UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
Mechanistic studies on topical drug delivery from liquid crystal formulations - Abdalghafor, HM
The primary objective of this research was to investigate the possible effects of selected liquid crystal (LC) forming surfactants, namely ArlacelTM 2121, CrodafosTM CES and BrijTM system (BrijTM S721/ BrijTM S2) and selected oils, namely, Arlamol™ PS15E, Crodamol™ OP, Arlamol™ HD on formulation properties. The effects of the different excipients were monitored using the formulations thermal properties, water holding ability and ability to promote the permeation of ibuprofen (IBU and caffeine (CAF) across silicone membranes. The melting endotherms of the ternary formulations containing 10% w/w Arlamol™ PS15E or Crodamol™ OP, 10% w/w surfactant and 80% w/w water resulted in high...
Relative acidic compartment volume as a lysosomal storage disorder-associated biomarker. - Te Vruchte, D; Speak, AO; Wallom, KL; Al Eisa, N; Smith, DA; Hendriksz, CJ; Simmons, L; Lachmann, RH; Cousins, A; Hartung, R; Mengel, E; Runz, H; Beck, M; Amraoui, Y; Imrie, J; Jacklin, E; Riddick, K; Yanjanin, NM; Wassif, CA; Rolfs, A; Rimmele, F; Wright, N; Taylor, C; Ramaswami, U; Cox, TM; Hastings, C; Jiang, X; Sidhu, R; Ory, DS; Arias, B; Jeyakumar, M; Sillence, DJ; Wraith, JE; Porter, FD; Cortina-Borja, M; Platt, FM
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) occur at a frequency of 1 in every 5,000 live births and are a common cause of pediatric neurodegenerative disease. The relatively small number of patients with LSDs and lack of validated biomarkers are substantial challenges for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated the use of a commercially available fluorescent probe, Lysotracker, that can be used to measure the relative acidic compartment volume of circulating B cells as a potentially universal biomarker for LSDs. We validated this metric in a mouse model of the LSD Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) and in a prospective 5-year international...
Epidemiology of lifetime fracture prevalence in England: A population study of adults aged 55 years and over - Scholes, S; Shelton, NJ; Mindell, JS; Panesar, S; Francis, RM; Mirza, S; Donaldson, LJ
Background: Fractures remain a substantial public health problem but epidemiological studies using survey data are sparse. This study explores the association between lifetime fracture prevalence and socio-demographic factors, health behaviours and health conditions. Methods: Fracture prevalence was calculated using a combined dataset of annual, nationally representative health surveys in England (2002-07) containing 24,725 adults aged 55 years and over. Odds of reporting any fracture was estimated separately for each gender using logistic regression. Results: Fracture prevalence was higher in men than women (49 and 40%, respectively). In men, factors having a significant independent association with fracture included being a former...
Cancer-associated autoantibodies to MUC1 and MUC4 - A blinded case-control study of colorectal cancer in UK collaborative trial of ovarian cancer screening - Pedersen, JW; Nøstdal, A; Clausen, H; Wandall, HH; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O; Burnell, M; Zaikin, A; Jacobs, I; Menon, U; Dawnay, A; Burchell, J; Papadimitriou, JT
Recent reports suggest that autoantibodies directed to aberrantly glycosylated mucins, in particular MUC1 and MUC4, are found in patients with colorectal cancer. There is, however, limited information on the autoantibody levels before clinical diagnosis, and their utility in cancer screening in the general population. In our study, we have generated O-glycosylated synthetic MUC1 and MUC4 peptides in vitro, to mimic cancer-associated glycoforms, and displayed these on microarrays. The assay's performance was tested through an initial screening of serum samples taken from patients at the time of colorectal cancer diagnosis and healthy controls. Subsequently, the selected biomarkers were evaluated in a...
Predictive testing for inherited prion disease: report of 22 years experience. - Owen, J; Beck, J; Campbell, T; Adamson, G; Gorham, M; Thompson, A; Smithson, S; Rosser, E; Rudge, P; Collinge, J; Mead, S
The inherited prion diseases (IPD) are a group of untreatable neurodegenerative diseases that segregate as autosomal dominant traits. Mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP) were first found to be causal of IPD in 1989, before the molecular genetic characterisation of any other neurodegenerative disease. Predictive testing for IPD has subsequently been carried out at a single UK clinical and research centre for 22 years. We have analysed the uptake, consequences and factors influencing the decision for predictive testing over this period. In all, 104 predictive tests were done on individuals at 50% risk, compared with 135 positive diagnostic tests....
