Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Rufino, José; De la Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M. Alice
Human activities have been shaping the distribution of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies in Europe. In fact, during the last decades there has been an extensive introduction of the beekeepers’ favorite eastern European (lineage C) subspecies A. m. ligustica (Italian honey bee) and A. m. carnica (carniolan honey bee) into western Europe. Resulting from these introductions, there has been gene flow, and in some regions even replacement, of the native western European subspecies A. m. mellifera (black honey bee), which belongs to lineage M. Assessing levels of introgression is an important activity in breeding programs, especially when conservation of native...
Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Henriques, Dora; Johnston, J. Spencer; Rufino, José; Pinto, M. Alice
Genome-wide scan approaches to detect signatures of selection have become popular tools to study local adaptation at the molecular level and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are seemingly the most appropriate marker for that endeavor. SNPs (i) provide a genome-wide coverage, (ii) generate high quality data, (iii) are suitable for automated high throughput technologies allowing genotyping of hundreds to thousands of loci in many individuals, and (iv) are commonly observed in functional genes. In this work, a total of 711 individuals of A. m. iberiensis were collected in 23 sites across three north-south transepts in the Iberian Peninsula. This collection was...
Henriques, Dora; Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Johnston, J. Spencer; Rufino, José; Pinto, M. Alice
Beekeeping activities, especially queen trading, have shaped the distribution of honey bees subspecies in Europe, which have resulted in extensive introductions of two lineage C subspecies, A. m. ligustica and A. m. carnica, into western Europe. As a consequence, replacement and gene flow between native and commercial populations have been occurring at varying levels across western European populations. Previous studies have monitored introgression by using microsatellite and PCR-RFLP markers. However, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are more advantageous as they provide a genome-wide coverage and higher quality data. In addition, SNPs are suitable for automated high throughput technologies allowing genotyping...
Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Henriques, Dora; Kryger, Per; De la Rúa, Pilar; Johnston, J. Spencer; Rufino, José; Pinto, M. Alice
Identification of population structure, a primary goal in population genetics, is easily performed because there is a number of methods available, implemented by user-friendly software packages. However, the user must be cautious when inferring population structure because spurious results may be obtained when there is strong linkage disequilibrium. With recent development of high-density SNPs we have now more power to interrogate the honey bee genome. However, the greater the number of loci genotyped the greater the chance of scoring loci that are linked. In addition, events such as population bottleneck, small effective population size, genetic drift, and admixture may also...
Henriques, Dora; Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Kryger, Per; Johnston, J. Spencer; De la Rúa, Pilar; Rufino, José; Dall'Olio, Raffaele; Garnery, Lionel; Pinto, M. Alice
The black honey bee, Apis mellifera mellifera L., is probably the honey bee subspecies more threatened by introgression from foreign subspecies, specially lineage C A. m. carnica and A. m. ligustica. In fact, in some areas of its distributional range, intensive beekeeping with foreign subspecies has driven A. m. mellifera populations to nearly replacement. While massive and repeated introductions may lead to loss of native genetic patrimony, a low level of gene flow can also be detrimental because it may compromise honey bee survival and local adaptation by disrupting co-evolved gene complexes. Assessing levels of introgression is an important activity...
Pinto, M. Alice; Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Johnston, J. Spencer; Henriques, Dora; Rufino, José; Muñoz, Irene; De la Rúa, Pilar; Azevedo, João
Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia
Henriques, Dora; Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Muñoz, Irene; De la Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M. Alice
A abelha Apismellifera L. tem como distribuição natural África, Médio Oriente e Europa. A adaptação a diferentes condições ecológicas levou ao aparecimento de 30 subespéciesas quais têm sido tipicamente agrupadas em 4 linhagens evolutivas (A, M, C e O). Existem diversos estudos que representam a variação genética materna da abelha Ibérica na Península Ibérica, estes mostram a presença de duas linhagens divergentes (linhagem Africana-A e linhagem da Europa Ocidental-M). No entanto, não há nenhum estudo que mostre de uma forma completa a variação genética materna no Arquipélago dos Açores. Neste trabalho foram caracterizadas 170 abelhas dos Açores e representou-se espacialmente...
