Overington, DWU; Jeffery, KJ
Jeffery, KJ; Page, HJ; Stringer, SM
Maintaining a sense of direction requires combining information from static environmental landmarks with dynamic information about self-motion. This is accomplished by the head direction system, whose neurons - head direction cells - encode specific head directions. When the brain integrates information in sensory domains, this process is almost always 'optimal' - that is, inputs are weighted according to their reliability. Evidence suggests cue combination by head direction cells may also be optimal. The simplicity of the head direction signal, together with the detailed knowledge we have about the anatomy and physiology of the underlying circuit, therefore makes this system a...
Moulton, V; Flouri, E; Joshi, H; Sullivan, A
Often young children already have some ideas about what they want to do in the future. Using data from a large UK cohort study, we investigated the individual determinants of seven-year-old children’s aspirations, controlling for parental socio-economic background and parental involvement in learning. At age 7, not all children’s aspirations were unrealistic (55.6% of children aspired to common occupations), few (1.2%) were fantasy, but most were gender-typical. White children had lower occupational aspirations and were more likely to have uncertain future orientations than other ethnic groups. The antecedents of fantasy aspirations, more typical of younger children, were difficult temperament and...
This article considers the history of Swedish attitudes towards Baltic independence in the period in the so-called short 20th century (1914-1991), focusing primarily on the years when Baltic independence was gained (1918-1920) and regained (1989-1991). The former period was characterized by Swedish skepticism towards the ability of the Baltic states to retain their independence long-term, explainable by the Swedish political elites’ conviction that the weakening of Russia in the First World War had been temporary and that Russia, due to its “natural” geostrategic interests in the Baltic region, would reconquer its lost territories with the exception of Finland. For this...
Cowlishaw, GC; Douglas, CMS; Mulligan, M; Harrison, XA; Henschel, JR; Pettorelli, N
Ephemeral rivers act as linear oases in drylands providing key resources to people and wildlife.
However not much is known about these rivers’ sensitivities to human activities. We investigated
the landscape-level determinants of riparian tree dieback along the Swakop River, a dammed
ephemeral river in Namibia, focusing on the native ana tree (Faidherbia albida) and the invasive
mesquite (Prosopis spp.). We surveyed over 1,900 individual trees distributed across 24 sites
along a 250 km stretch of the river. General linear mixed models were used to test five
hypotheses relating to three anthropogenic threats: river flow disruption from damming, human
Kneale, D; Khatwa, M; Thomas, J
This report aimed to aid the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in identifying opportunities for greater use of real-world data within its work. NICE identified five key ways in which real-world data was currently informing its work, or could do so in the future through: (i) researching the effectiveness of interventions or practice in real-world (UK) settings (ii) auditing the implementation of guidance (iii) providing information on resource use and evaluating the potential impact of guidance (iv) providing epidemiological information (v) providing information on current practice to inform the development of NICE quality standards. This report took...
Fitzgerald, F; Naveed, A; Wing, K; Gbessay, M; Ross, JCG; Checchi, F; Youkee, D; Jalloh, MB; Baion, D; Mustapha, A; Jah, H; Lako, S; Oza, S; Boufkhed, S; Feury, R; Bielicki, JA; Gibb, DM; Klein, N; Sahr, F; Yeung, S
Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission)...
Mildon, ZK; Pugh, DJ; Tarasewicz, J; White, RS; Brandsdottir, B
Moment tensor analysis with a Bayesian approach was used to analyse a non-double-couple (non-DC) earthquake (Mw ∼ 1) with a high isotropic (implosive) component within the Krafla caldera, Iceland. We deduce that the earthquake was generated by a closing crack at depth. The event is well located, with high signal-to-noise ratio and shows dilatational P-wave first arrivals at all stations where the first arrival can be picked with confidence. Coverage of the focal sphere is comprehensive and the source mechanism stable across the full range of uncertainties. The non-DC event lies within a cluster of microseismic activity including many DC...
Malki, K; Tosto, MG; Mouriño-Talín, H; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, S; Pain, O; Jumhaboy, I; Liu, T; Parpas, P; Newman, S; Malykh, A; Carboni, L; Uher, R; McGuffin, P; Schalkwyk, LC; Bryson, K; Herbster, M
Response to antidepressant (AD) treatment may be a more polygenic trait than previously hypothesized, with many genetic variants interacting in yet unclear ways. In this study we used methods that can automatically learn to detect patterns of statistical regularity from a sparsely distributed signal across hippocampal transcriptome measurements in a large-scale animal pharmacogenomic study to uncover genomic variations associated with AD. The study used four inbred mouse strains of both sexes, two drug treatments, and a control group (escitalopram, nortriptyline, and saline). Multi-class and binary classification using Machine Learning (ML) and regularization algorithms using iterative and univariate feature selection methods,...
Arroyo, A; de la Torre, I
This study explores the function of quartzite pounding tools from Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) using microscopic and use wear spatial distribution analysis. A selection of pounding tools from several Bed I and II assemblages excavated by Mary Leakey (1971) were studied under low magnification (<100×), and the microscopic traces developed on their surfaces are described. Experimental data and results obtained from analysis of the archaeological material are compared in order to assess activities in which pounding tools could have been involved. Results show that experimental anvils used for meat processing, nut cracking and/or bone breaking have similar wear patterns as those...
