Ishiguro, Munehide; Fujii, Tomokazu
Abstract: The influence of surfactants on water infiltration in soil is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to propose a model for evaluating effects of an anionic surfactant on upward infiltration under saturated conditions in porous materials with highly contrasting wettability. The simplified equation for upward infiltration based on Darcy's law is equivalent to the widely used Washburn equation. We experimentally determined upward infiltration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution (0–700 mol m−3) into 60-cm-long, 2-cm-diameter columns filled with air-dry materials (glass beads, sand, leaf mold, peat moss, or polyethylene particles). In hydrophilic glass beads and sand,...
Ishiguro, Munehide; Tan, Wenfeng; Koopal, Luuk K.
Abstract: Commercial surfactants are introduced into the environment either through waste products or site-specific contamination. The amphiphilic nature of both surfactants and humic substances (HS) leads to their mutual attraction especially when surfactant and HS are oppositely charged. Binding of the cationic surfactants dodecyl-pyridinium chloride (DPC) and cetyl- or hexadecyl-pyridinium chloride (CPC) to purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA), Dando humic acid (DHA), Inogashira humic acid (IHA), Laurentian fulvic acid (LFA) and Strichen Bs fulvic acid (SFA) is studied at pH 4.5–5 at 0.005 M NaCl. For PAHA CPC binding is also studied at pH 5 and 0.1 M NaCl. Measurements...
Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K.
Abstract: The humic substances (HS) have a high reactivity with other components in the natural environment. An important factor for the reactivity of HS is their negative charge. Cationic surfactants bind strongly to HS by electrostatic and specific interaction. Therefore, a surfactant binding model is developed that takes both the specific and electrostatic interactions explicitly into account. The model is analogous to that of ion binding to HS with the NICA-Donnan model, but competition for the binding sites is not taken into account and the NICA-Donnan model reduces to the Langmuir–Freundlich–Hill–Donnan (LFH-D) model. The parameters of the LFH equation are...
はじめに: セディメントポリューション（ｓｅｄｉｍｅｎｔ ｐｏｌｌｕｔｉｏｎ：私は細粒土砂汚染と訳しています。）という言葉を耳にしたことはあるでしょうか。今回は、細粒土砂汚染が河川生物のひとつである付着藻類にもたらす影響を示したＹａｍａｄａ ＆ Ｎａｋａｍｕｒａ（２００２）の研究論文を中心に、その汚染の実態とそれの防ぎ方を水理量と関連づけて検討した例について紹介します。また、その汚染を防ぐための流域・河川管理の在り方について提案したいと思います。
Ahmed, Farook; Ishiguro, Munehide; Akae, Takeo
Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS), an anionic surfactant, is used as an important content of detergent. Its discharge without treatment causes environmental problem and its adsorptive behavior in soils is not fully understood. In this study, the adsorption behavior of DBS of linear carbon chain on volcanic ash soil was investigated before and after removing most of the organic matter from the soil. The soil used in the experiment is highly humic non- allophanic Andisol soil. Non-allophanic Andisol and DBS have negative charge, which helped to observe the negative-negative soil-surfactant interaction. The adsorption isotherm amount was measured at the electrolyte concentration...
Shimizu, N.; Okadome, H.; Wada, D.; Kimura, T.; Ohtsubo, K.
Chemometric amylose modeling for global calibration, using whole grain near infrared transmittance spectra and sample selection, was used in an artificial neural network (ANN), to assess the global and local models generated, based on samples of newly bred Indica, Japonica and rice. Global samples sets had a wide range of sample variation for amylose content and a narrow sample variation (amylose; 12.3 to 21%). For sample selection the CENTER algorithm was applied to generate calibration, validation and stop sample sets. Spectral preprocessing was found to reduce the optimum number of partial least squares (PLS) components for amylose content and thus...
