UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
Rapid adaptation of Rhodococcus erythropolis cells to salt stress by synthesizing polyunsaturated fatty acids - de Carvalho, CCCR; Marques, MP; Hachicho, N; Heipieper, HJ
Bacterial cells are known to adapt to challenging environmental conditions such as osmotic stress. However, most of the work done in this field describes the adaptation of growing populations where the new generations acquire traits that improve their ability to survive. In the present study, the responses of Rhodococcus erythropolis cells within the first 30 min after exposure to osmotic stress caused by sodium chloride were studied. The cells changed the total lipid fatty acid composition and also the net surface charge in the 30 min following exposure. Surprisingly, the cells produced a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In...
Green Solvents for Biocatalysis - Marques, MPC; Lourenço, NMT; Fernandes, P; de Carvalho, CCCR
In order to comply with environmental regulations, the agrochemical, the pharmaceutical, and other biotech-based industries are impelled to implement sustainable industrial technologies. To achieve this, the use of biocatalysts (enzymes or cells), leading to high chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivities under mild conditions, as well as green nonaqueous solvents required to solubilize substrates that are poorly soluble in water, appear as good solutions. In this chapter we will focus on different attempts to combine the properties of green solvents with the advantages of using enzymes for developing biocatalytic processes.
Tonic GABAA conductance decreases membrane time constant and increases EPSP-spike precision in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. - Wlodarczyk, AI; Xu, C; Song, I; Doronin, M; Wu, YW; Walker, MC; Semyanov, A
Because of a complex dendritic structure, pyramidal neurons have a large membrane surface relative to other cells and so a large electrical capacitance and a large membrane time constant (τm). This results in slow depolarizations in response to excitatory synaptic inputs, and consequently increased and variable action potential latencies, which may be computationally undesirable. Tonic activation of GABAA receptors increases membrane conductance and thus regulates neuronal excitability by shunting inhibition. In addition, tonic increases in membrane conductance decrease the membrane time constant (τm), and improve the temporal fidelity of neuronal firing. Here we performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from hippocampal...
Generalized spike and waves: Effect of discharge duration on brain networks as revealed by BOLD fMRI - Pugnaghi, M; Carmichael, DW; Vaudano, AE; Chaudhary, UJ; Rodionov, R; Walker, MC; Duncan, JS; Lemieux, L; Benuzzi, F; Meletti, S; Di Bonaventura, C; Giallonardo, AT
In the past decade, the possibility of combining recordings of EEG and functional MRI (EEG-fMRI), has brought a new insight into the brain network underlying generalized spike wave discharges (GSWD). Nevertheless, how GSWD duration influences this network is not fully understood. In this study we aim to investigate whether GSWD duration had a threshold (non-linear) and/or a linear effect on the amplitude of the associated BOLD changes in any brain regions. This could help in elucidating if there is an hemodynamic background supporting the differentiation between interictal and ictal events. We studied a population of 42 patients with idiopathic generalized...
Current developments in the use of biomarkers for juvenile idiopathic arthritis. - Duurland, CL; Wedderburn, LR
Use of biomarkers in clinical practice has proved extremely valuable and is a rapidly expanding field. However, despite the huge potential of biomarkers, for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) there are currently no validated paediatric biomarkers available to help with setting up a more tailored approach on which drug choice could be based, to achieve remission early in the course of disease. Early remission reduces burden of disease, limits side effects from toxic and unnecessary medication, and, most importantly, enhances quality of life. Several studies have suggested promising biomarkers: these may be a protein, cellular component, mRNA, or genetic component, for...
Immunological characteristics and T cell receptor clonal diversity in children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis undergoing T cell depleted autologous stem cell transplantation. - Wu, Q; Pesenacker, AM; Stansfield, A; King, D; Barge, D; Foster, HE; Abinun, M; Wedderburn, LR
Children with systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA), the most severe subtype of JIA, are at risk of from destructive polyarthritis and growth failure, and corticosteroids as part of conventional treatment can result in osteoporosis and growth delay. In children where there is failure or toxicity from drug therapies, disease has been successfully controlled by T cell depleted autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). At present, the immunological basis underlying remission post ASCT is unknown. Immune reconstitution of T, B, NK, NK-T cell and monocytes, in parallel with T cell receptor diversity by analysis of beta variable region (TCRVb) complementarity determining region-3...
