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ARCHIVE OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION (98.897 recursos)

A subject based repository for research materials on European integration and unification with materials from members of 15 institutions in Europe and the United States. The associated search engine AEIPlus allows simultaneous searching of both the AEI, and the European Research Papers Archive (ERPA), including the European Integration online Papers (EIOP).

Type = Working Paper

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.137

  1. Domestic banks as lightning rods? Home bias during the eurozone crisis. CEPS Working Document No 2018/03, March 2018

    Saka, Orkun
    European banks have been criticized for holding excessive domestic government debt during economic downturns, which has been interpreted as indicative evidence of moral suasion. By using a novel bank-level dataset covering the entire timeline of the eurozone crisis, I first re-confirm that the crisis led to the reallocation of sovereign debt from foreign to domestic banks. This reallocation was only visible for banks as opposed to other domestic private agents and it cannot be explained by the banks’ risk-shifting tendency. In contrast to the recent literature focusing only on sovereign debt, I show that banks’ private sector exposures were (at...

  2. Comments on the notion of information system in the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime, the EU directive, and selected penal codes

    Foldes, Stephan
    The penal codes of a number of countries having ratified the Convention on Cybercrime signed in Budapest in 2001, or bound by Directive 2013/40/EU, contain provisions which criminalize certain acts directed at information systems or computer data. The definitions of the concept of "system" provided in the Convention and the Directive are examined in comparison with the corresponding terms and notions used in the penal codes of France, Germany, Austria and Hungary.

  3. Modelling Eligibility for Medical Cards and GP Visit Cards: Methods and Baseline Results. ESRI WP515. November 2015

    Callan, T.; Colgan, B.; Keane, C.; Walsh, J.R.
    The Irish healthcare system includes a complex mix of entitlements – some are universal, others age-related, and some are income-related. In this report, we concentrate on the major income-related entitlements in the current system i.e., the Medical Card and the GP Visit Card. Most medical cards are provided on an income-tested basis, and provide free access to in-patient and out-patient care in public hospitals, to GP care, and to prescription drugs. We examine how the income test for such schemes can be modelled using the detailed income and demographic information in the Survey on Income and Living Conditions. The approach...

  4. Investment vs. Refurbishment: Examining Capacity Payment Mechanisms Using Mixed Complementarity Problems With Endogenous Probability. ESRI WP507. July 2015

    Lynch, Muireann A.; Devine, Mel T.
    Capacity remuneration mechanisms exist in many electricity markets. Capacity mechanism designs do not explicitly consider the effects of refurbishment of existing generation units in order to increase their reliability. This paper presents a mixed complementarity problem with endogenous probabilities to examine the impact of refurbishment on electricity prices and generation investment. Capacity payments are found to increase reliability when refurbishment is not possible, while capacity payments and reliability options yield similar results when refurbishment is possible. Final costs to consumers are similar under the two mechanisms with the exception of the initial case of overcapacity.

  5. Macroprudential Policy in a Recovering Market: Too Much too Soon?. ESRI WP500. May 2015

    McQuinn, Kieran; Duffy, David; Mc Inerney, Niall
    The aftermath of the 2007/08 financial crisis has resulted in many Central Banks and regulatory authorities examining the appropriateness of macroprudential policy as an effective and efficient policy option in preventing the emergence of future credit bubbles. Specific limits on loan-to-value (LTV) and loan-to-income (LTI) ratios have been assessed and applied in a large number of markets both in developing and developed economies as a means of ensuring greater financial stability. The Irish property and credit market were particularly affected in the crisis as the domestic housing market had, since 1995, experienced sustained price and housing supply increases. Much of...

  6. The Social Cost of Carbon. ESRI WP377. February 2011

    Tol, Richard S.J.
    This paper surveys the literature on the economic impact of climate change. Different methods have been used to estimate the impact of climate change on human welfare. Studies agree that there are positive and negative impacts. In the short term, positive impacts may dominate, but these are largely sunk. In the longer term, there are net negative impacts. Poorer people tend to be more vulnerable to climate change. There is a trade-off between development policy and climate policy. Estimated aggregate impacts are not very large, but they are uncertain and incomplete. Estimates of the marginal impacts suggest that greenhouse gas...