Hashemi, Jafar; Shimizu, Naoto; Kimura, Toshinori
Rice is a major economic crop in Japan, where it is usually dried using a batch-type dryer until the final moisture content (FMC) reaches below 9%. The influence of low FMC (about 9%) produced by four drying temperatures (30, 40, 50, and 60℃) on the physical properties, milling, and cooking qualities of short grain aromatic rice were investigated. The obtained data were also compared with standard FMC (about 12%) treatments which were dried in a batch type dryer. The experimental result showed that for low FMC samples, head rice yield (HRY) was increased by 4% at drying temperatures of 30℃...
高橋, 寿明; 清水, 直人; フジウ, カテリーナ; ネヴェス, マルコス; 市川, 創作; 中嶋, 光敏
ハンマミルで調製された平均粒径 108μm の米微粉末を一次原料にして，粉末の液体窒素浸漬処理の後，超遠心粉砕機を用い，ロータ回転数を6000，8000，10000，14000，18000，18000 ×2 cycle rpmに設定して米のクラリオ微粉末化を試み，6種の米微粉末を調製した．それら米微粉末の成分と粒径分布の測定を行い，米のクラリオ微粉化の素過程に関して，各種米微粉末（低温臼式製粉粉，ハンマミル粉，ジェットミル粉）の成分や平均粒径を参考にしながら解析を進めた．次いで，走査型電子顕微鏡（SEM: Scanning electron microscopy）を用い粳米デンプンの粒子画像を対象にして，超遠心粉砕機による米微粉末と各種米微粉末の微細構造の観察を行った．超遠心粉砕機による米微粉化の素過程として，5種の玄米微粉末の粒子分布には，14.3～17.8 μmと52.1～92.1 μmの2つのピークが認められ，最も平均粒径の細かい粉砕粉末は，17 μmを中心とする粒径分布へと変化，収束していった．SEMによって観察された平均粒径40 μmの粒子は，輪郭が丸く，球形に近かった．平均粒径10 μm以下の粒子の構造は，粳米デンプンの一次粒子に近い多面体であった．また，粉末の加工適性として重要な品質項目であるバルク粉末表面の白色度について，マイクロスケールまで微細化された米微粉末は，より白色度が高まり，細かいほど白いとする傾向は，数マイクロまでサイズダウンされた米微粉末についてもいえるとともに，白度が有用な指標であることがわかった．
吉岡, 泰嗣; 清水, 直人
加圧熱水の反応場を用いてモチ米澱粉のナノスケール化を行った．澱粉の濃度，加圧熱水の圧力と温度をそれぞれ操作し，調製条件の違いによる澱粉粒子の性質の違いを観察した．澱粉粒子の性質としてゼータ電位・粒度分布測定装置を用いて平均粒子径と粒子径分布を測定した．澱粉の平均粒子径は調製条件に依存し，濃度が小さいほど平均粒子径は小さくなり，圧力と温度が高いほど平均粒子径は小さくなった．濃度0.1%（w/w），初期圧力3.0 MPa，到達温度180°Cという調製条件において平均粒子径が150.4 nmとなり，本実験における最小の平均粒子径を示すことが明らかになった．また，100 nm以下の粒子が約30%であった．本実験の操作範囲において温度，圧力および濃度を操作することで平均粒子径を制御し，目的に応じた平均粒子径の試料を調製できることが示唆された．また，大気圧−100°Cで調製した場合においては100 nm以下の成分が確認できず，加圧熱水を用いて調製した場合ではいずれの試料においても100 nm以下に粒子の分布が認められた．このことから加圧熱水は平均粒子径100 nm以下の小さな粒子を調製する手段として有効であることがわかった．さらに，圧力と温度からMarshall-Franckの式を用いて求めた水のイオン積によって，加圧熱水の反応場の特性を評価できることが明らかになった．
伊藤, 貴則; 清水, 直人
亜臨界水を用いてイヌリンからDFA IIIの工業的生産法の確立を目的とし，亜臨界水の処理温度（設定温度：150-170℃，圧力：3.0-5.0 MPa）がイヌリンの加水分解に与える影響について調べた．イヌリン加水分解物の質量分析結果から，イヌリン加水分解物の構成成分はDFA IIIを含むジフルクトース無水物（DFAs），単糖類，オリゴ糖（重合度：2-12）などであった．150，155，160℃の3水準で調製したイヌリン加水分解物を構成するオリゴ糖の重合度は2-12であるのに対し，165，170℃の2水準で調製したオリゴ糖の重合度は2-4であった．また，紫外・可視スペクトル測定において，イヌリン加水分解物にはHMFやフルフラールなどの成分を含むことも確認した．本方式によってイヌリンからDFA IIIを変換する最適温度域は160-165℃であった．本研究は，上述した亜臨界水の状態においてイヌリンからDFA IIIを生産できることを示した．
HAQUE, Md. Ashraful; SUDEEPA, M.K.K.; SHIMIZU, Naoto; KIMURA, Toshinori
The performance of a method that could accelerate the sorption process of biological materials was evaluated with respect to rapidness (expedition of sorption), comparability of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) values with the control (conventional static method) and effect of specific airflow rates on the rate of sorption, EMC, and sorption rate constant. For this purpose, a simple, compact, and inexpensive experimental setup was fabricated with a facility to agitate the conditioned air around the sample. Different forms of raw and parboiled rice kernels (rough rice, brown rice, and milled rice) of an Indica variety were used as sample material. Both...
