European legal integration can be envisioned as containing two dimensions of legal integration: vertical and horizontal. Vertical legal integration is a top down process where the establishment of a hierarchical legal order of courts and laws causes national courts to make more similar decisions over time as they increasingly come under the formal authority of a higher court. The European legal integration literature speaks mainly to vertical, formal, legal integration where the ECJ and EU law have asserted themselves as a formal authority over the national courts of the member states and compel the integration of the national courts. Horizontal...
This contribution analyses EU member state political responses to ECJ challenges. Faced with high consensus requirements at the European level, member states often have to respond unilaterally and explore how to pursue autonomous regulatory goals in ‘ECJ-proof’ ways. Based on an actor-centered institutionalist framework, member states’ domestic responses to one prominent series of ECJ judgments (Laval, Rüffert, Commission vs Luxembourg) are traced empirically. By anticipating potential legal challenges through the European Commission or private parties and building on existing legal precedent, the case studies show that member state governments manage to preserve significant parts of their original legislation while making...
2011 and subsequent years are available on the EUCE website
test, test test
Does the European Union engender practices within national administrations that represent a departure from traditional intergovernmental executive orders? Are European and global issues compartmentalized in a national administration in such a way as to create different implementation practices within the same administrative organization? In this paper I discuss the results from a case-study of a national administration’s practice of transposing or incorporating rules stemming from two international levels – the global and the regional. Through in-depth interviews with national officials in the Norwegian Maritime Directorate and its parent ministry responsible for maritime affairs I reveal how different international enforcement capacities...
Despite vast literatures on interest representation in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU), few studies have tried to compare lobbying across the two cases. Those who do are interested primarily in the existence of different lobbying styles and distinguish between an aggressive pressure group approach in the US and a more consensus oriented informational lobbying in the EU. However, the origins of these differences have received little attention and references most often point to different political “cultures” and lobbying traditions. This paper takes issue with this cultural explanation and links the observed lobbying styles with differences in...
Crespy, Amandine; Schmidt, Vivien
From the Introduction. In the aftermath of the EU’s enlargement towards Central and Eastern Europe, many
scholars and observers of European integration were proclaiming that the French-German “engine” of Europe had come to an end. The political legitimacy of French-German
initiatives was contested by coalitions of smaller member states and the ‘new Europe’ was calling for new leadership dynamics. However, the experience of the Eurozone debt crisis provided dramatic evidence that no alternative to the Franco-German partnership has yet to emerge in the enlarged EU. In a time of existential crisis, Franco-German initiatives appear to have remained the basic dynamic of integration....
The paper finds out that the increased incentive structures under the ENP and the more intense socialization dynamics in which Eastern ENP countries have been brought in since the launch of the ENP are not reflected into their regime patterns. However, on the long run (1991-2010) the EU democracy promotion in the region under consideration appears to be largely consistent. In addition, a content analysis of Progress Reports released by the European Commission on the implementation process of ENP Action Plans (ENPAPs) reveals that most Eastern partners have considered in their reform agendas the democracy-related objectives of these documents and...
Storey, Andy; Durac, Vincent
The idea of the EU constituting a form of ‘normative power’ in its external relations is
one which holds significant appeal – not only to European policymakers but also to a
number of academic commentators. This article first outlines what is meant by
‘normative power’, and then offers a critique based on a political economy understanding
of the ways in which ‘norms’ and interests are intermeshed. The example of relations
between the EU and Morocco is examined in detail. It is concluded that the EU claim to
represent a ‘normative power’ – understood in a necessarily positive and idealist sense –
is misleading, but that the EU...
Schmidt, Vivien A.
When European ministers meet in the Council, they bring to the table very different visions of
what the EU is and should be as well as of their country’s role in the EU. Although ministers
have 27 different senses of their country's identity in Europe, they tend to hold one or more of
four basic discourses about the EU’s identity: the pragmatic discourse of a borderless problemsolving
free market; the normative discourse of a bordered values-based community; the
principled discourse of a border-free, rights-based post-national union; the strategic discourse of
a global actor doing international relations differently. Can such visions co-exist? And can the
EU continue to...
