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UCL University College London Eprints (377.052 recursos)

UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 380.806

  1. Visual Function, Social Position, and Health and Life Chances: The UK Biobank Study

    Cumberland, PM; Rahi, JS; UK Biobank Eye and Vision Consortium,
    Importance: The adverse impact of visual impairment and blindness and correlations with socioeconomic position are known. Understanding of the effect of the substantially more common near-normal vision (mild impairment) and associations with social position as well as health and life chances is limited. Objective: To investigate the association of visual health (across the full acuity spectrum) with social determinants of general health and the association between visual health and health and social outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted using UK Biobank data from 6 regional centers in England and Wales. A total of 112 314 volunteers...

  2. New leadership for a user-friendly IPCC

    Petersen, A; Blackstock, J; Morisetti, N
    The IPCC's new leadership needs to promote reforms to make the panel more relevant to the actors that use the organization's information.

  3. Gamete signalling underlies the evolution of mating types and their number

    Pomiankowski, A; hadjivasiliou, Z
    Predictions about the evolution of sex determination mechanisms have mainly focused on animals and plants, whereas unicellular eukaryotes such as fungi and ciliates have received little attention. Many taxa within the latter groups can stochastically switch their mating type identity during vegetative growth. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that mating type switching overcomes distortions in the distribution of mating types due to drift during asexual growth. Using a computational model, we show that smaller population size, longer vegetative periods and more mating types lead to greater distortions in the distribution of mating types. However, the impact of these parameters on...

  4. The datafication of early years education and its impact upon pedagogy

    Roberts-Holmes, G; Bradbury, A
    This article raises important questions about whether the increasing control of early years education through performance data is genuinely a means for school improvement. This composite article, examines the pervasiveness of attainment data in early years education professional activity, its impact on early years teachers’ consciousness and identity and the narrowing and instrumentalisation of early years pedagogy. The authors argue that, rather than improving quality, the current obsession with performance data and its stretch down the age range has the potential to undermine the foundations for children’s personal development and learning. The article also points to the ways in which...

  5. Rapid diagnosis vital in thunderclap headache

    Barritt, A; Miller, S; Davagnanam, I; Matharu, M
    Thunderclap headache is a severe and acute headache that reaches maximum intensity in under one minute and lasts for more than five minutes. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) accounts for 10-25% of all thunderclap headaches and, despite advances in medical technology, has a 90-day mortality of 30%. Up to a quarter of cases of SAH are misdiagnosed, often through failure to follow guidance. Thunderclap headaches may be associated with symptoms such as photophobia, nausea, vomiting, neck pain, focal neurological symptoms or loss of consciousness. SAH is more likely if there are neurological abnormalities or reduced consciousness. Loss of consciousness at onset is...

  6. ZOOM or Non-ZOOM? Assessing Spinal Cord Diffusion Tensor Imaging Protocols for Multi-Centre Studies.

    Samson, RS; Lévy, S; Schneider, T; Smith, AK; Smith, SA; Cohen-Adad, J; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, CA
    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate two spinal cord (SC) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) protocols, implemented at multiple sites (using scanners from two different manufacturers), one available on any clinical scanner, and one using more advanced options currently available in the research setting, and to use an automated processing method for unbiased quantification. DTI parameters are sensitive to changes in the diseased SC. However, imaging the cord can be technically challenging due to various factors including its small size, patient-related and physiological motion, and field inhomogeneities. Rapid acquisition sequences such as Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) are...

  7. Sleep Disturbances and Suicide Risk in an 8-Year Longitudinal Study of Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders

    Li, SX; Lam, SP; Zhang, J; Yu, MW; Chan, JW; Chan, CS; Espie, CA; Freeman, D; Mason, O; Wing, YK
    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Disrupted sleep is one of the prominent but often overlooked presenting symptoms in the clinical course of psychotic disorders. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, particularly insomnia and nightmares, and their prospective associations with the risk of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. METHODS: A naturalistic longitudinal study was conducted in outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders recruited from the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a regional university-affiliated public hospital in Hong Kong. A detailed sleep questionnaire was completed by 388 patients at baseline in May-June 2006. Relevant clinical information was extracted...