ROY, Poritosh; SHIMIZU, Naoto; KIMURA, Toshinori
Laboratory scale studies were conducted to determine temperature distribution in the traditional parboiling process using a rice cooker. A sample holder with a wire-mesh bottom was used to keep the sample from the hot water. The material temperature and the qualities of parboiled rice (hardness, color, lightness and head rice yield) were determined for different layers. The thickness of each layer was about 20 mm. The temperature distribution in this parboiling process (pre-steaming and steaming) was found to be uneven. The change of material temperature was faster for the first (bottom layer; beneath which steam started to penetrate the paddy...
SHIMIZU, Naoto; OKADOME, Hiroshi; YANAGISAWA, Takeshi; ANDREN, Henrik; THENTE, Karin; KIMURA, Toshinori; OHTSUBO, Ken'ichi
The performance of partial least squares (PLS) calibration models developed using NIR and visible transmittance were examined in order to improve the accuracy of the calibration model for amylose content. The regression coefficients in the PLS calibration model developed by a full-cross validation using the wavelength region from 570 to 1000 nm (Model B) were smoother and the fluctuations of the coefficients were smaller than the model developed by a full-cross validation using the wavelength region from 850 to 1048 nm (Model A). Significant peaks in the regression coefficients of Model A were characterized by two absorption bands at 928...
Shimizu, Naoto; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hidechika; Andren, Henrik; Kimura, Toshinori; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi
The objective of this study was to develop a partial least squares regression (PLS) calibration method of maximum viscosity determination of Japanese milled rice flours using near-infrared transmittance (NIT) spectroscopy. The diversity of spectra and maximum viscosity of wide ranging of rice subfamilies were much more than those of japonica type rices. The variations of spectra and maximum viscosity were found to influence PLS loading weights. C-H and O-H in ROH and H2O absorbances presented by the loading weights were significant in the 8th loading of the PLS model for japonica type rices. The performance of this PLS calibration model...
ISLAM, Md. Rabiul; SHIMIZU, Naoto; KIMURA, Toshinori
This study was undertaken to generate useful information regarding the change of quality of parboiled rice for different processing conditions through the change of physical properties and to search for correlation among the quality indicators. Physical properties, namely, maximum viscosity, hardness of brown rice, hardness and adhesion of cooked rice, volume expansion ratio and solid content were investigated. A first order kinetic model predicted well the effect of processing conditions on the maximum viscosity and hardness of brown rice, indicating the quality index and rate of change of quality with their respective final and reaction rate constant values. The effect...
