UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
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EQUIPT: protocol of a comparative effectiveness research study evaluating cross-context transferability of economic evidence on tobacco control. - Pokhrel, S; Evers, S; Leidl, R; Trapero-Bertran, M; Kalo, Z; Vries, HD; Crossfield, A; Andrews, F; Rutter, A; Coyle, K; Lester-George, A; West, R; Owen, L; Jones, T; Vogl, M; Radu-Loghin, C; Voko, Z; Huic, M; Coyle, D
Tobacco smoking claims 700,000 lives every year in Europe and the cost of tobacco smoking in the EU is estimated between €98 and €130 billion annually; direct medical care costs and indirect costs such as workday losses each represent half of this amount. Policymakers all across Europe are in need of bespoke information on the economic and wider returns of investing in evidence-based tobacco control, including smoking cessation agendas. EQUIPT is designed to test the transferability of one such economic evidence base-the English Tobacco Return on Investment (ROI) tool-to other EU member states.
The role of auditory and cognitive factors in understanding speech in noise by normal-hearing older listeners. - Schoof, T; Rosen, S
Normal-hearing older adults often experience increased difficulties understanding speech in noise. In addition, they benefit less from amplitude fluctuations in the masker. These difficulties may be attributed to an age-related auditory temporal processing deficit. However, a decline in cognitive processing likely also plays an important role. This study examined the relative contribution of declines in both auditory and cognitive processing to the speech in noise performance in older adults. Participants included older (60-72 years) and younger (19-29 years) adults with normal hearing. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured for sentences in steady-state speech-shaped noise (SS), 10-Hz sinusoidally amplitude-modulated speech-shaped noise...
Harm to others outweighs harm to self in moral decision making. - Crockett, MJ; Kurth-Nelson, Z; Siegel, JZ; Dayan, P; Dolan, RJ
Concern for the suffering of others is central to moral decision making. How humans evaluate others' suffering, relative to their own suffering, is unknown. We investigated this question by inviting subjects to trade off profits for themselves against pain experienced either by themselves or an anonymous other person. Subjects made choices between different amounts of money and different numbers of painful electric shocks. We independently varied the recipient of the shocks (self vs. other) and whether the choice involved paying to decrease pain or profiting by increasing pain. We built computational models to quantify the relative values subjects ascribed to...
White matter morphometric changes uniquely predict children's reading acquisition. - Myers, CA; Vandermosten, M; Farris, EA; Hancock, R; Gimenez, P; Black, JM; Casto, B; Drahos, M; Tumber, M; Hendren, RL; Hulme, C; Hoeft, F
This study examined whether variations in brain development between kindergarten and Grade 3 predicted individual differences in reading ability at Grade 3. Structural MRI measurements indicated that increases in the volume of two left temporo-parietal white matter clusters are unique predictors of reading outcomes above and beyond family history, socioeconomic status, and cognitive and preliteracy measures at baseline. Using diffusion MRI, we identified the left arcuate fasciculus and superior corona radiata as key fibers within the two clusters. Bias-free regression analyses using regions of interest from prior literature revealed that volume changes in temporo-parietal white matter, together with preliteracy measures,...
Pleiotropic Effects of Cell Wall Amidase LytA on Streptococcus pneumoniae Sensitivity to the Host Immune Response. - Ramos-Sevillano, E; Urzainqui, A; Campuzano, S; Moscoso, M; González-Camacho, F; Domenech, M; Rodríguez de Córdoba, S; Sánchez-Madrid, F; Brown, JS; García, E; Yuste, J
The complement system is a key component of the host immune response for the recognition and clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we demonstrate that the amidase LytA, the main pneumococcal autolysin, inhibits complement-mediated immunity independently of effects on pneumolysin by a complex process of impaired complement activation, increased binding of complement regulators, and direct degradation of complement C3. The use of human sera depleted of either C1q or factor B confirmed that LytA prevented activation of both the classical and alternative pathways, whereas pneumolysin inhibited only the classical pathway. LytA prevented binding of C1q and the acute-phase protein...
Primary stroke prevention in Nigerian children with sickle cell disease (SPIN): Challenges of conducting a feasibility trial. - Galadanci, NA; Abdullahi, SU; Tabari, MA; Abubakar, S; Belonwu, R; Salihu, A; Neville, K; Kirkham, F; Inusa, B; Shyr, Y; Phillips, S; Kassim, AA; Jordan, LC; Aliyu, MH; Covert, BV; DeBaun, MR
The majority of children with sickle cell disease (SCD), approximately 75%, are born in sub-Saharan Africa. For children with elevated transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity, regular blood transfusion therapy for primary stroke prevention is standard care in high income countries, but is not feasible in sub-Saharan Africa.
