In spite of its limited competence in the matter2, the EU has engaged in an ambitious
struggle against lifestyle risks (tobacco, alcohol, diets, etc.)3 using its harmonisation
powers under Article 114 TFEU concerning the internal market. While this objective
may be laudable, it is also true that when the internal market objective completely
disappears behind the public health objective, the EU faces an eminent constitutional
problem. Indeed, the question of when the EU can, and cannot, use its broad
harmonisation power under Article 114 TFEU4 has long agitated the European legal
community, for it is a crucial element of the vertical repartition of competences
between the Union and...
Salines, Marion; Glockler, Gabriel; del Favero, Paola; Truchlewski, Zbigniew
This paper examines how and why the institutional framework governing EMU hasevolved since the creation of the euro. Building on theories of institutionalism, the paper in particular investigates to what extent functional spill-overs from the single currency to other policy domains, like macroeconomic policies or financial regulation, met with an
adequate institutional response, and to what extent the existing institutional framework conditioned the response to the financial crisis. The interaction between policy
requirements and institutional capabilities is examined both in “ordinary” times (1999-2007) and under “crisis conditions” (2007-2010). The paper uses a typology of change
which helps to put into perspective both the...
Van Camp, Stefan; Bouyon, Sylvain; Zarra, Antonella
This study carries out an ex-ante impact assessment of substantial amendments put forward by the IMCO and JURI Committees of the European Parliament, which would introduce a commercial lifespan guarantee in the proposed online sales and digital content Directives. It analyses the impact of these proposed amendments through the development of specific policy options. Two non-legislative options, implying that none of the amendments are implemented, are first assessed: an Option zero and a soft law approach (Option 1). Three distinct legislative options are also defined, by integrating specific aspects of the amendments: Option 2 (subjective duration of lifespan), Option 3...
Olszański, Tadeusz A.
The war with Russia which began in 2014 has triggered serious changes in the way history is thought about by the Ukrainian public, especially in opinion-forming circles. The liberal reflection critical about the nationalist tradition initiated somewhat earlier has been rejected since wartime requires heroic narratives above all. Ukraine also had to counteract the propaganda offensive from Russia which wanted to equate the Ukrainian patriotic movement with radical nationalism seen at the time of World War II, which it branded as ‘fascist’.
Although in the 1990s the Russian Far East was not an important region in Russian central government’s internal policy, when Vladimir Putin assumed the presidency it was declared strategically significant. However, Moscow has been unable to generate a tangible stimulus to the region’s development so far. This is partly due to the systemic problems existing in Russia as a whole: the lack of a consistent concept of economic development and the ineffective governance system, and on the other hand, of purely local barriers: staffing problems, the decentralised energy system and the limited engagement of foreign investors.
Carrera, Sergio; Guild, Elspeth; Vosyliūtė, Lina; Bárd, Petra
This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for
Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee,
examines the added value of developing a democratic rule of law and fundamental
rights-based approach to the protection of minorities in the EU legal system, from
an ‘intersectional’ viewpoint. It presents the state of play regarding the main
challenges characterising the protection of ethnic, religious and linguistic
minorities in a selection of 11 European countries, in light of existing international
and regional legal standards. Minority protection has been an EU priority in
enlargement processes as a conditional criterion for candidate countries to accede
to the Union. Yet...
The annexation of Crimea by Russia and the first weeks of the war in the Donbas revealed what Ukraine’s armed forces were in reality – a petrified structure, incapable of any effective action in the face of minimal enemy engagement. A considerable section of the armed forces’ personnel gradually became aware of whom they were representing only in the course of the conflict and it was not rare that from the perspective of service in one of post-Soviet military districts they sided with Russia.
In 2014–2016, Ukraine’s banking sector was affected by what has proven to be the most serious crisis in its modern history. Almost half of the banks went bankrupt and the losses incurred by the state and banking sector clients was in excess of US$ 20 billion. With considerable support and under major pressure from the West, Ukraine’s government has managed to stabilise the situation in the sector. Despite tangible improvement, it is too early to determine whether the reform programme has been successfully implemented and if the improvement is sustainable. The crisis has made it necessary for major changes to...