Dal Borgo, MM
In this thesis, I interpret Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War
utilizing models of game theory to distil the abstract strategic structures that
Thucydides illuminates. It is possible by close analysis of the narrative to
extract an implicit descriptive theory embedded in the narrative, never made
explicit but a consistent presence wherever characters, groups and nations
interact. Game theory in its informal structure (i.e. without deploying the full
formal apparatus of mathematics) offers a valuable extension to narratology,
a narrative theory already successfully introduced into Classical studies.
The thesis studies Thucydides’ conception of the agon (contest/competition)
in its basic framework from simple strategic and dynamic games to games
The brain’s energy use on signalling has been well-described, but only about half the brain’s energy consumption is directly related to information processing. In this thesis, I first assess experimentally the energetic cost of the main non-signalling processes in the brain. I find that the turnover of the actin and the microtubule cytoskeleton is a major energy drain on juvenile rat brain slices. While lipid synthesis is similarly energetically expensive, the energetic cost of protein synthesis is negligible. In the next part of my thesis, I show in brain slices that both strong and weak synapses in the brain’s visual...
Fronto-temporal lobe degenerations encompass a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases underpinned by pathological protein deposition. The study of these diseases is of considerable interest, both from a neurobiological perspective of brain organization in health and disease, and in order to develop novel biomarkers. However, the translation of the effects of abnormal protein to clinical syndrome is far from clear and whilst the current classification systems provide a framework upon which to base evaluations, they do not capture the full spectrum of the complexity of these disease entities. Recently there has been a shift in collective thinking towards describing brain functions in...
Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt, is one of the most renowned and enduring figures
from antiquity, yet remains one of its most elusive. She has become part of a Western
founding myth of Eastern otherness, and many of these perceptions of her as a
mesmerising and mercurial siren are mediated through Shakespeare’s dramatic creation.
There was, however, already a great interest in Cleopatra and her story in the sixteenth
century well before Shakespeare wrote his play, and views of her were strongly
conflicted and multi-faceted. Although she was condemned as an example of lust and
luxury, there was also fascination with the legend of her drinking a...
Disease states are often associated with radical rearrangements of cellular metabolism; suggesting the transcriptome underlying these changes follows a distinctive pattern. Identification of these patterns is complicated by the hugely heterogeneous nature of these diseases, such as cancer, and the patterns remain hidden within noise of large datasets. A new biclustering algorithm called Massively Correlating Biclustering (MCbiclust) was developed to identify these patterns. Taking a large gene set such as those known to be associated with the mitochondria, samples are selected in which these genes are highly correlated. Rigorous benchmarking of this method with other biclustering methods on synthetic gene...
Interleukin-2 receptor-α (IL-2R-α, CD25), one of a heterotrimer that makes up the IL-2R, plays a key role in signal transduction pathways involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and graft rejection. In addition, the preponderance of CD25-positive cells in haematological malignancies and the relationship between increased CD25 expression and poor prognosis raise the possibility of using an anti-CD25 antibody to deliver a cytotoxin to these cells in patients. Clinical proof of concept for treatment of CD25-positive malignancies has previously been established using radioimmunoconjugates and immunotoxins utilising antibodies basiliximab and daclizumab. ADCT-301 is an ADC composed of human IgG1 HuMax®-TAC against CD25,stochastically...
Figueroa Candia, MA
Chilean Spanish approximant consonants [β̞ ð̞ ɣ̞] display high degrees of lenition, which often leads to elision in several phonetic contexts. The fact that these units can surface at any stage in a continuum from approximant to elided is an ideal testing ground for exploring how listeners attain lexical access while coping with varying degrees of acoustic and semantic information, and provides important evidence for evaluating the predictions that lexical access models make about processing highly degraded and variable signals. An initial production study was conducted to determine the scope of lenition for /b d g/ in Chilean Spanish. Ten...
Tagliaferri, C; Evangelisti, S; Clift, R; Lettieri, P; Chapman, C; Taylor, R
This study integrates the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of thermal and biological technologies for municipal solid waste management within the context of renewable resource use for methane production. Five different scenarios are analysed for the UK, the main focus being on advanced gasification-plasma technology for Bio Substitute natural gas (Bio-SNG) production, anaerobic digestion and incineration. Firstly, a waste management perspective has been taken and a functional unit of 1 kg of waste to be disposed was used; secondly, according to an energy production perspective a functional unit of 1 MJ of renewable methane produced was considered. The first perspective demonstrates...
By measuring the time of flight of scattered x-ray photons, the point of interaction, assuming a single scatter, can be determined, providing a three dimensional image of cargo containers. The present work introduces the technique, and provides experimental and theoretical results to show the feasibility of such a technique. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to investigate the proportion of multiple scatter detected using a proposed experimental setup, and it was found that it accounted for almost 50% of the recorded signal. Monte Carlo simulations of a scintillation detector were provided and used to design the detectors used. Experimental measurements at...
The thesis is a comparative study of administrative law and risk regulation in the European Union and the United States. The analysis proceeds from the premise that the main objective of administrative law is to reconcile the exercise of bureaucratic power with liberal democratic values. In this way, administrative law constructs the legal legitimacy of administrative regulation, including administrative risk regulation. As such, administrative law systems are expressions of legal culture. The thesis argues that the most important differences between European and American risk regulation are better explained as expressions of the normative commitments of the two constitutional systems rather...