Evolution of extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a susceptible ancestor in a single patient. - Eldholm, V; Norheim, G; von der Lippe, B; Kinander, W; Dahle, UR; Caugant, DA; Mannsåker, T; Mengshoel, AT; Dyrhol-Riise, AM; Balloux, F
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is characterized by a low mutation rate and a lack of genetic recombination. Yet, the rise of extensively resistant strains paints a picture of a microbe with an impressive adaptive potential. Here we describe the first documented case of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis evolved from a susceptible ancestor within a single patient.
Endogenous adenosine A3 receptor activation selectively alleviates persistent pain states. - Little, JW; Ford, A; Symons-Liguori, AM; Chen, Z; Janes, K; Doyle, T; Xie, J; Luongo, L; Tosh, DK; Maione, S; Bannister, K; Dickenson, AH; Vanderah, TW; Porreca, F; Jacobson, KA; Salvemini, D
Chronic pain is a global burden that promotes disability and unnecessary suffering. To date, efficacious treatment of chronic pain has not been achieved. Thus, new therapeutic targets are needed. Here, we demonstrate that increasing endogenous adenosine levels through selective adenosine kinase inhibition produces powerful analgesic effects in rodent models of experimental neuropathic pain through the A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR, now known as ADORA3) signalling pathway. Similar results were obtained by the administration of a novel and highly selective A3AR agonist. These effects were prevented by blockade of spinal and supraspinal A3AR, lost in A3AR knock-out mice, and independent of opioid...
A neurobiological enquiry into the origins of our experience of the sublime and beautiful. - Ishizu, T; Zeki, S
Philosophies of aesthetics have posited that experience of the sublime-commonly but not exclusively derived from scenes of natural grandeur-is distinct from that of beauty and is a counterpoint to it. We wanted to chart the pattern of brain activity which correlates with the declared intensity of experience of the sublime, and to learn whether it differs from the pattern that correlates with the experience of beauty, reported in our previous studies (e.g., Ishizu and Zeki, 2011). 21 subjects participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Prior to the experiment, they viewed pictures of landscapes, which they rated on a...
Extraocular muscle atrophy and central nervous system involvement in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. - Yu-Wai-Man, C; Smith, FE; Firbank, MJ; Guthrie, G; Guthrie, S; Gorman, GS; Taylor, RW; Turnbull, DM; Griffiths, PG; Blamire, AM; Chinnery, PF; Yu-Wai-Man, P
Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a classical mitochondrial ocular disorder characterised by bilateral progressive ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. These ocular features can develop either in isolation or in association with other prominent neurological deficits (CPEO+). Molecularly, CPEO can be classified into two distinct genetic subgroups depending on whether patients harbour single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions or multiple mtDNA deletions secondary to a nuclear mutation disrupting mtDNA replication or repair. The aim of this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was to investigate whether the ophthalmoplegia in CPEO is primarily myopathic in origin or whether there is evidence of contributory supranuclear...
The OMA orthology database in 2015: function predictions, better plant support, synteny view and other improvements. - Altenhoff, AM; Škunca, N; Glover, N; Train, CM; Sueki, A; Piližota, I; Gori, K; Tomiczek, B; Müller, S; Redestig, H; Gonnet, GH; Dessimoz, C
The Orthologous Matrix (OMA) project is a method and associated database inferring evolutionary relationships amongst currently 1706 complete proteomes (i.e. the protein sequence associated for every protein-coding gene in all genomes). In this update article, we present six major new developments in OMA: (i) a new web interface; (ii) Gene Ontology function predictions as part of the OMA pipeline; (iii) better support for plant genomes and in particular homeologs in the wheat genome; (iv) a new synteny viewer providing the genomic context of orthologs; (v) statically computed hierarchical orthologous groups subsets downloadable in OrthoXML format; and (vi) possibility to export...
Feverish prospects for seizure genetics. - Sisodiya, S
Febrile seizures can arise in response to fevers induced by viral infection or as an adverse reaction to live-virus vaccines such as measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. A new study has now identified common genetic variants influencing susceptibility to febrile seizures, including two loci specifically associated with MMR-related events.