UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
Mostrando recursos 61 - 80 de 354,437
Allergens, germs and asthma - Scadding, GK
To explore asthma pathogenesis using data from upper and lower airways.
English-language papers on human asthma and nasal polyp subjects from 1990 onwards.
High-quality studies in established journals.
The recognition of its inflammatory nature led to a quantum leap in the understanding and treatment of asthma, with lives saved by inhaled corticosteroids. Further work at genetic, molecular, histological and clinical levels has shown that asthma is polymorphic and rarely involves isolated Th2 bronchial inflammation.
Viral infections may act as an initiating event in children and adults, showing synergy with atopy. Chronic staphylococcal colonization of the mucosa may act as a promoter, as...
How I treat thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome - Scully, M; Goodship, T
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) are acute, rare life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathies that require rapid diagnosis and treatment. They are defined by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia, with renal involvement primarily in aHUS and neurological and cardiological sequelae in TTP. Prompt treatment for most cases of both conditions is with plasma exchange initially and monoclonal therapy (rituximab in TTP and eculizumab in aHUS) as the mainstay of therapy. Here we discuss the diagnosis and therapy for both disorders.
A Multi-Phase Anglo-Saxon Site in Ewelme - Brookes, SJ; Mileson, S
New evidence is presented for a middle Anglo-Saxon ‘productive’ site on hilly ground north-west of Ewelme in south Oxfordshire. Coins and other finds from metal-detecting activity suggest the existence of an eighth- to ninth-century meeting or trading point located close to the Icknield Way. Th is place takes on an added significance because of its proximity to an early Anglo-Saxon cemetery and probably a late Anglo-Saxon meeting place. Th e authors provide an initial assessment of the site, its likely chronological development and its relationship with wider Anglo-Saxon activity in the upper Thames region and beyond. Some suggestions are made...
Understanding cervical screening non-attendance among ethnic minority women in England - Marlow, L; Wardle, J; Waller, J
Background: Women from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds are less likely to attend cervical screening than White British women. This study explored socio-demographic and attitudinal correlates of cervical screening non-attendance among BAME women.
Methods: Women (30-60 years) were recruited from Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African and White-British backgrounds (n=720). Participants completed structured interviews.
Results: BAME women were more likely to be non-attenders than white British women, (44%-71% vs. 12%) and fell into two groups: the disengaged and the overdue. Migrating to the UK, speaking a language other than English and low education level were associated with being disengaged. Being overdue...
Teaching and learning in the tropics: An epistemic exploration of ‘the field’ in a development studies fieldtrip - Patel, K
Development studies, with its focus on the human condition in the global south, employs theories, analytical tools and teaching methods often found in geography, including the international fieldtrip which is taken to a ‘developing’ country. In 2013 and 2014 I led a two-week trip to Ethiopia with 60-70 students on a UK masters programme. In 2013, a worrying yet fascinating conversation with a student (recounted below), prompted me to reflect on epistemologies of ‘the field’ in international fieldtrips (especially to countries normatised as ‘developing’), particularly the expectation among students and instructors that ‘the field’ is a place of difference punctuated...
Hydrazine network on Cu(111) surface: A Density Functional Theory approach - Tafreshi, SS; Roldan, A; de Leeuw, NH
We have used first-principles calculations, including a correction for the dispersive forces (DFT-D2), to investigate the arrangement of hydrazine (N2H4) molecules upon adsorption on the Cu(111) surface, showing that surface–molecule interactions affect the process most. Our calculations provide insight into the interplay between lateral adsorbate–adsorbate and vertical adsorbate–substrate interactions. We found that the main contributors to the assembly of the hydrazine layers are the binding interactions between the adsorbates and the substrate. The dispersion forces are predominant in both vertical and lateral interactions, whereas hydrogen-bonding is least important and organisation of the N2H4 monolayers is therefore primarily due to the...
