innovation is increasingly popular among practitioners and scholars, but its implications for public policy making have not yet been analysed in detail. This paper explores a theoretical framework to structure the debate about public policy making that facilitates open innovation. We first define open innovation in terms of firms' open innovation practices and external conditions that encourage enterprises to practice open innovation. We show that policies for open innovation are legitimate as traditional arguments like market and system failures continue to apply. Next, we identify several guidelines for policymaking. Rather than just offering RD and interaction-oriented policies, we conclude...