UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
Back to school: Challenges and rewards of engaging young children in scientific research - Stocks, J; Lum, S
The great comedian, W C Fields, is credited with the line, “Never work with children or animals”, but as those of us who have spent a lifetime in the field know, nothing could be further from the truth when engaging in medical research that relates to children. Nevertheless, embarking or participating in paediatric research can be a daunting prospect for those unfamiliar to engaging children in such activities. The aim of this article is to share some of our recent experience in this field in order to encourage others to engage in this hugely worthwhile field.
As is now well recognised,...
Music-of-Light Stethoscope: A Demonstration of the Photoacoustic Effect - Nikitichev, D; Xia, W; Hill, E; Mosse, CA; Perkins, T; Konyn, K; Ourselin, S; Desjardins, A; Vercauteren, T
In this paper we present a system aimed at demonstrating the photoacoustic (PA) effect for educational purposes. PA imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that requires no contrast agent and has a great potential for spine and brain lesion characterisation, breast cancer and blood flow monitoring notably in the context of fetal surgery. It relies on combining light excitation with ultrasound reception. Our brief was to present and explain PA imaging in a public-friendly way suitable for a variety of ages and backgrounds. We developed a simple, accessible demonstration unit using readily available materials. We used a modulated light emitting...
CRIDE: the survey you love to hate - Mahon, HM; Mayhook, S
Many of you will have been involved in completing the CRIDE Survey over the past three years. Some of you will have done so with enthusiasm – thank you! some with reluctance - sorry! and some may even have declined to participate, followed by a Freedom of Information Act application being applied – we really needed the information!
We are genuinely appreciative of all the time and effort you have taken to send in your CRIDE surveys.
Combined early and adult life risk factor associations for mid-life obesity in a prospective birth cohort: assessing potential public health impact. - Pinto Pereira, SM; van Veldhoven, K; Li, L; Power, C
OBJECTIVE: The combined effect of life-course influences on obesity development and thus their potential public health impact is unclear. We evaluated combined associations and predicted probabilities for early and adult life risk factors with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. SETTING: 1958 British birth cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 4629 males and 4670 females with data on waist circumference. OUTCOME MEASURES: 45 year obesity measured via waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. RESULTS: At 45 years, approximately a third of the population were centrally obese and a quarter were generally obese. Three factors (parental overweight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult inactivity) were consistently...
HIV Testing and Diagnosis Rates in Kiev, Ukraine: April 2013 - March 2014 - Simmons, R; Malyuta, R; Chentsova, N; Medoeva, A; Kruglov, Y; Yurchenko, A; Copas, A; Porter, K; CASCADE Collaboration in EuroCoord,
OBJECTIVE: Data from Ukraine on risk factors for HIV acquisition are limited. We describe the characteristics of individuals testing for HIV in the main testing centres of the Ukrainian capital Kiev, including HIV risk factors, testing rates, and positivity rates. METHODS: As part of a larger study to estimate HIV incidence within Kiev City, we included questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history to existing systems in 4 infectious disease clinics. Data were provided by the person requesting an HIV test using a handheld electronic tablet. All persons (≥16 yrs) presenting for an HIV test April...
Theory of pulsed four-wave mixing in one-dimensional silicon photonic crystal slab waveguides - Lavdas, S; Panoiu, NC
We present a comprehensive theoretical analysis and computational study of four-wave mixing (FWM) of optical pulses co-propagating in one-dimensional silicon photonic crystal waveguides (Si-PhCWGs). Our theoretical analysis describes a very general setup of the interacting optical pulses, namely we consider nondegenerate FWM in a configuration in which at each frequency there exists a superposition of guiding modes. We incorporate in our theoretical model all relevant linear optical effects, including waveguide loss, free-carrier (FC) dispersion and FC absorption, nonlinear optical effects such as self- and cross-phase modulation (SPM, XPM), two-photon absorption (TPA), and cross-absorption modulation (XAM), as well as the coupled...