A multi-Gaussian model for apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis of Wilms' tumour subtype and response to chemotherapy. - Hales, PW; Olsen, ØE; Sebire, NJ; Pritchard-Jones, K; Clark, CA
Wilms' tumours (WTs) are large heterogeneous tumours, which typically consist of a mixture of histological cell types, together with regions of chemotherapy-induced regressive change and necrosis. The predominant cell type in a WT is assessed histologically following nephrectomy, and used to assess the tumour subtype and potential risk. The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model to identify subregions within WTs with distinct cellular environments in vivo, determined using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). We recorded the WT subtype from the histopathology of 32 tumours resected in patients who received DWI prior to...
Supporting Research in Area Studies: a guide for academic libraries - Pitman, L
The study of other countries or regions of the world often crosses traditional disciplinary boundaries in the humanities and social sciences. Supporting Research in Area Studies is a comprehensive guide for academic libraries supporting these communities of researchers. This book explores the specialist requirements of these researchers in information resources, resource discovery tools, and information skills, and the challenges of working with materials in multiple languages. It makes the case that by adapting their systems and procedures to meet these needs, academic libraries find themselves better placed to support their institution's international agenda more widely. The first four chapters cover...
The Quistclose Doctrine: Resurrection of the Primary Trust? - Liew, YK; Low, WT
The recent decision of the Federal Court of Malaysia in PECD Bhd (in liquidation) v Amtrustee Bhd  1 MLJ 91 was unusual in that it followed and applied the primary-secondary trust analysis of Lord Wilberforce in Barclays Bank Ltd v Quistclose Investments Ltd  AC 567 (HL) as the proper legal basis of the Quitsclose trust in Malaysia. A careful inspection, however, reveals that the decision reflects a distortion and misapplication of the Quistclose doctrine which gives rise to considerable concern.
Considering Harm and Safety in Youth Mental Health: A Call for Attention and Action - Wolpert, M; Deighton, J; Fleming, I; Lachman, P
The possibility of harm from mental health provision, and in particular harm from youth mental health provision, has been largely overlooked. We contend that if we continue to assume youth mental health services can do no harm, and all that is needed is more services, we continue to risk the possibility that the safety of children and young people is unintentionally compromised. We propose a three level framework for considering harm from youth mental health provision (1. ineffective engagement, 2. ineffective practice and 3. adverse events) and suggest how this framework could be used to support quality improvement in services.
Brain weight in sudden unexpected death in infancy: experience from a large single centre cohort - Bamber, AR; Paine, SML; Ridout, DA; Pryce, JW; Jacques, TS; Sebire, NJ
Published reports of brain weight in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are contradictory, though several have concluded that brain weight is increased in SIDS compared to controls or reference data. This is important since, if brain weight is significantly different, it may be of diagnostic use or provide insights into the aetiology of SIDS. The aim of this study is to use a large series of well-characterised sudden unexpected infant deaths from a single centre to provide definitive data regarding this issue.
A retrospective review identified 1,100 infants who had died suddenly and undergone a comprehensive autopsy at Great Ormond Street...
Genetic heterogeneity for SMARCB1, H3F3A and BRAF in a malignant childhood brain tumour: genetic-pathological correlation - Angelini, P; Chalker, J; Austin, N; Hing, S; Paine, S; Mankad, K; Hargrave, D; Jacques, TS
Intra-tumour heterogeneity is an important diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic challenge.
Its extent and mechanism in brain tumours is incompletely understood. We describe a
malignant tumour with unique pathological and genetic features. Most notably the tumour
contained mutations in the SMARCB1 gene (typically associated with Atypical
Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumours), the H3F3A gene (typically associated with high grade glioma
in children) and the BRAF gene. Furthermore, there was marked heterogeneity in mutation
load between different parts of the tumour. This heterogeneity has implications both for the
evolution of the tumour and for its diagnosis.
A System Complexity Approach
to Swarm Electrification - Groh, S.; Koepke, M.
