UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
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Improving outcomes in paediatric heart transplantation - Simmonds, JD
For patients with end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation remains the only viable long-term option. During the last fifty years, the procedure has become more successful, and the majority of candidates can now expect to recover and lead relatively normal day-to-day lives. Unfortunately, however, it is not a perfect cure. Daily lifelong immunosuppression is required to protect against rejection, and current drug regimens have substantial side-effects including infection, renal failure and hypertension, all of which further shorten life expectancy. Current post-transplant graft survival is estimated at 15 to 20 years, after which re-transplantation is indicated; with donation rates decreasing, and potential...
The incidence rate over 10 years of naturally occurring, cancer related mutations in the basal core promoter of hepatitis B virus - Wang, XY; Harrison, TJ; Chen, QY; Li, H; Li, GJ; Liu, MH; Hu, LP; Tan, C; Yang, QL; Fang, ZL
Cross-sectional analyses showed that the prevalence of basal core promoter (BCP) double mutations (nt 1762T, 1764A) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) gradually increases with age. We aimed to determine the incidence rate of the mutations over 10 years. Study subjects were selected from the Long An cohort established in 2004, including 59 with HBV with single mutations at nt 1762 or 1764 in the BCP and 342 with wild type BCP sequences at baseline. Their serum samples for analysis were obtained at the 3rd and 10th annual visits, respectively. The results showed that the annual incidence rate of BCP double...
Should the symptomatic region be included in dissemination in space in MRI criteria for MS? - Brownlee, WJ; Swanton, JK; Miszkiel, KA; Miller, DH; Ciccarelli, O
Objectives: To investigate whether inclusion of lesions in the symptomatic region influences the performance of dissemination in space (DIS) criteria for a diagnosis of clinically-definite MS (CDMS) in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). / Methods: We studied 30 CIS patients with brainstem/cerebellar and spinal cord syndromes who had MRI scans at the time of CIS and were followed up for the development of CDMS. We retrospectively applied the McDonald 2010 DIS criteria (excluding all lesions in the symptomatic region) to baseline MRI scans and two modified DIS criteria: (1) the inclusion of asymptomatic lesions in the symptomatic region...
Exploring the interplay between human and machine annotated multimodal learning analytics in hands-on STEM Activities - Spikol, D; Avramides, K; Cukurova, M; Vogel, B; Luckin, R; Mavrikis, M; Ruffaldi, E
This poster explores how to develop a working framework for STEM education that uses both human annotated and machine data across a purpose-built learning environment. Our dual approach is to develop a robust framework for analysis and investigate how to design a learning analytics system to support hands-on engineering design tasks. Data from the first user tests are presented along with the framework for discussion.
The View from The Blimp - Urban Image and the Telegenic Iconography of Sports Venues - Clarke, Paul Walker
Architecture_MPS is the academic journal of the research group AMPS (Architecture, Media, Politics, Society). It addresses the growing interest in the social and political interpretation of the built environment from a multi-disciplinary perspective. It engages with architecture, urbanism, planning, sociology, economics, cultural studies, visual culture, new medias and technologies. It draws on experts who bring emerging issues of international importance to the reader. Its publications are linked with a wide range of research programmes and conferences to further raise awareness of the social importance of architecture.
Ethics, Emotion, and Aesthetics: Architecture After the Crisis of Modern Science - Pérez Gómez, Alberto
Alberto Pérez Gómez first came to prominence as an architectural theorist and historian with his 1983 publication, Architecture and the Crisis of Modern Science; a book that won the Alice Davis Hitchcock Award for distinguished scholarship in architectural history the following year. Having established himself as one of the architecture world's leading thinkers and most original historical theorists, he offered a book that completely broke all norms of either academic or architectural discourse; his 1992 treatise Polyphilo, or, The Dark Forest Revisited: An Erotic Epiphany of Architecture. The author and editor of numerous publications since, in 2007 he coauthored Towards...
