UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
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A tool-kit for in-process determination and control of structural and conformational authenticity of complex biopharmaceuticals. - Reid, E.C.T.Q.
The work presented here focuses on a Chinese hamster ovary cell line producing monoclonal IgG. A key challenge in the production of mAbs is to produce a consistent glycoform profile between batches, since glycosylation can impact efficacy. This work examines the effect of time of harvest and means of cell removal on the molecular structure of recombinant IgG. The glycosylation status of IgG was compared at different stages of fermentation through analysis of intact mAb using liquid-chromatography-electrospray-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry. Heterogeneity in glycosylation patterns, as well as C-terminal lysine and N- terminal glutamine residues, could be seen in all samples and an increase...
A praxeological approach to Dogon material culture. - Douny, L.
Grounded in long-term fieldwork, this thesis develops an ethnography of two aspects of Dogon material culture: the Dogon landscape and the Dogon habitation, both of which are defined as containers. The examination of these two discrete metaphorical and material epistemologies, which are conceptualised as 'skin envelopes', seeks implicit forms of worldviews that are objectified in their materiality. In other words, the research focuses on the expressions of a daily generative cosmology as it is grounded in pragmatic, material and routine embodied activities that relate to the 'making' and 'doing' of these two forms of container. Framed within an Anthropology of...
A sketching-oriented design method for information visualization software. - Craft, B.R.
The aim of this research is to describe a useful approach for supporting creativity and problem-solving in the design of Information Visualization software. This type of software is useful for helping people to understand large or complex collections of data by making the data easier to see and use. Because it can be so helpful, many people are motivated to create visualization software to address their own unique problems of understanding data. However, the techniques which visualizations use to enhance cognition of data are not widely known. Also, there are currently few resources which comprehensively describe a method for designing...
A single-system signal-detection theory of repetition priming and recognition memory. - Berry, C.J.
A dominant view in current memory research is that there are distinct implicit (unconscious) and explicit (conscious) memory systems. The present thesis proposes an alternative, single-system signal-detection model of priming (a traditional implicit memory phenomenon) and recognition (a traditional explicit memory phenomenon). The model has two core assumptions: 1) priming and recognition are driven by the same memory strength signal, and 2) this signal is subjected to independent sources of random noise for priming and recognition tasks (the variance of which is typically greater for priming tasks). The model is shown to account for numerous results: 1) the sensitivity of...
A high-accuracy synthetic H2O line list: Computation and applications. - Barber, R.J.
The subject matter of this Ph.D. thesis is the production and application of the Barber-Tennyson line list, BT2, a computed list of H2160 transition frequencies and intensities. BT2 was produced using a discrete variable representation two-step approach for solving the rotation-vibration nuclear motions (Tennyson et al., 2004, Comp. Phys. Comm., 163, 85). It is the most complete water line list in existence, comprising over 500 million transitions ( 65% more than any other list) and it is also the most accurate (over 90% of all known experimental energy levels are within 0.3 cm-1 of the BT2 values). Its accuracy has...
A practice-centred approach to Uneapa Island's archaeology in a long-term context. - Byrne, S.E.
Recent archaeological research on Uneapa Island, West New Britain, Papua New Guinea has uncovered a rich and varied archaeological landscape, unique within the surrounding region. Locales range from single stones to large-scale complexes of over three hundred arranged stone features. 'Seats' and tables', stone mortars, cooking places, grinding stones and carved boulders have been found in various contexts and locations throughout the island. Uneapa islanders are divided in their attitude to these features, opinions range from expressions of indifference to passionate engagement and specialist knowledge. Most locales are remembered as being clan meeting places (lupuanga mudina (U)), used up to...
Advancing Migrant Access to Health Services in Europe (AMASE): Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study - Fakoya, I; Álvarez-Del Arco, D; Monge, S; Copas, AJ; Gennotte, AF; Volny-Anne, A; Göpel, S; Touloumi, G; Prins, M; Barros, H; Staehelin, C; Del Amo, J; Burns, FM
BACKGROUND: Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. OBJECTIVE: We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. METHODS: We delivered...
UNCOVERING THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE VULNERABLE SUBJECT AND
CORRELATED STATE DUTIES UNDER LIBERALISM - Furusho, Carolina Yoko
Vulnerability is an emerging notion that has contributed to refine judgments made
by regional human rights courts and thereby increase State accountability. Similarly, recent
developments in the vulnerability theory pose interesting challenges to the core premises
underlying liberalism and especially the notion of legal subjectivity, an arguably inaccurate
portrayal of the real-life individual. Moreover, the vulnerability theory suggests a promising
intertwining with the theoretical framework underpinning human rights. In this paper, I
advocate for a paradigm shift from the traditional legal subject to the vulnerable subject in the
liberal human rights order. To support my case, I argue that vulnerability’s ethical-normative
implications for the realm of human rights...