The study investigates a bottom-up concept for microgrids. Financial analysis is performed through a business
model approach to test for viability when replacing a researched energy expenditure baseline in Bangladesh. A
literature review compares the approach to current trends in microgrids. A case study of Bangladesh illustrates the
potential for building on the existing infrastructure base of solar home systems. Opportunities are identified to improve
access to reliable energy through a microgrid approach that aims at community-driven economic and infrastructure
development by building on network effects generated through the inclusion of localized economies with strong
producer-consumer linkages embedded within larger systems of trade and exchange. The...
Off-Grid Electrification and its Impacts
on the Waste Management System
– the Case of Bangladesh - Batteiger, A.
By the end of 2010 more than 1.6 billion people lacked access to modern energy services. To overcome this situation
the United Nations started the “sustainable energy for all initiative” with the objective to provide access to modern
energy services for all until 2030. Especially for off-grid areas in the least developed countries decentralized systems
based on renewable energies and in particular solar energy are seen as the most promising solution for electrification.
Lack of access to modern energy services goes in general along with a lack of a proper waste management system
for the expected future waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The main...
Legacies of a Past Modernism
Discourses of Development and the Shaping
of Centralized Electricity Infastructures in
Late- and Postcolonial Tanzania - van der Straeten, J.
As the UN has declared the years 2014-2024 the “Decade of Sustainable Energy for All”, countries in Sub-Saharan
Africa struggle with the transition towards more sustainable and more inclusive energy infrastructures. In many rural
areas, electrification rates remain as low as 1-2%. For many countries, one of the main barriers for rural electrification
is the legacy of a model of top-down planning, large-scale power generation and a centralized topology of the
electricity infrastructure. Nonetheless, historiography on electricity infrastructures in Africa is nearly non-existent. At
the example of Tanzania this paper shows, that the centralized power models which dominate the continent today
were shaped by modernization and...
An Interdisciplinary Approach for the
Assessment and Implementation of Resilient
and Flexible Water Supply Infrastructure
under Changing or Instable Conditions - Walter, W.K.; Günthert, F.W.
In case of demographic changes or emergencies pipeline bound infrastructure like gas or water is specifically challenged.
Then, the advantages of decentralized infrastructure should be considered: Minimization of asset bound funds; flexibility;
resilience; response capacity. A research project at the Federal Armed Forces University together with the Brazilian utility
company COPASA, the process engineering company Grünbeck and the ICT company Phönix focused on: A procedure
for successful decentralized water infrastructure implementation; a new operation scheme; related pilot tests. To describe
the local situation the Open System of Boundaries is created comprising 13 interdisciplinary groups and 68 subgroups.
To describe water supply systems the Open System of...
Improving Engineering Governance
for Large Infrastructure Projects - Scott, W.; Arabian, G.; Campbell, P.; Fullalove, R.
The increased complexity of modern infrastructure projects together with the desire of governments to provide
improved services to their citizens gives rise to the need for much better engineering governance capability and the
ability to model system and user behaviour to ensure the desired increased level of service. Modelling all aspects of
planned systems through the use of standardised architecture framework models that can be developed to provide the
necessary insight across all aspects and levels of concern for the system(s) is an excellent approach for achieving this.
This paper describes the initial phase of development of such a toolset for the Asset Standards Authority...
Emergence of District-Heating
Networks; Barriers and Enablers
in the Development Process - Busch, J.; Bale, C.S.E.; Knoeri, C.; Roelich, K.
Infrastructure provision business models that promise resource efficiencies and additional benefits, such as job
creation, community cohesion and crime reduction exist at sub-national scales. These local business models,
however, exist only as isolated cases of good practice and their expansion and wider adoption has been limited in
the context of many centralised systems that are currently the norm. In this contribution, we present a conceptual
agent based model for analysing the potential for different actors to implement local infrastructure provision business
models. The model is based on agents’ ability to overcome barriers that occur throughout the development (i.e.
feasibility, business case, procurement, and construction), and operation...