Validation of relapse risk biomarkers for routine use in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. - Rothmund, F; Gerss, J; Ruperto, N; Däbritz, J; Wittkowski, H; Frosch, M; Wulffraat, NM; Wedderburn, LR; Holzinger, D; Gohar, F; Vastert, SJ; Brik, R; Deslandre, CJ; Melo-Gomes, JA; Magalhães, CS; Barcellona, R; Russo, R; Gattorno, M; Martini, A; Roth, J; Foell, D; for the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization (PRINTO),
Objectives: The myeloid-related proteins 8 and 14 (MRP8/14) and neutrophil-derived S100A12 are biomarkers of inflammation. They can be used to determine the relapse risk in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) after stopping anti-inflammatory treatment. In this study we tested the performance of different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), in order to validate systems available for routine use. Methods: MRP8/14 and S100A12 serum concentrations of 188 JIA patients in remission were analysed. Commercially available test systems were compared to experimental ELISAs established in-house. The ability of the assays to identify JIA patients at risk for relapse was analysed. Results: For MRP8/14,...
Validity of a three-variable Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score in children with new-onset Juvenile idiopathic Arthritis - McErlane, F; Lunt, M; Thomson, W; Hyrich, KL; Beresford, MW; Baildam, EM; Chieng, SEA; Davidson, JE; Gardner-Medwin, J; Foster, HE; Wedderburn, LR
Objectives: To investigate the validity and feasibility of the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS) in the routine clinical setting for all juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) disease categories and explore whether exclusion of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) from JADAS (the 'JADAS3') influences correlation with single markers of disease activity. Methods: JADAS-71, JADAS-27 and JADAS-10 were determined at baseline for an inception cohort of children with JIA in the Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study. JADAS3-71, JADAS3-27 and JADAS3-10 were determined using an identical formula but with exclusion of ESR. Correlation of JADAS with JADAS3 and single measures of disease activity/severity were...
Validity of a three-variable Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score in children with new-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. - McErlane, F; Beresford, MW; Baildam, EM; Chieng, SE; Davidson, JE; Foster, HE; Gardner-Medwin, J; Lunt, M; Wedderburn, LR; Thomson, W; Hyrich, KL; Childhood, APSCAPS
To investigate the validity and feasibility of the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS) in the routine clinical setting for all juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) disease categories and explore whether exclusion of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) from JADAS (the 'JADAS3') influences correlation with single markers of disease activity. JADAS-71, JADAS-27 and JADAS-10 were determined at baseline for an inception cohort of children with JIA in the Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study. JADAS3-71, JADAS3-27 and JADAS3-10 were determined using an identical formula but with exclusion of ESR. Correlation of JADAS with JADAS3 and single measures of disease activity/severity were determined by...
T regulatory cells in childhood arthritis - novel insights. - Pesenacker, AM; Wedderburn, LR
In recent years, there have been many new developments in the field of regulatory T cells (Treg), challenging the consensus on their behaviour, classification and role(s) in disease. The role Treg might play in autoimmune disease appears to be more complex than previously thought. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of regulatory T cells through animal and human research and illustrate the recent developments in childhood autoimmune arthritis (juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)). Furthermore, this review summarises our understanding of the fields and assesses current and future implications for Treg in the treatment of JIA.
Homosexuality and psychological wholeness - Little, NW
Book review of: Clarke, V, Ellis, S J, Peel, E & Riggs, D W (eds) (2010) Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and queer psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-70018-4 pbk. Pages xix + 328.
There is an increasing need to understand the leukocytes and soluble mediators that drive acute inflammation and bring about its resolution in humans. We therefore carried out an extensive characterisation of the cantharidin skin blister model in healthy male volunteers. A novel fluorescence staining protocol was designed and implemented, which facilitated the identification of cell populations by flow cytometry. We observed that at the onset phase, 24 h after blister formation, the predominant cells were CD16hi/CD66b+ PMNs followed by HLA-DR+/CD14+ monocytes/macrophages, CD11c+ and CD141+ dendritic cells as well as Siglec-8+ eosinophils. CD3+ T cells, CD19+ B cells and CD56+ NK...