MEMBER PARTICIPATION IN THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT SYSTEM:
CAN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AFFORD NOT TO PARTICIPATE? - Sandhu, Navneet
Reflections on the progress of the WTO over the last two decades highlights low
developing country participation in its dispute settlement system as a fundamental failing of
the multinational trading system. Recurrently, this low participation rate has been attributed to
the cost of the WTO’s legalistic model in Panel and Appellate Body proceedings, creating a
concern of bias. Yet, by focussing on the inherent costs of the system, critics ignore the real
ways in which developing countries can and have used the WTO dispute settlement system to
offset the costs. Therefore, this article argues that developing countries are more disadvantaged
in their lack of internal capacity to...
THE CRIMINAL ENFORCEMENT OF ANTITRUST LAW – THE IMPORTANCE
OF BUILDING AN ENFORCEMENT CULTURE AND HOW TO CREATE IT - O’Loughlin, Peter
There has been a proliferation of jurisdictions across the world seeking to use
criminal sanctions to deter and punish cartels and many have enacted laws that criminalise this
type of anticompetitive behaviour. However, other jurisdictions have failed to replicate the
enviable success of the US. Reports to the OECD suggest that they have encountered
difficulties ranging from procedural to legal, but also disincentives on the part of key players
– like judges, the general public, prosecutors, and government – in the actual enforcement of
such a regime. These experiences intimate that some of these jurisdictions – awestruck by the
accomplishments of the US – have not developed...
REMOTENESS OF DAMAGE IN CONTRACT AND ITS FUNCTIONAL
EQUIVALENTS: A CRITICAL ECONOMIC APPROACH - Paziuc, Cristian
Hadley v Baxendale remoteness is generally regarded favourably in the law and
economics literature. Orthodox theory views remoteness as an efficient rule, although its
purported efficiency virtues vary. Most economic models portray remoteness as an information
disclosure device which bridges information asymmetry and regulates rates of contracting,
precautions against breach and even reliance by promisees. Yet the assumptions of economic
models are denied by the content that courts attribute to the doctrine. This paper suggests that
remoteness is an inefficient rule which entails certain costs, particularly through its impact on
performance/breach decisions, but only uncertain and modest efficiency gains. It is argued that
a more efficient default rule...
Oil and Gas Development in Disputed - Yiallourides, Constantinos
Maritime delimitation is crucial in determining which coastal States may exercise
control and jurisdiction over certain hydrocarbon deposits. Although international law has
recently become more precise on the matter, boundary disputes are frequently resolved only
after several or even many years. Even while coastal States are in a deadlock over delimitation
issues, the need to explore and exploit the disputed areas’ resources remains imperative for
reasons of energy security, social welfare and economic development. Thus, the question arises
as to the rights and obligations of coastal States with respect to the development of natural
resources in areas subject to overlapping claims.
FORMALISM VERSUS REALISM: THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
AND THE CRITICAL DATE FOR ASSESSING JURISDICTION - West, Daniel
The 2011 judgment in Georgia v Russian Federation represents an apparent
watershed in the approach of the International Court of Justice in ascertaining the critical date
for assessing jurisdiction. With few historic exceptions, the Court had previously applied a
doctrine of realism that allowed for the resolution of procedural defects between the date of
seisin and the Court’s decision on jurisdiction. In Georgia however, the Court applied a
formalistic approach that assessed competence solely by reference to the date on which the
application was filed, and accordingly declined jurisdiction. This vacillating approach to the
critical date is an example of how the Court exercises interpretative discretion to...
Peptidylarginine Deiminases as Drug Targets in Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy - Lange, S
Oxygen deprivation and infection are major causes of perinatal brain injury leading to cerebral palsy and other neurological disabilities. The identification of novel key factors mediating white and gray matter damage are crucial to allow better understanding of the specific contribution of different cell types to the injury processes and pathways for clinical intervention. Recent studies in the Rice–Vannucci mouse model of neonatal hypoxic ischemia (HI) have highlighted novel roles for calcium-regulated peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) and demonstrated neuroprotective effects of pharmacological PAD inhibition following HI and synergistic infection mimicked by lipopolysaccharide stimulation.