  8. Reliability and validity of the Turkish translation of the beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ-T) in patients with Behçet’s disease

    Cinar, M; Cinar, FI; Acikel, C; Yilmaz, S; Çakar, M; Horne, R; Simsek, I
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish translation of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ-T, ©Prof. Rob Horne) for patients with Behçet's disease. METHODS: This methodological study enrolled a sample of 125 patients. The scale was adapted to Turkish through a process including translation, comparison with versions in other languages, back translation, and pretesting. Construct validity was evaluated by factor analysis. Medication adherence evaluated as poor, moderate and good according to the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). BMQ-T scores compared along medication adherence status groups. RESULTS: In our study, as in...

  9. Stackings and the W-cycle conjecture

    Louder, L; Wilton, H
    We prove Wise’s W-cycles conjecture: Consider a compact graph Γ0 immersing into another graph Γ. For any immersed cycle Λ : S1 → Γ, we consider the map Λ0 from the circular components S of the pullback to Γ0. Unless Λ0 is reducible, the degree of the covering map S → S1 is bounded above by minus the Euler characteristic of Γ0. As a corollary, any finitely generated subgroup of a one-relator group has finitely generated Schur multiplier.

  10. Correlations between Fruit, Vegetables, Fish, Vitamins, and Fatty Acids Estimated by Web-Based Nonconsecutive Dietary Records and Respective Biomarkers of Nutritional Status

    Lassale, C; Castetbon, K; Laporte, F; Deschamps, V; Vernay, M; Camilleri, GM; Faure, P; Hercberg, S; Galan, P; Kesse-Guyot, E
    BACKGROUND: It is of major importance to measure the validity of self-reported dietary intake using web-based instruments before applying them in large-scale studies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to validate self-reported intake of fish, fruit and vegetables, and selected micronutrient intakes assessed by a web-based self-administered dietary record tool used in the NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort study, against the following concentration biomarkers: plasma beta carotene, vitamin C, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: One hundred ninety-eight adult volunteers (103 men and 95 women, mean age=50.5 years) were included in the protocol: they completed 3 nonconsecutive-day dietary records and two blood samples were drawn...

  11. Beyond crystallography: diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources

    Miao, J; Ishikawa, T; Robinson, IK; Murnane, MM
    X-ray crystallography has been central to the development of many fields of science over the past century. It has now matured to a point that as long as good-quality crystals are available, their atomic structure can be routinely determined in three dimensions. However, many samples in physics, chemistry, materials science, nanoscience, geology, and biology are noncrystalline, and thus their three-dimensional structures are not accessible by traditional x-ray crystallography. Overcoming this hurdle has required the development of new coherent imaging methods to harness new coherent x-ray light sources. Here we review the revolutionary advances that are transforming x-ray sources and imaging...

  12. Heart rate as a marker of incidence and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases in different populations: Evidence from Linked Electronic Health Records using the CALIBER platform and the 4C clinical cohort

    Archangelidi, O
    Background: Resting heart rate (RHR) is an easily accessible clinical parameter. In spite of the well-established association between resting heart rate and mortality in men and women, potential links between the marker and more specific cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have not yet been explored. No previous research has used clinically collected RHR measurements from primary care settings. Normal RHR values have not been firmly established, although this is crucial in clinical practice and promotion of personalised health care. Objectives: The main objectives of this PhD are to: -Examine the association between RHR and the onset of specific fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular...

  13. Systematic review of paediatric track and trigger systems for hospitalised children

    Chapman, SM; Wray, J; Oulton, K; Peters, M
    CONTEXT: Early and accurate recognition of the deteriorating hospitalised child is complex. Paediatric track and trigger systems (PTTS) support clinical decision-making by 'tracking' the child’s condition through monitoring of clinical signs and 'triggering' a request for an appropriate review when pre-determined criteria are breeched. OBJECTIVE: To describe the number and nature of published PTTS and appraise the evidence on their validity, calibration, and effect on important patient outcomes (death, cardiac and/or respiratory arrest, unplanned transfer to intensive/high dependency care, immediate/urgent request for review, rapid response system activation). METHOD: GRADE methodology. Papers identified through electronic database and citation searching. RESULTS: Thirty-three...

  14. Uptake, outcomes, and costs of implementing non-invasive prenatal testing for Down's syndrome into NHS maternity care: prospective cohort study in eight diverse maternity units.

    Chitty, LS; Wright, D; Hill, M; Verhoef, TI; Daley, R; Lewis, C; Mason, S; McKay, F; Jenkins, L; Howarth, A; Cameron, L; McEwan, A; Fisher, J; Kroese, M; Morris, S
    OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the benefits and costs of implementing non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down's syndrome into the NHS maternity care pathway. DESIGN:  Prospective cohort study. SETTING:  Eight maternity units across the United Kingdom between 1 November 2013 and 28 February 2015. PARTICIPANTS:  All pregnant women with a current Down's syndrome risk on screening of at least 1/1000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:  Outcomes were uptake of NIPT, number of cases of Down's syndrome detected, invasive tests performed, and miscarriages avoided. Pregnancy outcomes and costs associated with implementation of NIPT, compared with current screening, were determined using study data on NIPT uptake...