Helium ion microscopy based wall thickness and surface roughness analysis of polymer foams obtained from high internal phase emulsion - Rodenburg, C; Viswanathan, P; Jepson, MAE; Liu, X; Battaglia, G
Due to their wide range of applications, porous polymers obtained from high internal phase emulsions have been widely studied using scanning electron microscopy. However, due to their lack of electrical conductivity, quantitative information of wall thicknesses and surface roughness, which are of particular interest to tissue engineering, has not been obtained. Here, Helium Ion Microscopy is used to examine uncoated polymer foams and some very strong but unexpected contrast is observed, the origin of which is established here. Based on this analysis, a method for the measurement of wall thickness variations and wall roughness measurements has been developed, based on...
Computational approaches to the study of T cell migration and the T cell receptor repertoire - Thomas, NC
Two pertinent questions in T cell immunology are addressed by using techniques from machine learning to describe T cell migration dynamics and characteristics of the T cell receptor repertoire. Naive T lymphocytes exhibit extensive antigen-independent recirculation between blood and lymph nodes, where they may encounter dendritic cells carrying cognate antigen. The time T cells may spend in an individual lymph node is estimated by analysing data from long term cannulation of blood and efferent lymphatics of a single lymph node in sheep. The distribution of transit times of migrating T cells is determined empirically by applying the Least Absolute Shrinkage...
The intensive care management of acute ischemic stroke: an overview. - Kirkman, MA; Citerio, G; Smith, M
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In part due to the availability of more aggressive treatments, increasing numbers of patients with AIS are being admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Despite the availability of consensus guidance for the general management of AIS, there is little evidence to support its ICU management. The purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary perspective, and our recommendations, on the ICU management of AIS.
The sex hormone system in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations: A case-control study - Widschwendter, M; Rosenthal, AN; Philpott, S; Rizzuto, I; Fraser, L; Hayward, J; Fourkala, EO; Zaikin, A; Menon, U; Jacobs, IJ; Intermaggio, MP; Edlund, CK; Ramus, SJ; Gayther, SA; Dubeau, L
Background: Penetrance for breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or both in carriers of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations is disproportionately high. Sex hormone dysregulation and altered end-organ hormone sensitivity might explain this organ-specific penetrance. We sought to identify differences in hormone regulation between carriers of BRCA1/2 and women who are negative for BRCA1/2 mutations. Methods: We assessed endometrial thickness for each menstrual cycle day (as an index of hormone regulation) in 393 scans from 228 women in the UK Familial Ovarian Cancer Screening Study (UK FOCSS) known to carry either mutation and 1573 scans from 754 women known to be negative for the mutations....
The autism and schizophrenia associated gene CYFIP1 is critical for the maintenance of dendritic complexity and the stabilization of mature spines. - Pathania, M; Davenport, EC; Muir, J; Sheehan, DF; López-Doménech, G; Kittler, JT
Copy number variation (CNV) at the 15q11.2 region has been identified as a significant risk locus for neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the individual roles for genes at this locus in nervous system development, function and connectivity remain poorly understood. Haploinsufficiency of one gene in this region, Cyfip1, may provide a model for 15q11.2 CNV-associated neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Here we show that altering CYFIP1 expression levels in neurons both in vitro and in vivo influences dendritic complexity, spine morphology, spine actin dynamics and synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor lateral diffusion. CYFIP1 is...
Urban traffic data fusion - Chow, AHF; Tsapakis, I; Tanaksaranond, G; Cheng, T; Heydecker, B; Emmonds, A
This paper analyses the use of different type of data for retrieving the underlying traffic pattern. We present and investigate a data fusion algorithm for integrating heterogeneous traffic data in urban networks. The fusion algorithm is developed based upon the adaptive smoothing method (ASM) proposed by Treiber and Helbing. The objective is to produce a more refined picture of urban traffic through processing and integrating data from different sources in urban network. The filtering and fusion algorithm can work with data collected in different spatio-temporal granularity, with different level of accuracy, and from different kinds of sensors. The accuracy of...