
Schwarzer, Martin C.; Fujioka, Akane; Ishii, Takaoki; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Mori, Seiji; Sawamura, Masaya
Coppercatalyzed asymmetric direct alkynylation of alphaketoesters with terminal alkynes with chiral prolinolphosphine ligands, most preferably (alpha R, 2S)1(2dicyclohexylphosphinobenzyl)alphaneopentyl2pyrrolidinemethanol, afforded various enantioenriched chiral propargylic tertiary alcohols. Quantumchemical calculations using the BP86 density functional including Grimme's empirical dispersion correction [DFBP86D3(BJ)PCM(tBuOH)/TZVPP//DFBP86D3(BJ)/SVP] show the occurrence of OH center dot center dot center dot O/sp(3)CH center dot center dot center dot O twopoint hydrogen bonding between the chiral ligand and the carbonyl group of the ketoester in the stereodetermining transition states. Combined with the hydrogenbonding interactions orienting the ketoester substrate, dispersive attractions between the chiral ligand (Pcyclohexyl groups) and the ketoester in the favored transition...

Katoono, Ryo; Obara, Yudai; Fujiwara, Kenshu; Suzuki, Takanori
When two planes stacked one above the other are twisted, they provide a dynamic pair of helical conformations with (M) or (P)helicity. We designed a threelayer cyclophane that consists of two such dynamic pairs: the top and middle planes, and the middle and bottom planes. Hence, several global conformations could be created for the overall molecule, e.g., doublehelical forms with a pair with the same helicity [(M, M) or (P, P)], and a mesolike form with a pair with a different helicity (M, P). These conformations dynamically interconvert to each other in solution. Chiroptical properties were given by the helicalsense...

Nukada, Yumiko; Horie, Mayu; Fukui, Akimasa; Kotani, Tomoya; Yamashita, Masakane
Dynamic changes of cytoplasmic and cortical actin filaments drive various cellular and developmental processes. Although realtime imaging of actin filaments in living cells has been developed, imaging of actin filaments in specific cells of living organisms remains limited, particularly for the analysis of gamete formation and early embryonic development. Here, we report the production of transgenic zebrafish expressing the Cterminus of Moesin, an actin filamentbinding protein, fused with green fluorescent protein or red fluorescent protein (GFP/RFPMoeC), under the control of a cyclin B1 promoter. GFP/RFPMoeC was expressed maternally, which labels the cortical actin cytoskeleton of blastulastage cells. High levels of...

Takei, Natsumi; Nakamura, Takuma; Kawamura, Shohei; Takada, Yuki; Satoh, Yui; Kimura, Atsushi P.; Kotani, Tomoya
Background: Subcellular localization of coding and noncoding RNAs has emerged as major regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in various cell types and many organisms. However, techniques that enable detection of the subcellular distribution of these RNAs with high sensitivity and high resolution remain limited, particularly in vertebrate adult tissues and organs. In this study, we examined the expression and localization of mRNAs encoding Pou5f1/Oct4, Mos, Cyclin B1 and Deleted in Azoospermialike (Dazl) in zebrafish and mouse ovaries by combining tyramide signal amplification (TSA)based in situ hybridization with paraffin sections which can preserve cell morphology of tissues and organs at subcellular...

Masuta, Yukari; Kawabe, Akira; Nozawa, Kosuke; Naito, Ken; Kato, Atsushi; Ito, Hidetaka
In plants, several transposable elements are conserved across species. We found a homolog of ONSEN, which
is a heatactivated retrotransposon originally isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana, in Vigna. The ONSENlike
elements (VaONS) were detected in all the analyzed Japanese accessions of Vigna angularis (adzuki bean) by
Southern blot analysis. However, VaONS sequences were observed to be polymorphic in the different accessions.
Interestingly, extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) was detected in some accessions of adzuki bean, indicating
the conserved heatactivation of VaONS. Furthermore, we successfully induced retrotransposition of
VaONS in adzuki plant regenerated through callus. Findings of our study should provide a new tool for molecular
breeding of adzuki bean.

Takayama, Yurie; Ishii, Takaoki; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Iwai, Tomohiro; Schwarzer, Martin C.; Mori, Seiji; Taniguchi, Tohru; Monde, Kenji; Sawamura, Masaya
Prolinolphosphine chiral ligands enabled highly enantioselective coppercatalyzed intermolecular alkynenitrone coupling (Kinugasa reaction) to produce 1,3,4trisubstituted chiral betalactams. A high level of enantiocontrol was achieved not only with arylor alkenylacetylenes but also with alkylacetylenes, which were important but unfavorable substrates in the previously reported protocols. Twopoint hydrogen bonding between the chiral ligand and the nitrone oxyanion consisting of OH center dot center dot center dot O and C(sp(3)) H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds is proposed.

