UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
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Control of stem cell fate by engineering their micro and nanoenvironment - Griffin, M; Butler, P; Saifalian, A; Kalaskar, D
Stem cells receive instructions from their niche environment, which guide their survival and phenotype. Stem cells receive physical and biochemical clues from their extracellular matrix where they reside in vivo. This paper will discuss the utilization of biomaterial surface topography and elasticity and delivery of chemical and genetic clues via scaffold materials to mimic the extracellular matrix to guide stem cell fate. The understanding of the parameters that guide stem cell differentiation is of great interest for the tissue-engineering field.
Dynamic range of GSK3α not GSK3β is essential for bidirectional synaptic plasticity at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. - Shahab, L; Plattner, F; Irvine, EE; Cummings, DM; Edwards, FA
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), particularly the isoform GSK3β, has been implicated in a wide range of physiological systems and neurological disorders including Alzheimer's Disease. However, the functional importance of GSK3α has been largely untested. The multifunctionality of GSK3 limits its potential as a drug target because of inevitable side effects. Due to its greater expression in the CNS, GSK3β rather than GSK3α has also been assumed to be of primary importance in synaptic plasticity. Here we investigate bidirectional long-term synaptic plasticity in knockin mice with a point mutation in GSK3α or GSK3β that prevents their inhibitory regulation. We report that...
Lighting and recognition of emotion conveyed by facial expressions - Yang, B; Fotios, S
A recent study examined how luminance and spectral power distribution affect recognition of facial expression, a proxy for pedestrians' judgements concerning the apparent intent of other people. This paper describes a repeat study which included a greater number of test luminances, a third type of lamp, and an additional, shorter duration of observation (500 ms). Luminance and distance had significant effects on expression recognition; the effect of lamp was not significant and the effect of duration was suggested to be significant only within the escarpment region of the performance versus luminance relationship. The results were used to estimate appropriate light...
HIV treatment and care systems: the way forward. - Ross, DA; South, A; Weller, I; Hakim, J
This article summarizes the conclusions and recommendations from the articles in this supplement. It presents a call for greater clarity of thinking related to projections of future need for HIV treatment and care. The demands placed on HIV treatment and care services will increase for the foreseeable future while the resources available for this are likely to remain constant or to decline. This highlights the need for realistic budgeting by national governments. The key strategies that should be employed to sustain HIV treatment and care programmes in high HIV-prevalence low and middle-income countries over the coming decade include further decentralization,...
Evidence for Action on HIV Treatment and Care Systems in low and middle-income countries: background and introduction. - Ross, DA; South, A; Weller, I; Hakim, J
Despite the unprecedented scale-up of treatment for HIV in low and middle-income countries over the past decade, 49% of adults and 77% of children in need of HIV treatment still do not have access to it. ART programmes that were initially set up as an emergency response now need to be adapted to ensure that they include all the essential components and are well integrated with other health services; meet the needs of special groups, including children, adolescents, pregnant women and older people; address the mental health needs of HIV-positive people; and monitor as well as report their impact in...
Surveillance for emerging respiratory viruses - Al-Tawfiq, JA; Zumla, A; Gautret, P; Al-Rabeeah, AA; Memish, ZA; Gray, GC; Hui, DS
Several new viral respiratory tract infectious diseases with epidemic potential that threaten global health security have emerged in the past 15 years. In 2003, WHO issued a worldwide alert for an unknown emerging illness, later named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) rapidly spread worldwide, causing more than 8000 cases and 800 deaths in more than 30 countries with a substantial economic impact. Since then, we have witnessed the emergence of several other viral respiratory pathogens including influenza viruses (avian influenza H5N1, H7N9, and H10N8; variant influenza A H3N2 virus), human adenovirus-14, and...
The Lablite project: A cross-sectional mapping survey of decentralized HIV service provision in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. - Chan, AK; Ford, D; Namata, H; Muzambi, M; Nkhata, MJ; Abongomera, G; Mambule, I; South, A; Revill, P; Grundy, C; Mabugu, T; Chiwaula, L; Cataldo, F; Hakim, J; Seeley, J; Kityo, C; Reid, A; Katabira, E; Sodhi, S; Gilks, CF; Gibb, DM; Lablite Team,
In sub-Saharan Africa antiretroviral therapy (ART) is being decentralized from tertiary/secondary care facilities to primary care. The Lablite project supports effective decentralization in 3 countries. It began with a cross-sectional survey to describe HIV and ART services.
Emerging viral respiratory tract infections-environmental risk factors and transmission - Gautret, P; Gray, GC; Odezulu, NG; Charrel, RN; Al-Tawfiq, JA; Zumla, A; Memish, ZA
The past decade has seen the emergence of several novel viruses that cause respiratory tract infections in human beings, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia, an H7N9 influenza A virus in eastern China, a swine-like influenza H3N2 variant virus in the USA, and a human adenovirus 14p1 also in the USA. MERS-CoV and H7N9 viruses are still a major worldwide public health concern. The pathogenesis and mode of transmission of MERS-CoV and H7N9 influenza A virus are poorly understood, making it more difficult to implement intervention and preventive measures. A united and coordinated global response is...
Prediction of Sarcomere Mutations in Subclinical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. - Captur, G; Lopes, LR; Mohun, TJ; Patel, V; Li, C; Bassett, P; Finocchiaro, G; Ferreira, VM; Esteban, MT; Muthurangu, V; Sherrid, MV; Day, SM; Canter, CE; McKenna, WJ; Seidman, CE; Bluemke, DA; Elliott, PM; Ho, CY; Moon, JC
-Sarcomere protein mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) induce subtle cardiac structural changes prior to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We have proposed that myocardial crypts are part of this phenotype and independently associated with the presence of sarcomere gene mutations. We tested this hypothesis in genetic HCM pre-LVH (G+LVH-).
How Far a Contract Can Be Stretched? The First Building Block for Procurement Engineering - Chang, C
This research is a first attempt to develop the new research field of Procurement Engineering. Just as Earthquake Engineering can instruct us how to design a building in order to mitigate the damages caused by natural uncertainty, Procurement Engineering hopes to offer methods to design project governance in order to reduce the adverse impacts of risk on projects. Just as Earthquake Engineering is founded on the basic law of mechanics that can precisely describe the movement of structural components under different loading conditions, Procurement Engineering needs to develop a fundamental law that governs the interaction between the procurer and the...
Structured connectivity in cerebellar inhibitory networks. - Rieubland, S; Roth, A; Häusser, M
Defining the rules governing synaptic connectivity is key to formulating theories of neural circuit function. Interneurons can be connected by both electrical and chemical synapses, but the organization and interaction of these two complementary microcircuits is unknown. By recording from multiple molecular layer interneurons in the cerebellar cortex, we reveal specific, nonrandom connectivity patterns in both GABAergic chemical and electrical interneuron networks. Both networks contain clustered motifs and show specific overlap between them. Chemical connections exhibit a preference for transitive patterns, such as feedforward triplet motifs. This structured connectivity is supported by a characteristic spatial organization: transitivity of chemical connectivity...