Gupta, A; Dimeloe, S; Richards, DF; Chambers, ES; Black, C; Urry, Z; Ryanna, K; Xystrakis, E; Bush, A; Saglani, S; Hawrylowicz, CM
BACKGROUND: Understanding of immune mechanisms underpinning asthma has emerged from studies in adults. It is increasingly recognised, both immunologically and in the development of novel therapies, that adult responses cannot be used accurately to predict those of children.
METHODS: Using a well-defined paediatric cohort of severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) patients, we investigated cytokine profiles in the airway by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The in vitro capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for cytokine production was also assessed following polyclonal T cell activation in culture, in the absence or presence of dexamethasone and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
RESULTS: Children with both moderate and...
Nimmano, N; Taylor, K; Somavarapu, S
Herodotou, C; Kambouri, M; Winters, N
The relationship between digital gaming and gamers’ psychological well-being has been an issue of concern in public and academic communities. Theorists advocate for the compensation hypothesis, arguing that real-life dissatisfaction such as social disintegration, reinforces motivation for gaming. Hence, the profile of the typical gamer has been one of emotionally and socially dissatisfied young individual. Considering for the fact that gaming is an increasingly social activity practised along with other individuals, this paper aims to evaluate the validity of these concerns by examining the Basic Psychological Needs (BPNs; Deci & Ryan, 1985) of 1298 World of Warcraft (WoW) gamers, viz...
Even when a person appears to have consented to another’s interference with her interests, we sometimes treat this apparent consent as ineffective. This may either be because the law does not permit consent to validate the actions concerned, or because the consent is undermined by the presence of additional factors which render it insufficiently autonomous to be effective. In this paper I propose that the project of categorising and systematically analysing the latter set of cases, would be furthered by recognising (1) that prima facie consent is undermined when the prima facie consenter’s autonomy to choose whether or not to...
Myint, J; Edgar, DF; Murdoch, IE; Lawrenson, JG
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of a postgraduate training module on optometrists’ clinical decision-making in relation to the diagnosis and management of primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: A group of United Kingdom community optometrists (n = 53) were assessed immediately before and again 3 months after completing a 3-day didactic postgraduate university module on the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. A smaller control cohort (n = 20), who did not receive the intervention, was recruited and completed the same assessments on two occasions, separated by approximately 3 months. The assessments comprised: knowledge of five key features of the optic disc in...
Peltier, H; Jepson, PD; Dabin, W; Deaville, R; Daniel, P; Van Canneyt, O; Ridoux, V
Cetacean strandings are an important source of information on cetacean population status and of biological
samples. Nevertheless, collecting stranding data remains opportunistic and their representativity
must be improved. The aim ofthis study was to improve the ecological significance of strandings,through
the determination of stranded common dolphin origin found along the coasts of the Channel and the Bay
of Biscay, by using the drift prediction model MOTHY. In order to map inferred distribution of dead dolphins,
origin of strandings were weighted by the probability that cetaceans dying at sea become stranded.
The difference between observed stranding origin and origin of expected strandings under the hypothesis
of spatial and...
Davison, NJ; Barnett, JEF; Koylass, M; Whatmore, AM; Perkins, MW; Deaville, RC; Jepson, PD
Helicobacter infection in cetaceans was first reported from the US in 2000 when the isolation of a novel Helicobacter species was described from two Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus). Since then, Helicobacter species have been demonstrated in cetaceans and pinnipeds from around the world. Since 1990, the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency Polwhele, Truro, has been involved in the UK Cetacean Strandings Investigation Programme to establish the cause of death of cetacean species stranded along the coast of Cornwall, England. We describe the isolation of Helicobacter cetorum in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and evidence of H. cetorum infection...
Lambert, E; Pierce, GJ; Hall, K; Brereton, T; Dunn, TE; Wall, D; Jepson, PD; Deaville, R; Macleod, CD
There is increasing evidence that the global distributions of a large number of species are
shifting with global climate change as they track changing surface temperatures that define
their thermal niche. Modelling efforts to predict species distributions under future climates
have increased with concern about the overall impact of these distribution shifts on species
ecology, and especially where barriers to dispersal exist. Here we apply a bio-climatic
envelope modelling technique to investigate the impacts of climate change on the geographic
range of ten cetacean species in the eastern North Atlantic and to assess how such modelling
can be used to inform conservation and management. The modelling process...
Garcia-Parraga, D; Crespo-Picazo, JL; Bernaldo de Quiros, Y; Cervera, V; Marti-Bonmati, L; Diaz-Delgado, J; Arbelo, M; Moore, MJ; Jepson, PD; Fernandez, A
Decompression sickness (DCS), as clinically diagnosed by reversal of symptoms with recompression, has never been reported in aquatic breath-hold diving vertebrates despite the occurrence of tissue gas tensions sufficient for bubble formation and injury in terrestrial animals. Similarly to diving mammals, sea turtles manage gas exchange and decompression through anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations. In the former group, DCS-like lesions have been observed on necropsies following behavioral disturbance such as high-powered acoustic sources (e.g. active sonar) and in bycaught animals. In sea turtles, in spite of abundant literature on diving physiology and bycatch interference, this is the first report of...
