Bach, DR; Gerster, S; Tzovara, A; Castegnetti, G
Cognitive processes influence respiratory physiology. This may allow inferring cognitive states from measured respiration. Here, we take a first step towards this goal and investigate whether event-related respiratory responses can be identified, and whether they are accessible to a model-based approach.
We regard respiratory responses as the output of a linear time invariant system that receives brief inputs after psychological events. We derive average responses to visual targets, aversive stimulation, and viewing of arousing pictures, in interpolated respiration period (RP), respiration amplitude (RA), and respiratory flow rate (RFR). We then base a Psychophysiological Model (PsPM) on these averaged event-related responses....
Rahman, MM; Thompson, JR; Flower, RJ
This study develops a modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) designed to better represent riparian depressional wetlands (SWATrw). It replaces existing unidirectional hydrological interactions between a wetland and a river/aquifer with a more robust bidirectional approach based on hydraulic principles. SWATrw incorporates a more flexible wetland morphometric formula and a connecting channel concept to model wetland-river interactions. SWAT and SWATrw were tested for the Barak-Kushiyara River Basin (Bangladesh and India). Although the two models showed small differences in simulated stream flow, SWATrw outperformed SWAT in reproducing river stages and the pre-monsoon river-spills into riparian wetlands. SWATrw...
Marincioni, V; Altamirano-Medina, H; May, N; Sanders, C
Internal wall insulation as a retrofit measure could help to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in many of the 6 million solid wall buildings in the UK. However during retrofit, junctions that are hard to deal with are often left uninsulated, increasing heat loss and surface mould growth risk at thermal bridges. Furthermore the effect of junctions, insulated or uninsulated is not properly taken into account in commonly used assessments of heat loss.
This paper presents a study on the impact of the junctions around openings, also called reveals, on the transmission heat transfer coefficient of internally insulated dwellings...
Walshe, RA; Argumedo, A
There is a critical need for effective and sustained adaptation to the effects of climate change for indigenous peoples. Despite this, adaptation policies often neglect the cultural values that we show to be crucial to their ability to respond, and instead prioritise instrumental and scientific framings of climate change.
Rural communities in the Peruvian Andes are already feeling the negative impacts of climate change, further impacts are expected to arrive comparatively early and be particularly damaging for indigenous communities in the mountains. Therefore there is a pressing need to ensure effective and sustained adaptation is undertaken. Rural communities studied in the...
Kneale, D; Goldman, R; Thomas, J
Clinical, public health and social care guidance provide evidence-based recommendations on how professionals and commissioners working within these fields should care for patients, service users and the wider public. Evidence-based clinical guidance aims to reduce variation in practice and improve levels of patient and service user care, while at the same time allowing clinical freedom for individual practitioners. The guidance produced by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) are not mandatory, although NICE does set out a business case in terms of the clinical and cost-effectiveness for implementation. Implementation in this sense signifies the active planned processes...
Bielby, J; Donnelly, CA; Woodroffe, R; Vial, F
Bovine tuberculosis is an important disease affecting the UK livestock industry. Controlling bovine tuberculosis (TB) is made more complex by the presence of a wildlife host, the Eurasian badger, Meles meles. Repeated large-scale badger culls implemented in the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) were associated with decreased cattle risks inside the culling area, but also with increased cattle risks up to the 2km outside the culling area. Intermediate reductions in badger density, as achieved by localised reactive culling in the RBCT, significantly increased cattle TB. Using a matched-pairs case-control study design (n = 221 pairs of cattle herds), we investigated...
Green, GF; Henseke, G
To assess potential public concerns, this paper examines theory and evidence surrounding graduate educational underemployment (overeducation) in this era of mass higher education. Using a new, validated, index of graduate jobs, we find that the prevalence of graduate underemployment across 21 countries is correlated with the aggregate supply–demand imbalance, but not with indicators of labour market flexibility. Underemployment’s association with lower job satisfaction and pay is widespread. Yet in most countries there are external benefits (social trust, volunteering, and political efficacy) associated with higher education, even for those who are underemployed. Taken together with existing studies we find that, in...
Mallet, A; Schekochihin, AA; Chandran, BDG; Chen, CHK; Horbury, TS; Wicks, RT; Greenan, CC
We measure the local anisotropy of numerically simulated strong Alfvénic turbulence with respect to two local, physically relevant directions: along the local mean magnetic field and along the local direction of one of the fluctuating Elsasser fields. We find significant scaling
anisotropy with respect to both these directions: the fluctuations are “ribbon-like" — statistically, they are elongated along both the mean magnetic field and the fluctuating field. The latter form of anisotropy is due to scale-dependent alignment of the fluctuating fields. The intermittent scalings of the nth-order conditional structure functions in the direction perpendicular to both the local mean field and...
Prawatky, L; McDowall, WAS
Overington, DWU; Jeffery, KJ
Jeffery, KJ; Page, HJ; Stringer, SM
Maintaining a sense of direction requires combining information from static environmental landmarks with dynamic information about self-motion. This is accomplished by the head direction system, whose neurons - head direction cells - encode specific head directions. When the brain integrates information in sensory domains, this process is almost always 'optimal' - that is, inputs are weighted according to their reliability. Evidence suggests cue combination by head direction cells may also be optimal. The simplicity of the head direction signal, together with the detailed knowledge we have about the anatomy and physiology of the underlying circuit, therefore makes this system a...