The City as a Laboratory of Shadows: Exposing Secret Histories While Thinking of the Future. - MacDonald, Robert G
This paper lays out a particular way of 'seeing' or looking at cities – one that allows us to see beneath the physical surface of buildings and infrastructure and which thus opens the door to considering the 'shadows' of a city as a source of inspiration. In these shadows, it suggests, we can see the city as a 'laboratory of ideas.' Specifically, the paper examines the city of Liverpool but its themes are applicable worldwide. It aims to expose Liverpool's 'poetic' qualities and suggests that those best placed to understand it, and guide its development, may not be architects or...
On the "Falsation" of Deceitful Architectures - Miranda, Antonio
Professor Antonio Miranda Regojo-Borges is a polymath; an architectural critic whose knowledge base covers centuries, reaches across disciplines and informs his polemic thoughts. He writes quixotic and "antiquarian" prose - in the style of Wollflin's principles of art history, Kant's theories on taste, and William Gilpin's Eighteenth Century tour journals. In its enumerative tendencies, it is reminiscent of the analytical theorists Edmund Burke, whilst in its examination of architecture in the cultural industry context it reminds us of Theodore Adorno. At times ironic, at times bombastic, and at times mocking, his writing style will alienate as many as it enthuses....
Hidden Power and Built Form: The Politics Behind the Architecture - Chomsky, Noam; Cairns, Graham
Emeritus Professor in the Department of Linguistics & Philosophy at MIT, Avram Noam Chomsky is amongst the world's most cited living scholars. Lauded as the 'father' of modern linguistics and instigator of the 'cognitive revolution' he was voted the "world's top public intellectual" in 2005. He is, however, best known, and at his most controversial, in the fields of political criticism and activism. Perhaps the most prolific author alive today he has engaged with issues ranging from the Vietnam War, US policy in South and Central America, what he calls the 'US-Palestinian-Israeli problem', the Spanish Civil War and the Indonesian...
No Longer and Not Yet - Hollis, Edward
The forest of Kilmahew, around twenty miles west of Glasgow, conceals an architectural cautionary tale. In the 1960's, the landscape was radically transformed by a building. St Peter's seminary was built to house around a hundred catholic novices. Its plan and section, the work of the architects Gillespie Kidd and Coia, were a rigorous statement of the modernist maxim that form follows function. But within a decade, there were not enough priests to fill it; and St Peter's became a form without a function. That was 1987, and since then it has resisted numerous attempts to provide it with a...
Identity and Conflict: Cultural Heritage, Reconstruction and National Identity in Kosovo - Morel, Anne-Françoise
The year 1989 marked the six hundredth anniversary of the defeat of the Christian Prince of Serbia, Lazard I, at the hands of the Ottoman Empire in the "Valley of the Blackbirds," Kosovo. On June 28, 1989, the very day of the battle's anniversary, thousands of Serbs gathered on the presumed historic battle field bearing nationalistic symbols and honoring the Serbian martyrs buried in Orthodox churches across the territory. They were there to hear a speech delivered by Slobodan Milosevic in which the thenpresident of the Socialist Republic of Serbia revived Lazard's mythic battle and martyrdom. It was a symbolic...
Driving on the Left: Sorkin's View of the Street, the City and architecture - Sorkin, Michael
Sardonic, cutting, insightful, provocative: Michael Sorkin is one of today's most radical architectural commentators with a staunch leaning to the political left and a literary bent for framing painful truths in ironic, and sometimes hilarious, verse. However, he should not be dismissed as a radical, isolated, or lone and unhindered voice however. He is a Distinguished Professor of Architecture and Director of the Graduate Program in Urban Design at the City College of New York, and he has been Professor of Urbanism and Director of the Institute of Urbanism at the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna. In addition, he has...