  7. Scenarios of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Aviation. ESRI WP244. May 2008

    Mayor, Karen; Tol, Richard S.J.
    We use a model of international and domestic tourist numbers and flows to forecast tourist numbers and emissions from international tourism out to 2100. We find that between 2005 and 2100 international tourism grows by a factor of 12. Not only do people take more trips but these also increase in length. We find that the growth in tourism is mainly fuelled by an increase in trips from Asian countries. Emissions follow this growth pattern until 2060 when emissions per passenger-kilometre start to fall due to improvements in fuel efficiency. Forecasted emissions are also presented for the four SRES scenarios...

  8. Modelling the Impact of Direct and Indirect Taxes Using Complementary Datasets. ESRI WP496. February 2015

    Savage, Michael; Callan, Tim
    Comprehensive modelling of the impact of taxes and tax policy options requires data on the impact at micro-level of both direct and indirect taxes. There are, however, limits on the amount of data that can be gathered by any one survey. With some exceptions, most notably the Living Costs and Food Survey (LCF) in the UK, most national expenditure surveys are not suitable for use in detailed modelling of the direct tax and welfare system. This makes approaches which impute expenditure data into detailed income surveys of considerable interest. In this paper, we assess the sensitivity of the distributional effects...

  9. Estimating Building Energy Ratings for the Residential Building Stock: Location and Occupancy. ESRI WP489. August 2014

    Curtis, John; Devitt, Niamh; Whelan, Adele
    The common EU framework for assessing the energy performance of residential buildings and awarding Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) is an important resource in the context of informing effective policy measures to improve energy efficiency. However, properties that have been assessed to-date are not likely to be fully representative of the entire housing stock and therefore provide a faulty baseline from which to devise policy actions. The paper presents a methodology to estimate the energy performance of all residential properties and, combined with census data, identifies what distinguishes the most energy inefficient properties, whether it is location, ownership, age or other...

  10. Decomposing patterns of emission intensity in the EU and China: how much does trade matter?. ESRI WP462. July 2013

    Di Cosmo, Valeria; Hyland, Marie
    This paper uses data from the World Input Output Database (WIOD) to examine channels through which CO2 emissions are embodied within and imported into the European production process. We apply a metric to calculate sectoral emission intensity and thus rank countries and sectors in the EU in terms of their emission intensity, and look at the evolution of patterns of emission intensity in 2005 and in 2009. We use an input-output price model to simulate the effect that a rise in the price of EU-ETS allowances, from $17 to $25 /tonne, would have on the final price of goods in...

  11. Climate Policy Under Fat‐Tailed Risk: An Application of Dice. ESRI WP403. August 2011

    Hwang, Chang; Reynes, Frederic; Tol, Richard S.J.
    Uncertainty plays a significant role in evaluating climate policy, and fat‐tailed uncertainty may dominate policy advice. Should we make our utmost effort to prevent the arbitrarily large impacts of climate change under deep uncertainty? In order to answer to this question we propose an new way of investigating the impact of (fat‐tailed) uncertainty on optimal climate policy: the curvature of carbon tax against the uncertainty. We find that the optimal carbon tax increases as the uncertainty about climate sensitivity increases, but it does not accelerate as implied by Weitzman’s Dismal Theorem. We find the same result in a wide variety...

  12. The Role of Decision-Making Biases in Ireland’s Banking Crisis. ESRI WP389. May 2011

    Lunn, Pete
    This paper considers Ireland’s banking crisis from the perspective of behavioural economics. It assesses whether known biases in judgement and decision-making were instrumental in the development and severity of the crisis. It investigates evidence that key decision-makers, including consumers, businesspeople, bankers and regulators, as well as parties such as civil servants, politicians, academics and journalists, were influenced by seven specific phenomena which have been identified previously via experiments and field studies. It concludes that evidence is consistent with the influence of these established phenomena. Ireland’s long boom, rapid financial integration and lack of relevant past experience may have increased the...

  13. THE UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THE TOTAL ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE. ESRI WP382. April 2011

    Tol, Richard S.J.
    This paper uses a vote-counting procedure to estimate the probability density function of the total economic impact as a parabolic function of global warming. There is a wide range of uncertainty about the impact of climate change up to 3ºC, and the information becomes progressively more diffuse beyond that. Warming greater than 3ºC most likely has net negative impacts, and warming greater than 7ºC may lead to a total welfare loss. The expected value of the social cost of carbon is about $29/tC in 2015 and rises at roughly 2% per year.