Moulton, V; Flouri, E; Joshi, H; Sullivan, A
Often young children already have some ideas about what they want to do in the future. Using data from a large UK cohort study, we investigated the individual determinants of seven-year-old children’s aspirations, controlling for parental socio-economic background and parental involvement in learning. At age 7, not all children’s aspirations were unrealistic (55.6% of children aspired to common occupations), few (1.2%) were fantasy, but most were gender-typical. White children had lower occupational aspirations and were more likely to have uncertain future orientations than other ethnic groups. The antecedents of fantasy aspirations, more typical of younger children, were difficult temperament and...
This article considers the history of Swedish attitudes towards Baltic independence in the period in the so-called short 20th century (1914-1991), focusing primarily on the years when Baltic independence was gained (1918-1920) and regained (1989-1991). The former period was characterized by Swedish skepticism towards the ability of the Baltic states to retain their independence long-term, explainable by the Swedish political elites’ conviction that the weakening of Russia in the First World War had been temporary and that Russia, due to its “natural” geostrategic interests in the Baltic region, would reconquer its lost territories with the exception of Finland. For this...
Cowlishaw, GC; Douglas, CMS; Mulligan, M; Harrison, XA; Henschel, JR; Pettorelli, N
Ephemeral rivers act as linear oases in drylands providing key resources to people and wildlife.
However not much is known about these rivers’ sensitivities to human activities. We investigated
the landscape-level determinants of riparian tree dieback along the Swakop River, a dammed
ephemeral river in Namibia, focusing on the native ana tree (Faidherbia albida) and the invasive
mesquite (Prosopis spp.). We surveyed over 1,900 individual trees distributed across 24 sites
along a 250 km stretch of the river. General linear mixed models were used to test five
hypotheses relating to three anthropogenic threats: river flow disruption from damming, human
Kneale, D; Khatwa, M; Thomas, J
This report aimed to aid the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in identifying opportunities for greater use of real-world data within its work. NICE identified five key ways in which real-world data was currently informing its work, or could do so in the future through: (i) researching the effectiveness of interventions or practice in real-world (UK) settings (ii) auditing the implementation of guidance (iii) providing information on resource use and evaluating the potential impact of guidance (iv) providing epidemiological information (v) providing information on current practice to inform the development of NICE quality standards. This report took...
Fitzgerald, F; Naveed, A; Wing, K; Gbessay, M; Ross, JCG; Checchi, F; Youkee, D; Jalloh, MB; Baion, D; Mustapha, A; Jah, H; Lako, S; Oza, S; Boufkhed, S; Feury, R; Bielicki, JA; Gibb, DM; Klein, N; Sahr, F; Yeung, S
Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission)...
Mildon, ZK; Pugh, DJ; Tarasewicz, J; White, RS; Brandsdottir, B
Moment tensor analysis with a Bayesian approach was used to analyse a non-double-couple (non-DC) earthquake (Mw ∼ 1) with a high isotropic (implosive) component within the Krafla caldera, Iceland. We deduce that the earthquake was generated by a closing crack at depth. The event is well located, with high signal-to-noise ratio and shows dilatational P-wave first arrivals at all stations where the first arrival can be picked with confidence. Coverage of the focal sphere is comprehensive and the source mechanism stable across the full range of uncertainties. The non-DC event lies within a cluster of microseismic activity including many DC...
Malki, K; Tosto, MG; Mouriño-Talín, H; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, S; Pain, O; Jumhaboy, I; Liu, T; Parpas, P; Newman, S; Malykh, A; Carboni, L; Uher, R; McGuffin, P; Schalkwyk, LC; Bryson, K; Herbster, M
Response to antidepressant (AD) treatment may be a more polygenic trait than previously hypothesized, with many genetic variants interacting in yet unclear ways. In this study we used methods that can automatically learn to detect patterns of statistical regularity from a sparsely distributed signal across hippocampal transcriptome measurements in a large-scale animal pharmacogenomic study to uncover genomic variations associated with AD. The study used four inbred mouse strains of both sexes, two drug treatments, and a control group (escitalopram, nortriptyline, and saline). Multi-class and binary classification using Machine Learning (ML) and regularization algorithms using iterative and univariate feature selection methods,...
Arroyo, A; de la Torre, I
This study explores the function of quartzite pounding tools from Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) using microscopic and use wear spatial distribution analysis. A selection of pounding tools from several Bed I and II assemblages excavated by Mary Leakey (1971) were studied under low magnification (<100×), and the microscopic traces developed on their surfaces are described. Experimental data and results obtained from analysis of the archaeological material are compared in order to assess activities in which pounding tools could have been involved. Results show that experimental anvils used for meat processing, nut cracking and/or bone breaking have similar wear patterns as those...
Dal Borgo, MM
In this thesis, I interpret Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War
utilizing models of game theory to distil the abstract strategic structures that
Thucydides illuminates. It is possible by close analysis of the narrative to
extract an implicit descriptive theory embedded in the narrative, never made
explicit but a consistent presence wherever characters, groups and nations
interact. Game theory in its informal structure (i.e. without deploying the full
formal apparatus of mathematics) offers a valuable extension to narratology,
a narrative theory already successfully introduced into Classical studies.
The thesis studies Thucydides’ conception of the agon (contest/competition)
in its basic framework from simple strategic and dynamic games to games