Henriques, Dora; Chavez-Galarza, Julio; Muñoz, Irene; De la Rúa, Pilar; Azevedo, João; Johnston, J. Spencer; Pinto, M. Alice
Estudos prévios usando diferentes marcadores do ADN mitocondrial sugerem que a Península Ibérica tem sido uma área de contacto secundário natural entre duas linhagens divergentes de abelhas (linhagem Africana e linhagem da Europa ocidental) formando um cline com orientação sudoeste-nordeste. Porém, é provável que com a crescente intensificação da actividade apícola haja uma alteração do padrão de diversidade moldado pelas forças evolutivas ao longo de milhares de anos. Nesta comunicação o padrão de variação materna é representado espacialmente usando dados de sequenciação da região intergénica tRNAleu-cox2 do mtDNA obtidos para 711 colónias recentemente amostradas ao longo de três transeptos com...
Nunes, Luís; Tomé, José; Patrício, Maria do Sameiro; Tomé, Margarida
The Portuguese national forest strategy (Direcção Geral dos Recursos Florestais, 2006) proposed a specialization of the Portuguese forest territory according to three main functions:
wood production, multifunctional systems and protected areas. Wood production is mostly related with pure even-aged stands of two species, the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, Ait.)
and the blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.). Sustainable forest management of these productive areas requires adequate prediction of wood stocks and growth. An annual
individual tree survival and growth model is presented for pure even-aged stands of maritime pine in Portugal, using data with irregularly spaced measurement intervals and
considering thinning effects. The model is...
Gonçalves, Artur; Ribeiro, A.C.; Maia, Filipe; Feliciano, Manuel
Urban climate mapping (UCMap) is a complex yet necessary activity that should be considered in the urban planning process. Although there has been a wide development of UCMap across different
countries, mapping methods must be further improved and cover a wider diversity of geographic locations (Ren, 2010). As part of the transnational BIOURB project, an UCMap of Bragança (Portugal) is
being developed aiming at informing the local Planning Authorities, while establishing a basic methodology that can be used as a reference for the Northern Portuguese and Castilla-León (Spain) cities. The
methodology can be described by the implementation of two combined approaches: a urban...
Fonseca, Felícia; Martins, Afonso; Figueiredo, Tomás de; Nogueira, Clotilde; Guerra, Alzira; Gallardo, Juan F.
A emissão de gases e o agravamento do efeito de estufa acima do nível desejável, com o consequente aquecimento da Terra e da atmosfera, são actualmente uma enorme preocupação social. O carbono orgânico do solo (COS) constitui o maior reservatório de C na biosfera terrestre, contribuindo os solos florestais com cerca de 40 % do total de COS terrestre, pelo que a sua dinâmica nestes sistemas, tem implicações significativas no armazenamento global.
Devido à elevada importância do solo nos ecossistemas terrestres e à proporção do COS aí armazenada, pequenas variações resultantes de perturbações, como mudanças do coberto vegetal e preparação...
Castro, Marina; Teixeira, A.
The aim of this study was to assess the nutritive value of key browse species of oak Mediterranean Ecosystems in Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal). The study was to undertake at different mature stages the evolution of chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of shrub twigs and tree leaves.
Castro, José; Castro, Marina
The diversity depletion of traditional rural landscapes could be the major
threat of a required new multifunctional rural landscape, as a consequence
of the European and National agrarian policies. The increasing
compactness of woodland and agricultural matrixes has been particularly
promoted by the loss of local regulation (population and farming abandon),
and production intensification of nearest and most fertile soils and thrust
aside of the others. Last six years, the heterogeneity of landscape interface
between the woodland and agricultural matrixes was investigated in three
rural communities of Trás-os-Montes concerning two threatened landscape
process: (1) the vanishing punctual, linear and spatial wooded structures of
agricultural matrix (scattered trees, hedgerows and fences,...
Castro, Marina; Castro, José; Gómez Sal, Antonio
In Northeast Portugal, most small ruminant production is an extensive activity based on grazing itineraries. The shepherds direct their flocks on daily grazing itineraries across different patches of landuse.
The study of livestock activities permits understanding the animal’s perception of landscape. Animal activities (grazing, resting and walking) were also affected by landscape attributes.