Kilhoffer, Zachary; Lenaerts, Karolien; Beblavý , Miroslav
This paper investigates the relationship between the platform economy, industrial relations and
social dialogue, as portrayed in the literature. It provides strong evidence that workers in the
platform economy are organising into new employee associations (unions) and are also being
brought into existing employees associations. None of the evidence surveyed indicates that
platforms are organising into employer associations or being incorporated into existing employer
associations. Anecdotal evidence suggests that actors in the platform economy are engaging in
tripartite dialogue. The authors conclude that i) no overarching framework exists for governing or
facilitating social dialogue between the parties involved in the platform economy, and ii) even if the
Benedetto, Giacomo.; Rinaldi, David; Aden, Hartmut
This briefing introduces the challenges that have been faced in delivering a discharge
of the Council’s budget over the last decade, with particular regard to the Council’s
executive activities. The authors analyse the institutional and legal constraints and
put forward a number of recommendations aimed at achieving more accountability
regarding the Council’s budget and executive expenditure without resorting to treaty
This report looks at the feasibility of a European Commission’s initiative aimed at
adopting net reduction targets for regulatory costs. As many as 14 alternative
options are compared in terms of their comprehensiveness, accuracy,
methodological simplicity, timeliness of implementation and compatibility with
existing political commitments. The study calls for the adoption of a sequential
approach to cost reduction, which implies that the Commission starts setting
reduction targets in selected policy areas as early as the end of 2017, and gradually
builds capacity over time on the quantification of regulatory costs for all the relevant
Traditional finance focuses solely on financial return and risk. By contrast, sustainable finance considers financial, social and environmental returns in combination. This essay provides a new framework for sustainable finance highlighting the move from the narrow shareholder model to the broader stakeholder model, aimed at long-term value creation for the wider community. Major obstacles to sustainable finance are short-termism and insufficient private efforts. To overcome these obstacles, this essay develops guidelines for governing sustainable finance.
Rizos, Vasileios; Behrens, Arno; Rinaldi, David; Drabik, Eleanor
In recent years the circular economy has received increasing attention worldwide due to, inter alia, the recognition that security of supply of resources and environmental sustainability are crucial for the prosperity of countries and businesses. This report urges G20 countries to develop frameworks that enhance the circular economy and more generally sustainable production and consumption modes. In this context, their governments are encouraged to: 1) integrate the circular economy into discussions about implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement, 2) work towards agreed terminologies for circular economy products and processes, 3) support demand for circular economy...
Barslund, Mikkel; Akgüç, Mehtap; Laurentsyeva, Nadzeya; Ludolph, Lars
From the Introduction. Throughout the EU, policy makers and voters are
uncertain about the best way forward for policies
on asylum, immigration, and immigrant integration.
The number of asylum seekers who enter the EU
irregularly has declined sharply from its peak in late 2015,
offering a much-needed respite to over-stretched reception
systems in the few EU countries that have received
most asylum seekers. However, the policies that brought
about this reduction – mainly, the EU’s agreement with
Turkey to curb irregular migration and the closure of land
borders in the Western Balkans to irregular migrants –
will be difficult to sustain. It is not clear how the humanitarian
emergencies that currently afflict...
The oil industry does not play a major role in the Ukrainian energy sector and has smaller economic and political significance than the gas, coal and nuclear sectors. The issues linked to the Ukrainian fuel sector are rarely given publicity in the mass media. Meanwhile, a comprehensive analysis reveals that there has been a painful and durable collapse in this strategic branch of the economy. What once was a powerful Ukrainian refining sector has been plunged into deep crisis for years. Only one out of the six existing refineries is currently in operation, using only a small section of its...
Riess, Birgit; Bachmann, Günther
By issuing this guide, the Council for Sustainable Development (RNE) and the Bertelsmann Foundation wish to encourage small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)* in particular to apply the German Sustainability Code (GSC). We want to support them to the best of our ability. The Sustainability Code is not only a reporting tool that is tailored to you, but it also provides you with guidance relating to sustainability management. With its 20 criteria for sustainable management, drawn up in dialogue with stakeholders in 2011 and revised in 2014, the GSC helps businesses to see clearly what is meant by the term “sustainability”,...
Arpe, Jan; Glockner, Holger; Hauschild, Helmut; Petersen, Thieß; Schaich, Andreas; Volkmann, Tim
The world is changing at breathtaking speed. Global challenges, from climate change to cyber crime, are growing increasingly complex. Emerging economic powers in Asia and Latin America are assuming greater roles in geopolitical matters. The shift of economic power to the east is creating new dependencies. In short, the ground rules of international cooperation are being rewritten.
The “Global Choices” publication series takes a closer look at these changes and how they affect politics, business and society. By facilitating an informed understanding of these changes, this series aims to contribute constructively to debates regarding the principles of a new global order...
This paper outlines five lessons from the Latin American debt crises of 1982-1989 and 2001-2002 that are applicable to present-day Europe.
Dimitrova, Antoaneta; Steunenberg, Bernard
This paper proposes an analytical framework, which we use to examine the implementation of the European Union’s policy on movable cultural heritage. We apply this framework to the case of transposition and implementation of the EU rules regarding movable cultural heritage in Bulgaria. We
find different implementation outcomes stemming from one and the same formal policy. Due to high levels of polarization between political decision makers, the implementing actors have broad discretion to apply different informal policies. In depth analysis of implementation also suggests that under these conditions different implementing players have followed their normative orientations and applied completely different informal...