UCL University College London Eprints
UCL Eprints collects the work of UCL researchers and makes it freely available over the web, helping the worldwide scholarly community to discover UCL research. Institutional repositories like UCL Eprints complement the traditional academic publishing and scholarly communications processes. They raise the visibility of research and help to maximise its impact. UCL researchers are encouraged to deposit a copy of each journal article, conference paper, working paper, and any other research output, in the UCL Eprints at the earliest opportunity, ensuring that their research reaches as wide an audience as possible.
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The association of maternal prenatal psychosocial stress with vascular function in the child at age 10-11 years: findings from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children - van Dijk, AE; Dawe, K; Deanfield, J; Stronks, K; Gemke, RJ; Vrijkotte, TG; Lawlor, DA
Objective To investigate whether (1) maternal psychosocial stress (depression/anxiety) during pregnancy is associated with offspring vascular function and (2) whether any association differs depending on the gestational timing of exposure to stress. We also investigated whether any association is likely to be due to intrauterine mechanisms by (3) comparing with the association of paternal stress with offspring vascular function and (4) examining whether any prenatal association is explained by maternal postnatal stress.
Methods and results Associations were examined in a UK birth cohort, with offspring outcomes (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, SBP and DBP, endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated...
Botulinum toxin-A for the treatment of overactive bladder: UK contributions - Seth, JH; Panicker, JN; Fowler, CJ; Dowson, C; Khan, MS; Dasgupta, P; Sahai, A
Background: Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT/A) is now established second-line management for refractory overactivebladder (OAB) and recognised in many incontinence guidelines and pathways. For those with neurogenic detrusoroveractivity secondary to spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, the toxin is currently licensed in certain parts of theworld, including the UK. It is an effective treatment in those in whom antimuscarinics and conservative measures havefailed who have symptoms of OAB and or detrusor overactivity (DO). Methods: Treatment can be given in an outpatient setting and can be administered under local anaesthesia. Its efficacylasts for between six and 12 months. Results: It has an acceptable...
Serendipitous UV source catalogues for 10 years of XMM and 5 years of Swift - Yershov, VN
Two UV serendipitous source catalogues are presented which were compiled based on the observations with two similar UV telescopes, one being on-board the ESA’s XMM Newton observatory and another—on-board the NASA’s Swift satellite. Both telescopes have similar optical and registration systems providing photometry in three ultraviolet and three visible bands. After processing a 10 years long series of observations from XMM and 5 years from Swift, we have compiled two source catalogues containing more than 4 million sources for XMM and 6 million sources for Swift. We describe the processing algorithms and present catalogue characteristics in comparison with each other.
Cardiovascular Risk Factors from Early Life Predict Future Adult Cardiac Structural and Functional Abnormalities: A Systematic Review of the Published Literature - Ghosh, AK; Francis, DP; Chaturvedi, N; Kuh, D; Mayet, J; Hughes, AD; Hardy, RJ
Background: Clinical practice evaluates cardiovascular risk based on current risk factor (RF) levels [Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and glycaemic control] largely disregarding previous risk-factor history over the totality of the life course. RFs are related to contemporaneous echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function which in turn are independently related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in cross-sectional studies. However, the effect of lifetime or earlier RF history on future echocardiographic changes has never been systematically examined.
Methods: A systematic review of the published literature identified 24 studies relating either earlier BP, BMI, glycaemic control or a combination to...
Functional Limbal Epithelial Cells Can Be Successfully Isolated From Organ Culture Rims Following Long-Term Storage - Tovell, VE; Massie, I; Kureshi, AK; Daniels, JT
PURPOSE. Because of a shortage of fresh corneal tissue for research, it was of interest to
investigate the potential of successfully isolating human limbal epithelial cells (hLECs) from
organ culture corneal-scleral (OCCS) rims.
