UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter - Jathoul, AP; Pizzey, AR; Philip, B; Pule, MA; Johnson, P; Pedley, RB; Laufer, J; Ogunlade, O; Treeby, B; Cox, B; Zhang, E; Beard, P; Lythgoe, MF; Marafioti, T
Photoacoustic imaging allows absorption-based high-resolution spectroscopic in vivo imaging at a depth beyond that of optical microscopy. Until recently, photoacoustic imaging has largely been restricted to visualizing the vasculature through endogenous haemoglobin contrast, with most non-vascularized tissues remaining invisible unless exogenous contrast agents are administered. Genetically encodable photoacoustic contrast is attractive as it allows selective labelling of cells, permitting studies of, for example, specific genetic expression, cell growth or more complex biological behaviours in vivo. In this study we report a novel photoacoustic imaging scanner and a tyrosinase-based reporter system that causes human cell lines to synthesize the absorbing pigment...
Suction on chest drains following lung resection: evidence and practice are not aligned†. - Lang, P; Manickavasagar, M; Burdett, C; Treasure, T; Fiorentino, F; UK Cardiothoracic Trainees’ Research Collaborative,; UK Cardiothoracic Trainees' Research Collaborative,
A best evidence topic in Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery (2006) looked at application of suction to chest drains following pulmonary lobectomy. After screening 391 papers, the authors analysed six studies (five randomized controlled trials [RCTs]) and found no evidence in favour of postoperative suction in terms of air leak duration, time to chest drain removal or length of stay. Indeed, suction was found to be detrimental in four studies. We sought to determine whether clinical practice is consistent with published evidence by surveying thoracic units nationally and performing a meta-analysis of current best evidence.
Emerging respiratory tract viral infections - Hui, DS; Zumla, A
Purpose of review This article reviews the clinical and treatment aspects of avian influenza viruses and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Recent findings Avian influenza A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) viruses have continued to circulate widely in some poultry populations and infect humans sporadically. Sporadic human cases of avian A(H5N6), A(H10N8) and A(H6N1) have also emerged. Closure of live poultry markets in China has reduced the risk of A(H7N9) infection. Observational studies have shown that oseltamivir treatment for adults hospitalized with severe influenza is associated with lower mortality and better clinical outcomes, even as late as 4-5 days after symptom...
Impact of the Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test for tuberculosis in countries with a high burden of disease - McNerney, R; Zumla, A
Purpose of review Control of tuberculosis necessitates prompt diagnosis and access to effective treatment. We discuss the impact of a new nucleic acid amplification test to assist diagnosis and detect rifampicin resistance. Following encouraging clinical performance studies, an automated PCR-based test, the Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA), has been implemented on a global scale. Clinical trials to assess the impact of the new technology in primary healthcare clinics have been undertaken in tuberculosis (TB) endemic countries. Recent findings Clinical trials at the point of care in TB endemic countries demonstrated that increased numbers of TB patients are identified using the...
The potential role of novel diffusion imaging techniques in the understanding and treatment of epilepsy. - Winston, GP
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in which magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role. Diffusion imaging based on the molecular diffusion of water has been widely used clinically and in research for patients with epilepsy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the most common model, has been used for around two decades. Several parameters can be derived from DTI that are sensitive, but non-specific, to underlying structural changes. DTI assumes a single diffusion process following a Gaussian distribution within each voxel and is thus an overly simplistic representation of tissue microstructure. Several more advanced models of diffusion are now available that...
Bacterial pneumonia and pandemic influenza planning. - Gupta, RK; George, R; Nguyen-Van-Tam, JS
Pandemic influenza planning is well under way across the globe. Antiviral drugs and vaccines have dominated the therapeutic agenda. Far less work has been conducted on stockpiling and planning for deployment of antimicrobial drugs against secondary bacterial pneumonia, a cause of substantial illness and death in previous pandemics and epidemics. In the event of a pandemic, effective antimicrobial drug measures are expected to substantially benefit public health. We address issues regarding use of antimicrobial drugs as stocks of individual agents are diminished and the role of resistance surveillance in informing such policy. Furthermore, vaccination with polysaccharide and conjugate pneumococcal vaccines...
K65R and Y181C are less prevalent in HAART-experienced HIV-1 subtype A patients. - Gupta, RK; Chrystie, IL; O'Shea, S; Mullen, JE; Kulasegaram, R; Tong, CY
The vast majority of HIV-1 infections globally are caused by subtype A or C, although little is known about their drug resistance profiles. We found that HAART-experienced patients infected with subtype A had a lower prevalence of K65R and Y181C than those with subtypes B or C, despite similar exposure to antiretroviral agents that select for these mutations. If confirmed, this information may be important in the planning of antiretroviral regimens in patients infected with HIV-1 subtype A.
Short report: no evidence of cardiotoxicity of atovaquone-proguanil alone or in combination with artesunate. - Gupta, RK; Van Vugt, M; Paiphun, L; Slight, T; Looareesuwan, S; White, NJ; Nosten, F
Combinations are set to become the mainstay in treatment and prophylaxis of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. Various antimalarials have been implicated in cardiotoxicity via prolongation of the QTc interval. Atovaquone-proguanil is an effective and increasingly popular antimalarial choice when used alone or with artesunate in areas of drug resistance. We report the results of an investigation carried out on the Thai-Burmese border in 42 patients randomized to receive either atovaquone-proguanil or atovaquone-proguanil-artesunate for three days. Electrocardiographic recordings were made at baseline and one hour after each dose. There was no statistically significant change in QTc interval between baseline and...
Markers of inflammation: Data from the MOSAIC randomised trial of CPAP for minimally symptomatic OSA - Stradling, JR; Craig, SE; Kohler, M; Nicoll, D; Ayers, L; Nunn, AJ; Bratton, DJ
The Multi-centre Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Interventional Cardiovascular (MOSAIC) trial compared 6 months of CPAP therapy, versus no CPAP, in 391 patients with minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We now report some exploratory outcomes, markers of systemic inflammation (interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, C reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor). We found no consistent changes (all p values >0.13).