No clinical utility of KRAS variant rs61764370 for ovarian or breast cancer - Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, Breast Cancer Association,; Hollestelle, A; van der Baan, FH; Berchuck, A; Johnatty, SE; Aben, KK; Agnarsson, BA; Aittomäki, K; Alducci, E; Andrulis, IL; Anton-Culver, H; Antonenkova, NN; Antoniou, AC; Apicella, C; Arndt, V; Arnold, N; Arun, BK; Arver, B; Ashworth, A; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group,; Baglietto, L; Balleine, R; Bandera, EV; Barrowdale, D; Bean, YT; Beckmann, L; Beckmann, MW; Benitez, J; Berger, A; Berger, R; Beuselinck, B; Bisogna, M; Bjorge, L; Blomqvist, C; Bogdanova, NV; Bojesen, A; Bojesen, SE; Bolla, MK; Bonanni, B; Brand, JS; Brauch, H; Breast Cancer Family Register,; Brenner, H; Brinton, L; Brooks-Wilson, A; Bruinsma, F; Brunet, J; Brüning, T; Budzilowska, A; Bunker, CH; Burwinkel, B; Butzow, R; Buys, SS; Caligo, MA; Campbell, I; Carter, J; Chang-Claude, J; Chanock, SJ; Claes, KB; Collée, JM; Cook, LS; Couch, FJ; Cox, A; Cramer, D; Cross, SS; Cunningham, JM; Cybulski, C; Czene, K; Damiola, F; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, A; Darabi, H; de la Hoya, M; deFazio, A; Dennis, J; Devilee, P; Dicks, EM; Diez, O; Doherty, JA; Domchek, SM; Dorfling, CM; Dörk, T; Silva, ID; du Bois, A; Dumont, M; Dunning, AM; Duran, M; Easton, DF; Eccles, D; Edwards, RP; Ehrencrona, H; Ejlertsen, B; Ekici, AB; Ellis, SD; EMBRACE,; Engel, C; Eriksson, M; Fasching, PA; Feliubadalo, L; Figueroa, J; Flesch-Janys, D; Fletcher, O; Fontaine, A; Fortuzzi, S; Fostira, F; Fridley, BL; Friebel, T; Friedman, E; Friel, G; Frost, D; Garber, J; García-Closas, M; Gayther, SA; GEMO Study Collaborators,; GENICA Network,; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Gerdes, AM; Giles, GG; Glasspool, R; Glendon, G; Godwin, AK; Goodman, MT; Gore, M; Greene, MH; Grip, M; Gronwald, J; Gschwantler Kaulich, D; Guénel, P; Guzman, SR; Haeberle, L; Haiman, CA; Hall, P; Halverson, SL; Hamann, U; Hansen, TV; Harter, P; Hartikainen, JM; Healey, S; HEBON,; Hein, A; Heitz, F; Henderson, BE; Herzog, J; T Hildebrandt, MA; Høgdall, CK; Høgdall, E; Hogervorst, FB; Hopper, JL; Humphreys, K; Huzarski, T; Imyanitov, EN; Isaacs, C; Jakubowska, A; Janavicius, R; Jaworska, K; Jensen, A; Jensen, UB; Johnson, N; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A; Kabisch, M; Karlan, BY; Kataja, V; Kauff, N; KConFab Investigators,; Kelemen, LE; Kerin, MJ; Kiemeney, LA; Kjaer, SK; Knight, JA; Knol-Bout, JP; Konstantopoulou, I; Kosma, VM; Krakstad, C; Kristensen, V; Kuchenbaecker, KB; Kupryjanczyk, J; Laitman, Y; Lambrechts, D; Lambrechts, S; Larson, MC; Lasa, A; Laurent-Puig, P; Lazaro, C; Le, ND; Le Marchand, L; Leminen, A; Lester, J; Levine, DA; Li, J; Liang, D; Lindblom, A; Lindor, N; Lissowska, J; Long, J; Lu, KH; Lubinski, J; Lundvall, L; Lurie, G; Mai, PL; Mannermaa, A; Margolin, S; Mariette, F; Marme, F; Martens, JW; Massuger, LF; Maugard, C; Mazoyer, S; McGuffog, L; McGuire, V; McLean, C; McNeish, I; Meindl, A; Menegaux, F; Menéndez, P; Menkiszak, J; Menon, U; Mensenkamp, AR; Miller, N; Milne, RL; Modugno, F; Montagna, M; Moysich, KB; Müller, H; Mulligan, AM; Muranen, TA; Narod, SA; Nathanson, KL; Ness, RB; Neuhausen, SL; Nevanlinna, H; Neven, P; Nielsen, FC; Nielsen, SF; Nordestgaard, BG; Nussbaum, RL; Odunsi, K; Offit, K; Olah, E; Olopade, OI; Olson, JE; Olson, SH; Oosterwijk, JC; Orlow, I; Orr, N; Orsulic, S; Osorio, A; Ottini, L; Paul, J; Pearce, CL; Pedersen, IS; Peissel, B; Pejovic, T; Pelttari, LM; Perkins, J; Permuth-Wey, J; Peterlongo, P; Peto, J; Phelan, CM; Phillips, KA; Piedmonte, M; Pike, MC; Platte, R; Plisiecka-Halasa, J; Poole, EM; Poppe, B; Pylkäs, K; Radice, P; Ramus, SJ; Rebbeck, TR; Reed, MW; Rennert, G; Risch, HA; Robson, M; Rodriguez, GC; Romero, A; Rossing, MA; Rothstein, JH; Rudolph, A; Runnebaum, I; Salani, R; Salvesen, HB; Sawyer, EJ; Schildkraut, JM; Schmidt, MK; Schmutzler, RK; Schneeweiss, A; Schoemaker, MJ; Schrauder, MG; Schumacher, F; Schwaab, I; Scuvera, G; Sellers, TA; Severi, G; Seynaeve, CM; Shah, M; Shrubsole, M; Siddiqui, N; Sieh, W; Simard, J; Singer, CF; Sinilnikova, OM; Smeets, D; Sohn, C; Soller, M; Song, H; Soucy, P; Southey, MC; Stegmaier, C; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Sucheston, L; SWE-BRCA,; Swerdlow, A; Tangen, IL; Tea, MK; Teixeira, MR; Terry, KL; Terry, MB; Thomassen, M; Thompson, PJ; Tihomirova, L; Tischkowitz, M; Toland, AE; Tollenaar, RA; Tomlinson, I; Torres, D; Truong, T; Tsimiklis, H; Tung, N; Tworoger, SS; Tyrer, JP; Vachon, CM; Van 't Veer, LJ; van Altena, AM; Van Asperen, CJ; van den Berg, D; van den Ouweland, AM; van Doorn, HC; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E; van Rensburg, EJ; Vergote, I; Verhoef, S; Vierkant, RA; Vijai, J; Vitonis, AF; von Wachenfeldt, A; Walsh, C; Wang, Q; Wang-Gohrke, S; Wappenschmidt, B; Weischer, M; Weitzel, JN; Weltens, C; Wentzensen, N; Whittemore, AS; Wilkens, LR; Winqvist, R; Wu, AH; Wu, X; Yang, HP; Zaffaroni, D; Pilar Zamora, M; Zheng, W; Ziogas, A; Chenevix-Trench, G; Pharoah, PD; Rookus, MA; Hooning, MJ; Goode, EL
OBJECTIVE: Clinical genetic testing is commercially available for rs61764370, an inherited variant residing in a KRAS 3' UTR microRNA binding site, based on suggested associations with increased ovarian and breast cancer risk as well as with survival time. However, prior studies, emphasizing particular subgroups, were relatively small. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated ovarian and breast cancer risks as well as clinical outcome associated with rs61764370. METHODS: Centralized genotyping and analysis were performed for 140,012 women enrolled in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (15,357 ovarian cancer patients; 30,816 controls), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (33,530 breast cancer patients; 37,640 controls), and the...
A roving dual-presentation simultaneity-judgment task to estimate the point of subjective simultaneity - Yarrow, K; Martin, SE; Di Costa, S; Solomon, JA; Arnold, DH
The most popular tasks with which to investigate the perception of subjective synchrony are the temporal order judgment (TOJ) and the simultaneity judgment (SJ). Here, we discuss a complementary approach-a dual-presentation (2x) SJ task-and focus on appropriate analysis methods for a theoretically desirable "roving" design. Two stimulus pairs are presented on each trial and the observer must select the most synchronous. To demonstrate this approach, in Experiment 1 we tested the 2xSJ task alongside TOJ, SJ, and simple reaction-time (RT) tasks using audiovisual stimuli. We interpret responses from each task using detection-theoretic models, which assume variable arrival times for sensory...
Clarifying misconceptions of extinction risk assessment with the IUCN Red List. - Collen, B; Dulvy, NK; Gaston, KJ; Gärdenfors, U; Keith, DA; Punt, AE; Regan, HM; Böhm, M; Hedges, S; Seddon, M; Butchart, SH; Hilton-Taylor, C; Hoffmann, M; Bachman, SP; Akçakaya, HR
The identification of species at risk of extinction is a central goal of conservation. As the use of data compiled for IUCN Red List assessments expands, a number of misconceptions regarding the purpose, application and use of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria have arisen. We outline five such classes of misconception; the most consequential drive proposals for adapted versions of the criteria, rendering assessments among species incomparable. A key challenge for the future will be to recognize the point where understanding has developed so markedly that it is time for the next generation of the Red List criteria....