Akiyama, Takuya; Momose, Kunikazu; Onuma, Manabu; Matsumoto, Fumio; Masuda, Ryuichi
The redcrowned crane (Grus japonensis) is recognized internationally as an endangered species. Migratory populations breed in eastern Russia and northeastern China, whereas the resident population inhabits the island of Hokkaido, Japan. Although the population inhabiting Hokkaido had experienced a severe bottleneck by the end of the 19th century, the population size has recovered to about 1500 and continues to increase now thanks to conservation efforts. A previous study reported that no marked genetic differences were seen in the island population, and that the genetic variation of the whole population on Hokkaido was lower than that of the continental population. However,...

Sato, Yuta; Murakami, Yota; Takahashi, Masayuki
A variety of biochemical fractionation methods are available for the quantification of cytoskeletal components. However, each method is designed to target only one cytoskeletal network, either the micro tubule (MT) or actin cytoskeleton, and nontargeted cytoskeletal networks are ignored. Considering the importance of MT actin crosstalk, the organization of both the targeted and nontargeted cytoskeletal networks must be retained intact during fractionation for the accurate analysis of cytoskeletal organization. In this study, we reveal that existing fractionation methods, represented by the MT sedimentationmethod for MTs and the Triton X100 solubility assaymethod for actin cytoskeletons, disrupt the organizations of the nontargeted...

Katsurada,Hidenori; Kawamura,Hisaaki

Izumiya,S.; Marar,W.L.
We give a relation between Euler characteristics of a generic closed Legendrian surface and its wavefront.

Kubo,Masahiro; Yamazaki,Noriaki
We study periodic solutions of quasilinear ellipticparabolic variational inequalities with timedependent constraints. Assuming that the constraint changes periodically in time, we prove existence of periodic solutions. Moreover, applications of the general results are given.

Shibukawa,Youichi
In this work, we propose and investigate dynamical YangBaxter maps, some of which produce solutions to the (quantum) dynamical YangBaxter equation. Suppose that L is a loop and a group. If their unit elements coincide, then L gives birth to a bijective dynamical YangBaxter map from L x L to L x L whose dynamical parameter belongs to L. The above group L is abelian if and only if the corresponding dynamical YangBaxter map satisfies the unitary condition.

Kubo,Masahiro; Yamazaki,Noriaki
We study variational inequalities with timedependent constraints for quasilinear parabolic PDE of divergence form. Introducing a general condition on the constrains, we prove existence, uniqueness and order property of solution. Some applications are given.

Kubo,Masahiro; Yamazaki,Noriaki
We study variational inequalities for ellipticparabolic eqnations with timedependent constraints. Introducing a general condition for the timedependence of convex sets defining the constraints, we establish theorems concerning existence, uniqueness as well as order property of solution. Some applications of the general results are given.

Giga,MiHo; Giga,Yoshikazu; Pozar,Norbert
We introduce a new notion of viscosity solutions for a class of very singular nonlinear parabolic problems of nondivergence form in a periodic domain of arbitrary dimension, whose di usion on flat parts with zero slope is so strong that it becomes a nonlocal quantity. The problems include the classical total variation flow and a motion of a surface by a crystalline mean curvature. We establish a comparison principle, the stability under approximation by regularized parabolic problems, and an existence theorem for general continuous initial data.

Katsurada,Hidenori
We give an explicit formula for the twisted KoecherMaa? series of the DukeImamogluIkeda lift. As an application we prove a certain algebraicity result for the values of twisted RankinSelberg series at integers of halfintegral weight modular forms.

Yamada,Michio; Yoneda,Tsuyoshi
An incompressible twodimensional flow on a β plane is considered. The β plane is a tangent plane of a sphere to approximately describe fluid motion on a rotating sphere assuming that the Coriolis parameter is a linear function of the latitude. Rossby waves are expected to dominate the β plane dynamics, and here in this paper, a mathematical support for the crucial role of the resonant pairs of the Rossby waves is given.

Yamaguchi,K.

Inoue,A
We prove a representation of the partial autocorrelation function α(・) of a stationary process { Xn : n ∈ Z}, in terms of the AR(∞) and MA(∞) coefficients. We apply it to show what α(n) looks like for large n, especially, when {Xn} is a longmemory process. For example, if {Xn} is a fractional ARIMA(p. d. q) process, then we have a(n)～d/n as n → ∞.

Lehmann,D; Suwa,T