SHIMIZU, Naoto; KATSURA, Jyunji; YANAGISAWA, Takashi; INOUE, Shigeru; WITHEY, Robin P.; COWE, Ian A.; EDDISON, Colin G.; BLAKENEY, Anthony B.; KIMURA, Toshinori; YOSHIZAKI, Shigeru; OKADOME, Hiroshi; TOYOSHIMA, Hidechika; OHTSUBO, Ken’ichi
The objective of the present study was to develop a method to analyze apparent amylose content (AAC) of Japanese milled rices using near-infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT). Samples (n=110, varieties=37), harvested in 1996, were collected at various sites throughout Japan. Whole-grain milled rice was scanned using a near-infrared range (833-1050 nm with 8 nm steps and 27 wavelengths) transmittance filter type spectrometer. The AACs of samples were in the range of 13.1% to 20.7% (SD: 1.53). The wide range AAC (0-35.3%) partial least squares (PLS) model was found to be inadequate for accurate prediction of the narrow AAC range (13.2-20.7%) of...
清水, 直人; Sandra, Kays; Barton, Franklin; 藤田, 雅也; 石川, 直幸; 小田, 俊介; 木村, 俊範; 大坪, 研一
Whole-grain milled barley (n=56) was scanned
using a near-infrared transmittance spectrosco-
py (NIT) (850-1048nm) and total dietary fiber
(TDF) was determined for each cultivar by
AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method (Method
991. 43). The validation statistics of PLS models using calibration (n=28) and validation (n=28)
sets were the standard error of performance
(SEP) of O.89～1.03, the coefficient of determina-
tion (RR2) of O.83～0.88, Bias of-0.25～0.17 and the
ratio of the SEP to the standard deviation of the
original data (RPD) of 2.5～2.9. This method
could be applied to rough screening in barley
Roy, Poritosh; Shimizu, Naoto; Kimura, Toshinori
Laboratory scale studies were conducted to investigate temperature distribution and heat utilization efficiency in the traditional parboiling process using a rice cooker under open and covered conditions. A sample holder with a wire-mesh bottom was used to keep the sample above the hot water in the rice cooker. The material temperature and the quality of parboiled rice (measured by hardness and head rice yield) were also determined for different layers. The temperature distribution in the parboiling process (pre-steaming and steaming) was found to be uneven for both conditions. However, the covered method has a propensity to improve it. The change...
Ning, Zigong; Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K; Sato, Tsutomu; Kashiwagi, Jun’ichi
ABSTRACT: Behavior of radioactive strontium (Sr2+) in contaminated soils is an important issue in relation to nuclear power plant accidents. The Sr2+adsorption on kaolinite and its migration in a kaolinite soil were investigated because toxic effects of radioactive Sr2+have been found to be very severe for living organisms at low Sr2+concentrations. Adsorption isotherms of Sr2+on kaolinite at different salt (NaCl) concentration and pH were obtained by the batch method. The calculated distribution coefficients (KD) ranged between 600 and 40,000 L kg−1, which showed a strong preference for the adsorbed phase. The results were used to evaluate the ratio (r) of...
Agathokleous, Eugenios; Vanderstock, Amelie; Kita, Kazuhito; Koike, Takayoshi
Ozone (O3) pollution and soil infertility may negatively affect boreal forests across the Northern Hemisphere. Impacts to economically and ecologically important larches (Larix sp., Pinacaeae) are particularly concerning. Using a free air O3 enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the effect of 2-year elevated O3 exposure (approximate to 66 nmol mol-1)) on Japanese larch (L. kaempferi) and its hybrid larch F1 (L. gmelinii var. japonica x L. kaempferi) planted directly into either fertile brown forest soil (BF) or BF mixed with infertile volcanic ash soil (VA). Overall, photosynthetic pigmentation and the growth performance of the stem and crown were reduced in...