Portela, Clara; Jasper, Ulla
Nuclear weapons remain the unquestioned core of the defence postures of France and the United Kingdom. At
the same time, the European Union is progressively enhancing its common foreign and security posture, notably
through the establishment of a European Security and Defence Policy. Yet, despite evident progress in the CFSP,
whose ultimate purpose is to lead to a “common defence policy”, EU member states still deal with nuclear issues
on a strictly national basis. Our paper seeks to contrast the progress of EU‐integration with the continuance of
national nuclear deterrence in Europe by analysing how this is presented in European public discourse. How is
This paper provides a political economy explanation for the occurrence of fiscal consolidation by
looking at the distributional effects of preceding real exchange rate depreciations across and within
countries. Existing studies show that successful fiscal consolidation episodes tend to be preceded by
downwards exchange rate movements (Giavazzi and Pagano 1990; Hjelm 2002; Lambertini and
Tavares 2005). We show that the mechanism through which this happens differs across open and
closed economies. In the former, there is a “good-times effect” following depreciation that induces
the public to accept fiscal reform in the form of a social pact that contains budgetary provisions,
provided it has similar distributional implications. By...
This study aims to analyze how the secondment of public servants has affected the development of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). I will look at how these
officials influence, and are influenced by, EU decision-making processes; how their baggage of knowledge and assumptions change with their secondment; and how they, in
turn, transform decision-making processes in their respective institutions. It is hypothesized
that these networks, through processes of mutual learning and socialization, contribute to the Europeanization of national foreign policies, on the one hand, and to the development of common assumptions, approaches and values in foreign policy, on the other. Basing...
Civil wars and humanitarian contingencies are a common fact of life in many societies. In the post-cold war era, bringing an end to intrastate conflicts and building a long-lasting peace have become important policy agenda items of the international community. However, the knowledge about how international and regional organizations cooperate with one another in post-conflict reconstruction is very limited. Increasingly, the study of security must confront the question of how international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the North Atlantic Treaty Association (NATO) can best...
The transfer of rules, such as in the European Union's recent enlargements, requires well-functioning institutions of government as well as societal actors ready to engage with the new rules. Officials of the European Commission and other practitioners highlighted the need for both in the run-up to enlargement, while critics of the 2004 and 2007 rounds have faulted the state-centric approach employed by the EU for undercutting societal actors in the new member states.
This paper examines data from the World Values Survey and World Bank Governance Indicators and shows that state capacity and organized interests do indeed go hand in hand:...
In political and institutional terms, the “first” and the “second” pillar of the European Union’s (EU) decision-making machinery seem strictly different. They concern different policies, and they represent different institutional frameworks. This apparent difference is reflected in integration theory: most of the attempts to explain the European model of ‘politics beyond the
nation-state’ either tackle the first or the second pillar – and more often do we find explanations why a particular theory or model cannot be applied to both pillars, than attempts to compare findings in the two pillars.
This paper proposes a shift of perspective. Instead of assuming from the...
Arguments are all pervasive in negotiations; and yet, conventional negotiation theories often treat them as merely epiphenomenal to power and interests. The past decade, however, witnessed a growing interest in theories of deliberation and their application at the international level. This article takes stock of the state of the art. It argues that the “delibera-tive turn” has forced both rationalist and constructivist scholars to refine their arguments and reconsider their methodology. We argue that the new research frontier for constructivists is in assessing under which circumstances arguments affect negotiating actors‟ preferences, and subsequently lead to outcomes that are not easily...
Panke , Diana
Compared to big states, small states face resource-related disadvantages in European negotiations. They have fewer votes, less economic power, fewer administrative
resources and less staff and experts in policy fields. This leads to disadvantages in negotiations. Yet small states can concentrate their limited resources on issues of
great importance and can punch above their weight. This is especially effective through argumentative instead of bargaining-based strategies and requires that
arguments resonate well with the views of the Council, the Presidency, the Commission or the Parliament. The Vodka-case illustrates how small states applied a broad variety of policy-shaping strategies and achieved a compromise outcome very...
This paper reviews the literature on public goods in relation to the following three questions. Why is government organized across multiple levels? Does efficiency determine the level at which decisions are made? Does efficiency frame how policy problems are bundled in jurisdictions? Rather than examine how government structure may or may not lead to efficient outcomes, this essay is concerned with how efficiency constrains government. Rather than explain variation in government, the concern here is to probe some fundamental commonalities in government structure. Such commonalities are sometimes taken for granted precisely because they appear to be constants in an otherwise...
The historical analysis shows that - numerous difficulties and delays notwithstanding - “deepening” in the double sense of a rise in the scope and the level of European integration in the terms of institution-building, democratic legitimacy and European policies was the predominant trend in the history of European integration. “Widening” in the sense of a geographical spill-over never did prevent “deepening”. Rather it proved to be, even if at different degrees, a precondition for some steps of “deepening”. In order to substantiate this thesis this final state of the art paper of Team 2 will combine findings on the driving...