METHODS. Superficial segments of corneal limbus were dissected and digested using
collagenase (0.5 mg/mL, 16 hours at 378C). Cell suspensions were separated into four
different growth conditions: corneal epithelial cell medium (CM); CM þ 3T3-Swiss albino
cells; stromal stem cell medium (SM); and SM þ 3T3 cells. Colony number, hLEC count, cell
density, and colony forming efficiency (CFE) were quantified to assess different growth
conditions. The expression profile associated with basal hLECs was assessed by
Landscapes of interaction and conflict in the Middle Bronze Age: From the open plain of the Khabur Triangle to the mountainous inland of Central Anatolia - Palmisano, A; Altaweel, M
This paper highlights a spatial interaction entropy maximization (SIEM) model to reproduce and understand past human settlement hierarchy in Central Anatolia (CA) and the Khabur Triangle (KT) during the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 2000–1600 BC). We propose applying SIEM to understand which sites and areas would have become prominent in this period by using known archaeological sites as point data and textual evidence for calibration purposes. The model addresses to which extent general factors such as topography, transportation, or social–ecological advantages (e.g., environmental benefits, external contacts, religion) make locations attractive for trade and settlement and why some archaeological sites become...
Analysing the Links between National Capitals and Brussels in EU Foreign Policy - Chelotti, N
The article contributes to the study of EU foreign policy decision-making processes by analysing the links between national officials working in the committees of the Council of the EU and their capitals. Through an original dataset of 138 questionnaires (and 20 interviews) with national representatives, it explores the micro-foundations of the formulation of EU foreign policy. It first shows how, even in this most intergovernmental field, diplomats in Brussels play a very important role in the policy process: only 30 per cent claim to always have a mandate and half state that they do not feel constrained by their capital....
Integration of sexual trauma in a religious narrative: transformation, resolution and growth among contemplative nuns - Durà-Vilà, G; Littlewood, R; Leavey, G
The psychological consequences of sexual abuse are generally serious and enduring, particularly when the perpetrator is known and trusted by the survivor. This paper explores the experiences of five contemplative nuns who were sexually abused by priests and the spiritual journeys that followed. In the context of an ethnographic study of contemplative practice, participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to examine the ways that the nuns sought to make sense of their experiences through a long process of solitary introspection. The pursuit of meaning was shaped by religious beliefs relating to forgiveness, sacrifice, and salvation. Thus, trauma was transformed...
Measuring the information content of customer foreign exchange orders - Rosov, S; Foster, FD
This paper investigates whether customer order flow conveys information about future foreign exchange (FX) prices. We use a unique data set from a leading Australian commercial bank that records every FX trade made by the bank in the spot Australian dollar/US dollar market between 2005 and 2010. We find little evidence in support of a cointegrating relation or a statistically significant correlation between customer order flow and FX returns. However, consistent with the liquidity provision role of non-financial customers in Evans and Lyons ((2002) Order flow and exchange rate dynamics. Journal of Political Economy 110: 170–180), we find a statistically...
Keypad mobile phones are associated with a significant increased risk of microbial contamination compared to touch screen phones - Pal, P; Roy, A; Moore, G; Muzslay, M; Lee, E; Alder, S; Wilson, P; Powles, T; Wilson, P; Kelly, J
The use of mobile phones in the clinical environment by healthcare workers has become widespread. Despite evidence that these devices can harbour pathogenic micro-organisms there is little guidance on how to reduce contamination. Recently touchscreen phones with a single flat surface have been introduced. We hypothesise that bacterial contamination of phones used in hospitals will be lower on touchscreen devices compared to keypad devices. Sixty seven mobile phones belonging to health care workers were sampled. The median colony count for touchscreen phones and keypad devices was 0·09 colony forming units (cfu)/cm2 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.05–0·14) and 0·77 cfu/cm2 (IQR range...
Erectile dysfunction - an update of current practice and future strategies - Kalsi, J; Muneer, A
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve and maintain a penile erection adequate for satisfactory sexual intercourse.1 Up to 150 million men worldwide suffer from ED and this figure is likely to double by the year 2025.2
A number of studies have attempted to characterise the true prevalence of ED. In a Danish study, Ventegodt reported that 5.4% of all patients had a decreased ability to achieve an erection.3 The prevalence was reported to be highest (18%) in those aged over 58 years. The Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS)4 reported the results of a regional survey of 1709...
Cardiotoxicity and cancer therapy - Vasiliadis, I; Kolovou, G; Mikhailidis, DP
A fundamental concept of treatment is to do no harm. However, with cancer treatment this is not always possible.