  14. THE CLIMATE CHANGE RESPONSE BILL 2010: AN ASSESSMENT. ESRI WP371. January 2011

    Tol, Richard S.J.; Gorecki, Paul K.
    Climate change is an important problem. It would be desirable to have legislation that would put Ireland on a low-cost and equitable trajectory to a zero-carbon economy. The draft Climate Change Response Bill 2010 will not achieve that. The exact emission reduction targets for 2020 are ambiguous, but considerably more ambitious than Ireland’s obligations under EU legislation. EU legislation severely constrains the options for domestic climate policy so that the extra emission reduction would fall almost exclusively on agriculture, households, small and medium enterprises, and transport. The target in the draft bill for 2020 would require draconian policies. It would...

  15. International Cooperation on Climate Change Adaptation from an Economic Perspective. ESRI WP323. October 2009

    de Bruin, Kelly C.; Dellink, Rob B.; Tol, Richard S.J.
    What role could a property tax play in broadening the Irish tax base? Could a recurrent tax on immovable property provide greater stability than a system of stamp duties, while removing obstacles to mobility? What about the relationship between a property tax and ability to pay – should or could the bills facinThis paper investigates the economic incentives of countries to cooperate on international adaptation financing. Adaptation is generally implicitly incorporated in the climate change damage functions as used in Integrated Assessment Models. We replace the implicit decision on adaptation with explicit adaptation in a multi-regional setting by using an...

  16. The Determinants of Mode of Transport to Work in the Greater Dublin Area. ESRI WP268. December 2008

    Commins, Nicola; Nolan, Anne
    Rapid economic and demographic change in the Greater Dublin Area over the last decade, with associated increases in car dependence and congestion, has focused policy on encouraging more sustainable forms of travel. In this context, knowledge of current travel patterns and their determinants is crucial. Here we concentrate on travel for a specific journey purpose, namely the journey to work. We employ cross-section micro-data from the 2006 Census of Population to analyse the influence of travel and supply-side characteristics, as well as demographic and socio-economic characteristics on the choice of mode of transport to work in the Greater Dublin Area.

  17. European Climate Policy and Aviation Emissions. ESRI WP241. May 2008

    Mayor, Karen; Tol, Richard S.J.
    We use a model of international and domestic tourist numbers and flows to investigate the effect of various climate policy instruments implemented in Europe on arrivals and emissions for the countries concerned. We find that these schemes do not fulfil their desired effects. The introduction of aviation into the European Trading system results in a fall in the number of tourists travelling into the EU in favour of other destinations. It also causes a significant welfare loss with only a small reduction in emissions. The flight taxes in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom result in different substitution effects across...

  18. Assessing Vulnerability of Selected Sectors Under Environmental Tax Reform: The Issue of Pricing Power. ESRI WP222. October 2007

    Fitz Gerald, J.; Keeney, M.; Scott, S.
    This paper investigates pricing power, an important criterion for identifying sectors that would be vulnerable under environmental tax reform. Environmental tax reform, defined here as introduction of carbon taxes alongside reductions in labour taxes, could bear heavily on sectors that are energy intensive and highly traded, in particular if their options for adapting technology are limited. However, a sector with pricing power has less to fear as, rather than having to conform to the world price, it can set its price to accommodate a tax mark-up.

  19. Climate Policy Versus Development Aid. ESRI WP221. December 2007

    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Rich countries have emitted most of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, while poor countries will suffer most from climate change. Rich countries have therefore committed to help poor countries adapt. However, this is financed from the general development budget, and hence may do more harm than good. Furthermore, development aid also finances emission reduction. These aspects of climate policy need to be overhauled. Development assistance should consider the impact of climate change, and reduce emissions where it can, but this can be achieved by marginal adjustments to current practice.

  20. The Effectiveness of Competition Policy and the Price-Cost Margin: Evidence from Panel Data. ESRI WP209. September 2007

    McCloughan, Patrick; Lyons, Sean; Batt, William
    This paper presents robust panel data econometric evidence suggesting that more effective competition policy curtails the exercise of market power because countries in which competition policy is judged to be more effective are characterised by lower market price-cost margins, controlling for other factors, including market growth, import penetration and spare capacity. The measure of competition policy effectiveness incorporated into our analysis is the annual survey-based ratings of national competition authorities (NCAs) produced by Global Competition Review (GCR). Our findings imply a role for competition in enhancing economic competitiveness and that government should continue to support NCAs in enforcing competition policy.

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