Bartie, A; Fleming, L; Freeman, M; Hulme, T; Readman, P; Tupman, C
Grubb, M; Köhler, J; Anderson, D
Technical change in the energy sector is central for addressing long- term environmental issues, including climate change. Most models of energy, econ- omy, and the environment (E3 models) use exogenous assumptions for this. This is an important weakness. We show that there is strong evidence that technical change in the energy sector is to an important degree induced by market circumstances and expectations and, by implication, by environmental policies such as CO2 abate- ment. We classify the main approaches to modeling such induced technical change and review results with particular reference to climate change. Among models with learning by doing,...
Navas, CA; James, RS; Wakeling, JM; Kemp, KM; Johnston, IA
The aims of this study were: (1) to analyze individual variation in frog locomotor performance, (2) to compare the thermal sensitivity of jumping and swimming, and (3) to contrast whole animal versus muscle fiber performance at different temperatures. The jumping and swimming performance of Rana temporaria was analyzed at 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C. Muscle fiber bundles were isolated from lateral gastrocnemius and subjected to the length and activation patterns thought to occur in vivo. As temperature increased, locomotor performance in R. temporaria improved with a Q10 of 1.2 for both jump take-off velocity and mean swimming velocity. The slope of the...
Wakeling, JM; Cole, NJ; Kemp, KM; Johnston, IA
The effects of thermal acclimation were investigated in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. Acclimation and acute temperature effects were tested during ontogeny from larval [9.5 mm total length (L)] to juvenile (69.0 mm L) stages and between 8 and 21 degrees C. The myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition, myofibrillar Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and muscle strains showed significant thermal acclimation effects. MHCs were only expressed in an acclimation temperature-dependent fashion in fish longer than 37 mm. During fast starts, the temperature had a significant effect on the white muscle strain (33% increase and 50% decrease with increasing acclimation and acute temperature,...
Kemp, KM; Jamieson, AJ; Bagley, PM; McGrath, H; Bailey, DM; Collins, MA; Priede, IG
We deployed 2 porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) carcasses at bathyal depth (2555 to 2710 m) in the Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic for periods of 1 wk and 6 mo respectively. Consumption rates of 0.085 and 0.078 kg h–1 were similar to those observed at abyssal depths in the Atlantic, and 1 order of magnitude slower than at bathyal depth in the Pacific. A distinct succession of scavenging species was observed at both carcasses: the abyssal grenadier Coryphaenoides armatus and the cusk eel Spectrunculus grandis numerically dominated the initial phase of carcass consumption and, once the bulk of the soft tissue had...
We have studied physical and biological rhythms in the deep demersal habitat of the Northeastern Atlantic. Current velocity and direction changes occurred at intervals of 12.4 h, demonstrating that they could have an impact of tidal activity, and also showed indications of other seasonal changes. As an indicator of biological rhythms, we measured the content of pineal and retinal melatonin in the grenadier Coryphaenoides armatus and the deep-sea eel Synaphobranchus kaupii, and determined the spontaneous release of melatonin in long-term (52 h minimum) cultures of isolated pineal organs and retinae in S. kaupii. The results of the release experiments show...
There have been very few studies of temporal processes at chemosynthetic ecosystems, even at relatively more
accessible shallow water sites. Here we report the development and deployment of a simple cabled video observatory at ≈
30 m water depth in Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden. The camera provides a live video feed to the internet of faunal activity at
the experiments, which to date have included 5 separate whale-fall deployments. Our data suggest that the time to
decomposition of small cetacean carcasses at shelf-depth settings is considerably slower than at deep-sea sites. We have
also provided a new methodology for the deployment of low-cost live video observatories at...
The numerous examples of the use of human shields in armed conflicts display the contemporaneity of the problem discussed in this article and the need for a recipe to effectively combat the continuing commission of this war crime. In spite of the fact that an absolute prohibition on the use of human shields in international armed conflicts exists, as enshrined in the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Additional Protocol I, consequences of unlawful resort to human shields remain inconsistent. Thus, the present article will determine when and under what circumstances attacks carried out against human shields are lawful, and which...
The right to strike has been largely acknowledged as an indispensable element of collective bargaining, and as one of the most essential means by which workers can preserve their socio-economic rights. It is safeguarded by international and European human rights instruments, and is enshrined in a number of states’ constitutions, including several parties to the European Convention on Human Rights (‘ECHR’). Within the legal framework of the ECHR, in the seminal cases of Demir and Baykara v Turkey and Enerji v Turkey the European Court of Human Rights (‘ECtHR’ or 'the Court') acknowledged the significance of both the right to...
English and Ecuadorian defamation law have developed very different mechanisms to resolve the tension between the right to freedom of speech and the protection of private life. Ordinarily this would not be too surprising, insofar as it is natural that different countries will have different legal institutions. However, this divergence becomes relevant because both jurisdictions claim to be bound by virtually the same human rights obligations when it comes to speech related to matters of public interest. For this reason, this article focuses on speech issued during electoral campaigns—perhaps the best example of public interest speech—in order to assess how...
Swazo, Norman K
Observers of contemporary politics know that Islamic extremism presents ‘the West’ with a serious challenge of national and international security consequent to terrorist events of recent time. In addition to constabulary and military responses, there remains the more fundamental question about how to understand Islamist ideology and how counter-narratives might be framed in the interest of law and morality, especially in Muslim-minority nation-states. One of the central problems with Islamist ideology is a narrow and dogmatic conception of Islamic law. Tariq Ramadan is an example of a contemporary Islamic scholar concerned with Islamic reform. Ronald Dworkin is among the most...