Chemotherapy is associated with cardiovascular (CV) complications.1,2 This risk is even greater in the elderly patients and patients with established CV disease. More specifically, tachyarrhythmias (eg, cisplatin), bradyarrythmias (eg, paclitaxel), or QT prolongation (eg, dasatinib) have been reported. Furthermore, myocardial necrosis, coronary vaso-occlusion or vasospasm, pericardial disease (eg, cytarabine), endocardial fibrosis (eg, busulfan), and heart failure can occur. Hypotension (eg, fludarabine) or hypertension (eg, vinca alkaloids) has also been reported.1,2 Cardiotoxicity, endothelial injury, and Takotsubo syndrome have been reported in patients treated...
Exploring hidden narratives: Conscript graffiti at the former military base of Kummersdorf - Merrill, S; Hack, H
This article explores the cultural significance and interpretative potential of graffiti left by Soviet conscripts at Kummersdorf, a former military base in the German federal state of Brandenburg. The graffiti is framed as war art and its typology, distribution and content is studied in detail. In this way opportunities for further research are highlighted, as well as the potential for the graffiti to contribute to interpretative and conservation strategies. We demonstrate how the graffiti embodies multi-level interpretative narratives which can help to reveal hidden aspects of Soviet conscript life and cultural practices whilst alluding to global events and Soviet and...
Application of methods for central statistical monitoring in clinical trials - Kirkwood, AA; Cox, T; Hackshaw, A
Background On-site source data verification is a common and expensive activity, with little evidence that it is worthwhile. Central statistical monitoring (CSM) is a cheaper alternative, where data checks are performed by the coordinating centre, avoiding the need to visit all sites. Several publications have suggested methods for CSM; however, few have described their use in real trials.
Methods R-programs were created to check data at either the subject level (7 tests within 3 programs) or site level (9 tests within 8 programs) using previously described methods or new ones we developed. These aimed to find possible data errors such as...
Policy entrepreneurship in UK central government: The behavioural insights team and the use of randomized controlled trials - John, P
What factors explain the success of the UK Cabinet Office’s Behavioural Insights Team? To answer this question, this article applies insights from organizational theory, particularly accounts of change agents. Change agents are able—with senior sponsorship—to foster innovation by determination and skill: they win allies and circumvent more traditional bureaucratic procedures. Although Behavioural Insights Team is a change agent—maybe even a skunkworks unit—not all the facilitating factors identified in the literature apply in this central government context. Key factors are its willingness to work in a non-hierarchical way, skills at forming alliances, and the ability to form good relationships with expert...
Effects of rituximab-based B-cell depletion therapy on skin manifestations of lupus erythematosus--report of 17 cases and review of the literature - Hofmann, SC; Leandro, MJ; Morris, SD; Isenberg, DA
Cutaneous manifestations occur frequently in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and are pathognomonic in subacute-cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) and chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE). Although B-cell depletion therapy (BCDT) has demonstrated efficacy in SLE with visceral involvement, its usefulness for patients with predominant skin manifestations has not been fully established. In this single-centre, retrospective study 14 consecutive SLE, one CCLE and two SCLE patients with recalcitrant skin involvement were treated with 2 × rituximab 1 g, and 1 × cyclophosphamide 750 mg. Six months after BCDT, nine of 17 (53%) patients were in complete (CR) or partial remission (PR). Relapses occurred in 12 patients (71%) at a...
The coherence of autism - Hobson, RP
There is a growing body of opinion that we should view autism as fractionable into different, largely independent sets of clinical features. The alternative view is that autism is a coherent syndrome in which principal features of the disorder stand in intimate developmental relationship with each other. Studies of congenitally blind children offer support for the latter position and suggest that a source of coherence in autism is restriction in certain forms of perceptually dependent social experience.
Effectiveness of intervention for grammar in school-aged children with primary language impairments: A review of the evidence - Ebbels, S
This article summarizes the evidence as regards the effectiveness of therapy for grammar for school-aged children with language impairments. I first review studies focusing on specific areas of grammar (both expressive and receptive targets) and then studies aiming to improve language more generally, several of which focus more on the effectiveness of different methods of delivery. I conclude that while there is a growing body of evidence in this area, there are still many gaps. The most concerning gap is the small amount of evidence of effectiveness of intervention for children with receptive as well as expressive language impairments. The...