UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
Association of ambient air pollution with the prevalence and incidence of COPD - Schikowski, T; Adam, M; Keidel, D; Phuleria, H; Schindler, C; Tsai, M-Y; Zemp, E; Probst-Hensch, N; Künzli, N; Vierkötter, A; Krämer, U; Marcon, A; De Marco, R; Cai, Y; Al Kanani, Z; Burney, P; De Hoogh, K; Jarvis, D; Mosler, G; Hansell, A; Carsin, AE; Jacquemin, B; Cirach, M; Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ; Sunyer, J; Kauffmann, F; Beelen, R; Brunekeef, B; Hoek, G; Birk, M; Heinrich, J; Bridevaux, P-O; Rochat, T; Cyrys, J; De Nazelle, A; Declercq, C; Forsberg, B; Hardy, R; Kuh, D; Kuhlbusch, T; Migliore, E; Villani, S
The role of air pollution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain. The aim was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to air pollution on COPD in four cohorts using the standardised ESCAPE exposure estimates. Annual average particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO ) and road traffic exposure were assigned to home addresses using land-use regression models. COPD was defined by NHANES reference equation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than the lower limit of normal) and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criterion (FEV1/FVC <0.70) and categorised by severity in...
Politiche del Mercato del Lavoro e Diritti e Doveri in Europa - Countouris, N; Freedland, M
This article reviews the interaction between active labour market policy reforms in Europe from a historical perspective and in the context of the development of the European Employment Strategy. It argues for a dignity and capability attuned approach to these reforms
Seizure control by derivatives of medium chain fatty acids associated with the ketogenic diet show novel branching-point structure for enhanced potency. - Chang, P; Zuckermann, A; Williams, S; Close, AJ; Cano-Jaimez, M; McEvoy, JP; Spencer, J; Walker, MC; Williams, RS
The medium chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet is a major treatment for drug resistant epilepsy but is problematic, particularly in adults, because of poor tolerability. Branched derivatives of octanoic acid, a medium chain fat provided in the diet have been suggested as potential new treatments for drug-resistant epilepsy, but the structural basis of this functionality not been determined. Here we investigate structural variants of branched medium chain fatty acids as new seizure-control treatments. We initially employ a series of methyl-branched octanoic acid derivatives, and using the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, pentelenetetrazol (PTZ), to induce seizure-like activity in rat hippocampal slices, we...
What Non-neuronal Mechanisms Should Be Studied to Understand Epileptic Seizures? - Janigro, D; Walker, MC
While seizures ultimately result from aberrant firing of neuronal networks, several laboratories have embraced a non-neurocentric view of epilepsy to show that other cells in the brain also bear an etiologic impact in epilepsy. Astrocytes and brain endothelial cells are examples of controllers of neuronal homeostasis; failure of proper function of either cell type has been shown to have profound consequences on neurophysiology. Recently, an even more holistic view of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of epilepsy has emerged to include white blood cells, immunological synapses, the extracellular matrix and the neurovascular unit. This review will briefly summarize these findings...
Oscillating epidemics in a dynamic network model: stochastic and mean-field analysis - Szabó-Solticzky, A; Berthouze, L; Kiss, IZ; Simon, PL
An adaptive network model using SIS epidemic propagation with link-type dependent link activation and deletion is considered. Bifurcation analysis of the pairwise ODE approximation and the network-based stochastic simulation is carried out, showing that three typical behaviours may occur; namely, oscillations can be observed besides disease-free or endemic steady states. The oscillatory behaviour in the stochastic simulations is studied using Fourier analysis, as well as through analysing the exact master equations of the stochastic model. A compact pairwise approximation for the dynamic network case is also developed and, for the case of link-type independent rewiring, the outcome of epidemics and...
Delayed auditory feedback simulates features of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia. - Maruta, C; Makhmood, S; Downey, LE; Golden, HL; Fletcher, PD; Witoonpanich, P; Rohrer, JD; Warren, JD
The pathophysiology of nonfluent primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) remains poorly understood. Here, we compared quantitatively speech parameters in patients with nfvPPA versus healthy older individuals under altered auditory feedback, which has been shown to modulate normal speech output. Patients (n=15) and healthy volunteers (n=17) were recorded while reading aloud under delayed auditory feedback [DAF] with latency 0, 50 or 200ms and under DAF at 200ms plus 0.5 octave upward pitch shift. DAF in healthy older individuals was associated with reduced speech rate and emergence of speech sound errors, particularly at latency 200ms. Up to a third of the healthy older...
Trauma and hearing voices: the experiences of refugees and asylum seekers. - Parrett, N.
Within the relatively large body of research relating to mental health problems in refugee and asylum seeker populations, studies measuring incidence of psychoses are relatively rare. The literature has focused more broadly on the relationship between migration and psychoses, finding an increased incidence of psychoses (specifically schizophrenia) in migrant populations across the generations. Explanatory models have thus far focused on post-migratory factors, largely ignoring pre- and peri-migratory factors. This review specifically highlights those studies relating to psychosis in refugee and asylum seeker populations. Although many of these involve small and sometimes specific populations, the fact that all of them show...
Mina Loy and the myth of the modern woman. - Parmar, S.
This study examines Mina Loy's unpublished autobiographical writings and challenges the existing critical myth of Loy as the 'modern woman'. Between 1920 and the late 1940s Loy wrote four overlapping versions of her autobiography: 'The Child and the Parent', 'Goy Israels', 'Islands in the Air' and 'Insel'. This study develops a chronology for Loy's autobiographies and it examines each version's engagement with constructs of the 'modern' and of the 'modern writer'. Since the 1980s scholars have primarily focused on the 'modernist' techniques Loy employed in her early poetry. Often these critical surveys exclude texts that cannot be grouped under the...