  15. An unusual presentation of paediatric Listeria meningitis with selective spinal grey matter involvement and acute demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Papandreou, A; Hedrera-Fernandez, A; Kaliakatsos, M; Chong, WK; Bhate, S
    BACKGROUND: Paediatric Listeria meningitis is rare, especially in immuno-competent children, but associated with significant mortality and morbidity and frequent complications. METHODS: We report an unusual case of Listeria meningitis in a previously healthy 35 month-old girl with selective spinal grey matter involvement and demyelination in neurophysiological studies. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the case was initially complicated by ventriculitis, hydrocephalus and tonsillar herniation through the foramen magnum, requiring external ventricular drainage and subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. Paucity of movements, hypotonia, areflexia and bladder dysfunction then became evident. RESULTS: Electromyogram and nerve conduction studies showed acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and the patient...

  16. Introduction: For an Anthropology of History

    Palmié, S; Stewart, CW
    Although Sahlins proposed it over thirty years ago, and notwithstanding various noteworthy contributions in the interim, a concerted anthropology of history has not yet come into being. This introduction, and the case studies which follow it, lay out the interrogatives of such an endeavor by reference to ethnographic and historical studies of Cuba, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, the United States, and early modern Euro-America. The anthropology of history inquires foremost into the very idea of history—the assumptions, principles, and practices that inform the acquisition of knowledge about the past, and its social presentation. Finding the terms to understand alternative forms...

  17. TRNT1 deficiency: clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic features

    Wedatilake, Y; Niazi, R; Fassone, E; Powell, CA; Pearce, S; Plagnol, V; Saldanha, JW; Kleta, R; Chong, WK; Footitt, E; Mills, PB; Taanman, JW; Minczuk, M; Clayton, PT; Rahman, S
    BACKGROUND: TRNT1 (CCA-adding transfer RNA nucleotidyl transferase) enzyme deficiency is a new metabolic disease caused by defective post-transcriptional modification of mitochondrial and cytosolic transfer RNAs (tRNAs). RESULTS: We investigated four patients from two families with infantile-onset cyclical, aseptic febrile episodes with vomiting and diarrhoea, global electrolyte imbalance during these episodes, sideroblastic anaemia, B lymphocyte immunodeficiency, retinitis pigmentosa, hepatosplenomegaly, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and renal tubulopathy. Other clinical features found in children include sensorineural deafness, cerebellar atrophy, brittle hair, partial villous atrophy and nephrocalcinosis. Whole exome sequencing and bioinformatic filtering were utilised to identify recessive compound heterozygous TRNT1 mutations (missense mutation c.668T>C,...

  18. Clinical utility gene card for: Aniridia

    Richardson, R; Hingorani, M; Van Heyningen, V; Gregory-Evans, C; Moosajee, M

  19. The effectiveness of person-centred planning for people with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review

    Ratti, V; Hassiotis, A; Crabtree, J; Deb, S; Gallagher, P; Unwin, G
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of Person-Centred Planning (PCP) on outcomes for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) across the age range. METHOD: The electronic databases PsycInfo, Embase, CINHAL, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Medline were searched for studies evaluating the impact of PCP on people with ID, published between 1990 and 2014; these were supplemented by manual searches of reference lists. Studies were considered irrespective of methodology, sample size and publication source, if outcomes reflected the impact of PCP on individuals with ID. RESULTS: Seven quantitative, five qualitative and four mixed methods studies were included in the review. The...

  20. How to make a sex chromosome

    Wright, AE; Dean, R; Zimmer, F; Mank, JE
    Sex chromosomes can evolve once recombination is halted between a homologous pair of chromosomes. Owing to detailed studies using key model systems, we have a nuanced understanding and a rich review literature of what happens to sex chromosomes once recombination is arrested. However, three broad questions remain unanswered. First, why do sex chromosomes stop recombining in the first place? Second, how is recombination halted? Finally, why does the spread of recombination suppression, and therefore the rate of sex chromosome divergence, vary so substantially across clades? In this review, we consider each of these three questions in turn to address fundamental...

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