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between livestock behavior and landuse types, and to check how they change throughout the year and the time of day (temperature and vegetation moisture effect).
Having an understanding of animal landscape use could help to develop strategies to better management...
Castro, José; Castro, Marina
The agrarian policy of national governments and EU, practiced for decades, was part of a growthoriented
industrialization and economic policy. This had lead, among other things, to the loss of
diversified rural landscapes, which had developed in the course of history; sites and utilization, both in
area and time, tend to be standardized. As a consequence, not only habitats had been lost, which is
documented by an increasing number of wildlife species threatened by extinction, but also a
considerable number of domestic animal and plant species have become misplaced of their natural
context, in despite of some of them have been artificially maintained last decade by...
Castro, Marina; Castro, José; Gómez Sal, Antonio
The production of small ruminants (sheep and goats) in Northeast Portugal is an extensive activity, mainly based on exploitation of spontaneous resources. The shepherds direct their flocks on daily grazing itineraries over different types of resources. These itineraries vary throughout the year, in both duration and locations visited. The aim of this study is to analyse the variation of the grazing circuits in relation to the environmental conditions.
The time spent by flocks on each itinerary varied from 381 to 746 minutes for goat flocks, and from 300 to 921 minutes for sheep flocks, depending on the duration of daylight. Nevertheless,...
Calado, Thalita; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Rodrigues, Paula; Venâncio, Armando
In this study, the use of rays as an inactivation agent agains one of the most ubiquous and mycotoxigenic fungus - Aspergillus parasiticus - was studied. Chestnuts were previous incoulated with a spore suspension of one strain of A. parasiticus. After irradiation the growth of colonies were observed during 4 days. In general, the higher level of radiation the lower survival rate.
Bouga, Maria; Arnold, Gerard; Bienkowska, Malgorzata; Büchler, Ralph; Garnery, Lionel; Ivanova, Evgeniya Neshova; De Jong, David; De la Rúa, Pilar; Kence, Meral; Kezic, Nikola; Kryger, Per; Murilhas, António; Oldroyd, Benjamin; Oliver, Randy; Palacio, María Alejandra; Petrov, Plamen; Pinto, M. Alice; Robertson, Albert; Rosenkranz, Peter; Šekulja, Damir; Flores Serrano, José Manuel; Vandame, Remy
The Apimondia working group on honey bee diversity and fitness (AWG 7) was created on October 25, 2010 as a Scientific Working Group of Apimondia. The aim of this AWG is to collect information on honey bee queen rearing practices, and examine their impact on the genetic variability and general health of honey bee colonies. The AWG consists of 23 members from 16 different countries. The world wide survey being conducted by this AWG is focused on gathering information on how selection methods, instrumental insemination, disease management procedures, introduction of exotic bee lines, queen replacement strategies, and loss of local...
Pinto, M. Alice; Batista, Vânia; Alves, Dulce; Vilas-Boas, Miguel
Beekeeping is an ancient activity in Guinea-Bissau. The ancestral interaction with bees
stands on “honey hunting” of natural colonies or use of traditional hives hanged on trees.
These hives are perfect shelters for swarms but the colony is destroyed every year after
honey harvesting. Bees are therefore kept as wild as ever with little, if any, interference from
Reports on honey bees and honey of Guinea-Bissau are scarce. Herein we report the
first data on honey quality and provide a morphometric and genetic identification of the bees.
Fifteen colonies from 5 localities were examined for morphometry and mtDNA. Honey
samples were collected from beekeepers using Kenyan top-bar...
Pinto, M. Alice; Muñoz, Irene; De la Rúa, Pilar
The Iberian Peninsula harbors one the highest mitocondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity ever reported for honey bee subspecies. This finding is explained not only by the co-occurrence of two divergent evolutionary lineages, western European (lineage M) and African (lineage A), but also by the higher variability of African and western European haplotypes. Indeed, over 36 haplotypes of western European and African ancestry, which form complex networks, have been reported for this area of the honey bee natural range. While studies on the diversity patterns of central and Mediterranean Iberian populations are abundant, the genetic composition of populations inhabiting the Atlantic side...