Shock Index Values and Trends in Pediatric Sepsis: Predictors or Therapeutic Targets? A retrospective observational study - Ray, S; Cvetkovic, M; Lutman, DH; Brierley, J; Pathan, N; Inwald, D; Ramnarayan, P; Peters, MJ
Background: Shock index (SI) (heart rate/systolic blood pressure) has been used to predict outcome in both adult and pediatric sepsis within the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to evaluate the utility of SI prior to pediatric ICU (PICU) admission. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of children referred to a pediatric intensive care transport service (PICTS) between 2005 and 2011. The predictive value of SI, heart rate and blood pressure at three pre-specified time points (at referral to PICTS, at PICTS arrival at the referring hospital, and at PICU admission), and changes in SI between the time points,...
Three Notions of Dynamicness in Language - Rothschild, DH; Yalcin, S
We distinguish three ways that a theory of linguistic meaning and communication might be considered dynamic in character. We provide some examples of systems which are dynamic in some of these senses but not others. We suggest that separating these notions can help to clarify what is at issue in particular debates about dynamic versus static approaches within natural language semantics and pragmatics.
Attenuation of reflected waves in man during retrograde propagation from femoral artery to proximal aorta - John Baksi, A; Davies, JE; Hadjiloizou, N; Baruah, R; Unsworth, B; Foale, RA; Korolkova, O; Siggers, JH; Francis, DP; Mayet, J; Parker, KH; Hughes, AD
Background: Wave reflection may be an important influence on blood pressure, but the extent to which reflections undergo attenuation during retrograde propagation has not been studied. We quantified retrograde transmission of a reflected wave created by occlusion of the left femoral artery in man. Methods: 20 subjects (age 31-83 years; 14 male) underwent invasive measurement of pressure and flow velocity with a sensor-tipped intra-arterial wire at multiple locations distal to the proximal aorta before, during and following occlusion of the left femoral artery by thigh cuff inflation. A numerical model of the circulation was also used to predict reflected wave...
Christian Calendars in Medieval Hebrew Manuscripts - Stern, SD
The phenomenon of Christian calendars in Hebrew has largely been ignored in modern scholarship; yet it points to an important dimension of Jewish-Christian relations, and more specifically Jewish attitudes towards Christianity, in late medieval northern Europe. It is also evidence of transfer of religious knowledge between Christians and Jews, because the Hebrew texts closely replicate, in contents as well as in layout and presentation, the Latin liturgical calendars, which in many cases the Hebrew scribes must have used directly as base texts. Knowledge of the Christian calendar was essential to Jews for dating documents, especially (but not exclusively) those intended...
Interpreting whole genome sequencing for investigating tuberculosis transmission: a systematic review. - Hatherell, HA; Colijn, C; Stagg, HR; Jackson, C; Winter, JR; Abubakar, I
BACKGROUND: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming an important part of epidemiological investigations of infectious diseases due to greater resolution and cost reductions compared to traditional typing approaches. Many public health and clinical teams will increasingly use WGS to investigate clusters of potential pathogen transmission, making it crucial to understand the benefits and assumptions of the analytical methods for investigating the data. We aimed to understand how different approaches affect inferences of transmission dynamics and outline limitations of the methods. METHODS: We comprehensively searched electronic databases for studies that presented methods used to interpret WGS data for investigating tuberculosis (TB)...
Feasibility of manufacturing a patient-specific spinal implant - Serra, T; Capelli, C; Kalaskar, D; Leong, J
Spinal fusion is performed for degenerative spinal condition when conservative measures fail. Implant size and shape are not standardised between manufacturers, and best match often means compromises. Bioprinting offers a unique opportunity to create a tailor-made solution. PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to design and manufacture a 3D-printed lumbar cage for lumbar interbody fusion.
Computational models for characterisation and design of patient-specific spinal implant - Capelli, C; Serra, T; Kalaskar, D; Leong, J
Spinal fusion is designed to reduce movements between vertebrae and therefore pain. The most used devices for this procedure are mainly made of titanium or polyether ether ketone (PEEK). However, the mismatch between devices, with standard shapes and materials, and the surrounding bones can lead to suboptimal outcomes. Computational models, namely, Finite Element Analyses (FEA), can be employed to optimise existing device and design more effective solutions.