UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
The little emperor: Chinese parents’ assessment of their own, their partner’s and their only child’s intelligence - Furnham, A; Wu, C
This study set out to examine whether Chinese parents, more than people from other nations, over-estimate the intelligence of their son (little emperor) compared to their daughter. In this study, 155 pairs of married couples from mainland China estimated their own, their partner’s and their only child’s overall intelligence and 13 “multiple intelligences.” They also completed a short measure of the Big Five personality traits. Replicating previous studies, fathers rated themselves higher than mothers for almost all types of intelligence. Results revealed, however, no parental sex differences in the estimates of children’s multiple intelligences. Both parents attributed higher overall, verbal,...
Personality and voluntary childlessness - Avison, M; Furnham, A
This study examined the association between personality and childbearing motivation, with a focus on voluntary childlessness. 780 adults completed an online survey assessing the Big Five personality traits, the trait of Independence, desire for parenthood, motivations for choosing childlessness and various other socio-demographic characteristics. Compared to parents or those desiring children, childfree respondents scored significantly higher in Independence and significantly lower in Agreeableness and Extraversion. They were also less religious and more politically liberal. For non-parents, level of desire for parenthood was negatively correlated with Independence and positively correlated with Agreeableness and religiosity. The ideal number of children desired was...
Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities at Work - Furnham, A
Few areas of psychology attract as much discussion and debate as the topic of intelligence, more particularly, the use of intelligence tests in selection at work. More academic researchers have been attacked, hounded, sacked, and vilified for what they have written about intelligence than about any other topic. There is also still considerable debate about the role of intelligence testing in the educational settings. However, the science and the practice of intelligence testing remain far apart because of the history of misunderstanding, misapplications, and political differences. It remains difficult, even with supposedly disinterested scientists, to have an evidence-based debate about...
Sex Really Does Sell: The Recall of Sexual and Non-sexual Television Advertisements in Sexual and Non-sexual Programmes - King, J; Furnham, A; Mcclelland, A
The present study examined memory for advertisements as a function of both advertisement content and the contextual programme content. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: in one condition, they watched a sexual programme and in the other a non-sexual programme. Embedded within each programme were the same highly sexual and non-sexual advertisements that had been matched in pairs for five products. Memory for the advertisements and involvement in the programmes was measured. It was found that on three indices (free recall, brand recognition and prompted recall), memory for the sexual advertisements was superior to that for non-sexual...
Are bosses unique? Personality facet differences between ceos and staff in five work sectors - Palaiou, K; Furnham, A
This study compared the Big Five Personality facet scores of 138 CEOs compared with senior managers. The former were significantly less neurotic and had higher extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness scores on both domain and facet scales. The results were then investigated in 5 work functions: engineering, legal, accounting/ finance, human resources, and marketing. Two traits showed very consistent results for all 5 functions: CEOs were less neurotic and more conscientious with Cohen's d values between .30 and .85. Results were also examined at the phenotypic factor level to show a more detailed pattern. These results are consistent with the relatively...
Hay fever in childhood, traits Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as independent predictors of the occurrence of hay fever in adulthood. - Cheng, H; Deighton, J; Wolpert, M; Chapman, BP; Kornilaki, EN; Treglown, L; Furnham, A
The study investigated the associations between social and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood and the occurrence of adulthood hay fever in a longitudinal birth cohort study. A total of 5780 participants with data on parental social class, childhood hay fever up to age 7 years, childhood cognitive ability at age 11 years, educational qualifications at age 33 years, personality traits, occupational levels and adult hay fever (all measured at age 50 years) were included in the study. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that childhood hay fever identified by medical doctors and traits Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness were significantly and independently associated with...
Immersion Calorimetric Study of UV/ozone Processed Nano-PS Fibers - Liu, C; Welch, B; Song, W; Wang, J; Han, Z
Nano- polystyrene (PS) fibers have potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine owning to their highly selective sorption capacity and good biocompatibility. They are not necessarily appropriate substrates for protein adsorption and cell attachment due to their hydrophobic nature. Surface treatments are often required before they can be successfully used in these applications. This paper reports on the surface processing of nano-PS fibers by using a perfusion UVozone reactor. The effect on surface characteristics and immersion enthalpy were investigated. The UV-ozone surface processing introduced oxygen-containing functional groups to the PS fibers, which improved the surface wettability significantly. Chain scission...
Testing time-sensitive influences of weather on street robbery - Tompson, LA; Bowers, KJ
Although the relationship between weather and crime has been extensively investigated over the past century, little consensus has emerged on the directions of the relationships observed and the mechanisms through which weather might exert its influence. This paper advances an argument that the interpretation of weather, and subsequent activities based on that interpretation, leads to spatio-temporal variations in criminal opportunities, and hence crime. Two hypotheses relating to unseasonal weather and effects of weather on discretionary activities are proposed. Negative binomial regression models are used to test these at the 6-hour shift unit of analysis on street robberies in the Strathclyde...
The effectiveness of technology-based strategies to promote engagement with digital interventions: a systematic review protocol. - Alkhaldi, G; Hamilton, FL; Lau, R; Webster, R; Michie, S; Murray, E
Digital interventions provide effective and potentially cost-effective models for improving health outcomes as they deliver health information and services that are widely disseminated, confidential, and can be tailored to needs of the individual user. Digital interventions have been used successfully for health promotion, mental health, and for enabling self-management of long-term conditions. However, their effectiveness is limited by low usage rates, with non-engagement a major challenge. Hence, it is crucial to find effective strategies to increase user engagement with digital interventions.
XPS Characterisation of UV/ozone processed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/halloysite nanofibers - Liu, C; Igielska, M; Welch, B
Poly(lactic-co-glyclic acid) (PLGA) is an important biopolymer that is often used for tissue biology applications. Halloysite (Al2Si2O5(H2O)4) is a double-layered aluminosilicate with a hollow tubular structure which make an ideal carrier for drug delivery applications. The drug release rate could be controlled by coating biopolymers onto the drug-loaded halloysite . To achieve this application, the control of foundamental forces and the resulting molecular interactions between the polystyrene fibers and absorbing species such as protein and cells is important. Surface processing is often required before it can be used successfully used in tissue engineering. This paper reports the effects of UV/O3...
Enhance Cells Ingrowth and Colonization of Collagen-Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds - Liu, C; Tamaddon, M; Wang, J
A well defined and controlled architecture that facilitates cellular infiltration and transport of nutrients and waste products is essential . This paper reports the strategy for fabrication of collagen-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds using a 3D printing technique to achieve a controlled architecture for enhance cells ingrowth. The surface of scaffold was subsequently processed by using a UV/ozone processing route to enhance cells attachment to the scaffolds. The in vitro performance of the scaffold in terms of cells’ viability, migration and proliferation behavior using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) is reported. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of...
On the Enthalpy of nano-polystyrene fibers - Liu, C; Welch, B
This paper reports the effects of UV/ozone treatment on the surface chemistry and structure of electrospun nano-porous PS fibers and on its immersion enthalpy. We have demonstrated that surface processing using a UVO reactor significantly improves the surface wettability and water intake ability owing to the incorporation of oxygen and oxygen-containing functional groups onto the surface.