Branding Stratford: Social Representation and the Re-making of Place - Desiderio, Antonio
As part of the societal world, architecture and urban space do not have any 'objective' quality. They are representations. Their meaning is produced through the negotiation and interaction of individuals, groups and classes. Yet, such 'subjective' meanings do have a 'material' relevance, as they reflect a dialectical process between the functions, forms, ownership and practices of space. They reveal construal and construction: the way in which architectural spaces are represented on the one hand, and the way in which they are physically constructed and used on the other. Nowhere does this become more evident in our current society than in...
Ground Zero – the socio-political minefield of symbolic architecture - Libeskind, Daniel
Daniel Libeskind is today one of the architecture profession's media elite. He took up his position in the list of 'super star architects' twenty ago and has remained in the spotlight of the press ever since. He has projects across the globe and has been awarded prizes by Time Magazine, The Goethe Institute, the American Institute of Architects and the RIBA. He was also appointed the first Cultural Ambassador for Architecture by the State Department of the United States in 2004. He has been both critically lauded and sardonically ridiculed. Tom Dyckhoff of the London Times refers to him as...
Emancipating the Image: The Beijing Olympics, Regeneration, and the Power of Performance - Barker, Carol Mei
In The Practice of Everyday Life, Michel de Certeau gazes down upon New York City from the 110th floor of the World Trade Centre and sees the island of Manhattan as an image. In particular, he witnesses the famous Manhattan skyline as a powerful 'image-text' containing a multiplicity of meanings, interpretations, and symbols. Considering the possibilities of the city as visual simulacrum he asks: "[i]s the immense texturology spread out before one's eyes anything more than a representation; an optical artefact?" Twenty or so years after De Certeau wandered the streets of New York and pondered its pictorial power, such...
Politics and Society - Frampton, Kenneth
Over a fifty year career as an architectural critic and historian Kenneth Frampton has consistently defended the Modernist agenda of the Twentieth Century. However, he has also been fiercely critical of its failings and shortcomings. He has taught at the world's most prestigious institutions, produced a body of work that can be defined as kaleidoscopic and has written texts which have become part of the canon of architectural history and theory. His encyclopedic Modern Architecture: a Critical History, is in its fourth edition and still remains a bedrock text for our understanding of the Modern Movement more than twenty years...
Mythopoetics of the Kunsthalle - Shvartzberg, Manuel
In the midst of an architectural landscape replete with empty discourses on technology, environmentalism, and fetishistic spectacles, is there space for an architecture that holds on to the idealistic values of modernity? Is there space for an architecture that has not succumbed to the flattening logic of the market, indistinctly banalizing space either as utilitarian infrastructure or as propagandistic theme park? In other words, is it still possible to construct an architecture underpinned by what we might call 'humanist' values: universality, egalitarianism, and civility – a civic architecture – in the face of a post-humanist critique? Can 'the civic' be...
Architecture as Political Image: The Perspective of Advertising - Cairns, Graham
In the realm of contemporary politics, the need to “communicate” is paramount. Some call political communication a process of manipulation, others a dark art of depict. Here, it will be examined as a form of promotion; as a form of advertising. However, it is an advertising typology that clearly appropriates architecture to its own persuasive ends.
The world of advertising has been subject to numerous developments throughout the course of its history. In the last three decades this has seen what had become the standard mode of visual communication, semiotics, replaced by divergent and ever more sophisticated systems. These systems, we...
Effect of blood transfusion on intestinal blood flow and oxygenation in extremely preterm infants during first week of life - Banerjee, J; Leung, TS; Aladangady, N
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants receive frequent blood transfusions in the first week of life. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of blood transfusion on intestinal blood flow and oxygenation during the first week of life in extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) and diastolic velocities were measured 30 to 60 minutes before and after transfusion. Splanchnic tissue hemoglobin index (sTHI), splanchnic tissue oxygenation index (sTOI), and splanchnic fractional tissue oxygen extraction (sFTOE) were measured continuously from 15 to 20 minutes before to after transfusion along with vital...