IT’S A HARD KNOCK LIFE: A CRITIQUE OF THE LEGISLATIVE RESPONSE TO THE ORPHAN WORKS PROBLEM IN THE UK - Baker, Kyrsten Elena
This article serves to identify the flaws in the three-pronged solution to the orphan
works problem implemented in the UK. It concurrently questions the compatibility of the UK’s
approach with the objectives sought to be achieved by the legislation; namely to ensure legal
certainty with respect to the use of orphan works, to facilitate cross-border access to orphan
works, to facilitate mass digitisation projects and to ensure that authors’ moral rights remain
respected and protected. In addressing these issues, the article seeks to highlight aspects of the
UK solution which could be amended in order to ensure that copyright law remains relevant
and workable in the digital...
Mechanistic insights into the Cu(I) oxide-catalyzed conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals: A DFT approach - Mishra, AK; de Leeuw, NH
Periodic, self-consistent, density functional theory calculations with corrections via a Hubbard U parameter, and inclusion of dispersive forces (DFT-D2), have been employed to study CO2 activation and conversion on the Cu2O (1 1 1) surface. CO2 hydrogenation on the Cu2O (1 1 1) surface was investigated systematically, and the respective microscopic reaction mechanisms were elucidated. We show that, whereas CO2 dissociation is not energetically allowed on the Cu2O (1 1 1) surface, CO2 hydrogenation to a formate intermediate is more favourable than the formation of a carboxyl intermediate. Further hydrogenation from formate to formic acid is energetically allowed, where formate...
All about size? – The potential of downsizing in reducing energy demand - Huebner, GM; Shipworth, D
Residential energy consumption is one of the main contributors to CO2 emissions in the UK. One strategy aimed at reducing emissions is to increase retrofitting rates of buildings. In this paper, an alternative approach is discussed and its potential impact on energy use assessed, that of downsizing (moving to smaller homes).
Reviews of previous research show that a wide range of what can be termed psychological barriers exist to downsizing, such as the loss of ownership and independence, concern about what to do with possessions, not having enough space for visitors, and attachment to one’s home. Benefits of downsizing from a...
Comparison of three-dimensional analysis and stereological techniques for quantifying lithium-ion battery electrode microstructures - Taiwo, OO; Finegan, DP; Eastwood, DS; Fife, JL; Brown, LD; Darr, JA; Lee, PD; Brett, DJ; Shearing, PR
Lithium-ion battery performance is intrinsically linked to electrode microstructure. Quantitative measurement of key structural parameters of lithium-ion battery electrode microstructures will enable optimization as well as motivate systematic numerical studies for the improvement of battery performance. With the rapid development of 3-D imaging techniques, quantitative assessment of 3-D microstructures from 2-D image sections by stereological methods appears outmoded; however, in spite of the proliferation of tomographic imaging techniques, it remains significantly easier to obtain two-dimensional (2-D) data sets. In this study, stereological prediction and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis techniques for quantitative assessment of key geometric parameters for characterizing battery electrode microstructures...
Modeling Cryotherapy Ice Ball Dimensions and Isotherms in a Novel Gel-based Model to Determine Optimal Cryo-needle Configurations and Settings for Potential Use in Clinical Practice - Shah, TT; Arbel, U; Foss, S; Zachman, A; Rodney, S; Ahmed, HU; Arya, M
OBJECTIVE: To gain a better understanding of ice ball dimensions and temperature isotherms relevant for cell kill when using combinations of cryo-needles we set out to answer 4 questions: (1) what type of cryo-needle? (2) how many needles? (3) best spatial configuration? and (4) correct duty cycle percentage? METHODS: We conducted laboratory experiments to monitor ice ball dimensions and create multi-needle planar isotherm maps for 17G and 10G cryo-needles using a novel multi-needle thermocouple fixture within gel at body temperature. We tested configurations of 1-4 cryo-needles at duty cycles of 20%-100% with 1-2.5 cm spacing. RESULTS: Analysis of various combinations shows...
Neutrino oscillations with MINOS and MINOS+ - Whitehead, LH
The MINOS experiment ran from 2003 until 2012 and collected a data sample including 10.71 × 1020
protons-on-target (POT) of beam neutrinos, 3.36 × 1020 POT of beam antineutrinos and an atmospheric
neutrino exposure of 37.88 kt yrs. The final measurement of the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters,
32 and θ23, came from a full three flavour oscillation analysis of the combined CC νμ and CC νμ
beam and atmospheric samples and the CC νe and CC νe appearance samples. This analysis yielded the
most precise measurement of the atmospheric mass splitting m2
32 performed to date. The results are
32| = [2.28–2.46] × 10−3 eV2 (68%) and...