Although in the 1990s the Russian Far East was not an important region in Russian central government’s internal policy, when Vladimir Putin assumed the presidency it was declared strategically significant. However, Moscow has been unable to generate a tangible stimulus to the region’s development so far. This is partly due to the systemic problems existing in Russia as a whole: the lack of a consistent concept of economic development and the ineffective governance system, and on the other hand, of purely local barriers: staffing problems, the decentralised energy system and the limited engagement of foreign investors.
Carrera, Sergio; Guild, Elspeth; Vosyliūtė, Lina; Bárd, Petra
This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for
Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee,
examines the added value of developing a democratic rule of law and fundamental
rights-based approach to the protection of minorities in the EU legal system, from
an ‘intersectional’ viewpoint. It presents the state of play regarding the main
challenges characterising the protection of ethnic, religious and linguistic
minorities in a selection of 11 European countries, in light of existing international
and regional legal standards. Minority protection has been an EU priority in
enlargement processes as a conditional criterion for candidate countries to accede
to the Union. Yet...
The annexation of Crimea by Russia and the first weeks of the war in the Donbas revealed what Ukraine’s armed forces were in reality – a petrified structure, incapable of any effective action in the face of minimal enemy engagement. A considerable section of the armed forces’ personnel gradually became aware of whom they were representing only in the course of the conflict and it was not rare that from the perspective of service in one of post-Soviet military districts they sided with Russia.
In 2014–2016, Ukraine’s banking sector was affected by what has proven to be the most serious crisis in its modern history. Almost half of the banks went bankrupt and the losses incurred by the state and banking sector clients was in excess of US$ 20 billion. With considerable support and under major pressure from the West, Ukraine’s government has managed to stabilise the situation in the sector. Despite tangible improvement, it is too early to determine whether the reform programme has been successfully implemented and if the improvement is sustainable. The crisis has made it necessary for major changes to...
Kilhoffer, Zachary; Lenaerts, Karolien; Beblavý , Miroslav
This paper investigates the relationship between the platform economy, industrial relations and
social dialogue, as portrayed in the literature. It provides strong evidence that workers in the
platform economy are organising into new employee associations (unions) and are also being
brought into existing employees associations. None of the evidence surveyed indicates that
platforms are organising into employer associations or being incorporated into existing employer
associations. Anecdotal evidence suggests that actors in the platform economy are engaging in
tripartite dialogue. The authors conclude that i) no overarching framework exists for governing or
facilitating social dialogue between the parties involved in the platform economy, and ii) even if the
Benedetto, Giacomo.; Rinaldi, David; Aden, Hartmut
This briefing introduces the challenges that have been faced in delivering a discharge
of the Council’s budget over the last decade, with particular regard to the Council’s
executive activities. The authors analyse the institutional and legal constraints and
put forward a number of recommendations aimed at achieving more accountability
regarding the Council’s budget and executive expenditure without resorting to treaty
This report looks at the feasibility of a European Commission’s initiative aimed at
adopting net reduction targets for regulatory costs. As many as 14 alternative
options are compared in terms of their comprehensiveness, accuracy,
methodological simplicity, timeliness of implementation and compatibility with
existing political commitments. The study calls for the adoption of a sequential
approach to cost reduction, which implies that the Commission starts setting
reduction targets in selected policy areas as early as the end of 2017, and gradually
builds capacity over time on the quantification of regulatory costs for all the relevant
Traditional finance focuses solely on financial return and risk. By contrast, sustainable finance considers financial, social and environmental returns in combination. This essay provides a new framework for sustainable finance highlighting the move from the narrow shareholder model to the broader stakeholder model, aimed at long-term value creation for the wider community. Major obstacles to sustainable finance are short-termism and insufficient private efforts. To overcome these obstacles, this essay develops guidelines for governing sustainable finance.
Rizos, Vasileios; Behrens, Arno; Rinaldi, David; Drabik, Eleanor
In recent years the circular economy has received increasing attention worldwide due to, inter alia, the recognition that security of supply of resources and environmental sustainability are crucial for the prosperity of countries and businesses. This report urges G20 countries to develop frameworks that enhance the circular economy and more generally sustainable production and consumption modes. In this context, their governments are encouraged to: 1) integrate the circular economy into discussions about implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement, 2) work towards agreed terminologies for circular economy products and processes, 3) support demand for circular economy...
Barslund, Mikkel; Akgüç, Mehtap; Laurentsyeva, Nadzeya; Ludolph, Lars
From the Introduction. Throughout the EU, policy makers and voters are
uncertain about the best way forward for policies
on asylum, immigration, and immigrant integration.
The number of asylum seekers who enter the EU
irregularly has declined sharply from its peak in late 2015,
offering a much-needed respite to over-stretched reception
systems in the few EU countries that have received
most asylum seekers. However, the policies that brought
about this reduction – mainly, the EU’s agreement with
Turkey to curb irregular migration and the closure of land
borders in the Western Balkans to irregular migrants –
will be difficult to sustain. It is not clear how the humanitarian
emergencies that currently afflict...
The oil industry does not play a major role in the Ukrainian energy sector and has smaller economic and political significance than the gas, coal and nuclear sectors. The issues linked to the Ukrainian fuel sector are rarely given publicity in the mass media. Meanwhile, a comprehensive analysis reveals that there has been a painful and durable collapse in this strategic branch of the economy. What once was a powerful Ukrainian refining sector has been plunged into deep crisis for years. Only one out of the six existing refineries is currently in operation, using only a small section of its...
Riess, Birgit; Bachmann, Günther
By issuing this guide, the Council for Sustainable Development (RNE) and the Bertelsmann Foundation wish to encourage small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)* in particular to apply the German Sustainability Code (GSC). We want to support them to the best of our ability. The Sustainability Code is not only a reporting tool that is tailored to you, but it also provides you with guidance relating to sustainability management. With its 20 criteria for sustainable management, drawn up in dialogue with stakeholders in 2011 and revised in 2014, the GSC helps businesses to see clearly what is meant by the term “sustainability”,...
Arpe, Jan; Glockner, Holger; Hauschild, Helmut; Petersen, Thieß; Schaich, Andreas; Volkmann, Tim
The world is changing at breathtaking speed. Global challenges, from climate change to cyber crime, are growing increasingly complex. Emerging economic powers in Asia and Latin America are assuming greater roles in geopolitical matters. The shift of economic power to the east is creating new dependencies. In short, the ground rules of international cooperation are being rewritten.
The “Global Choices” publication series takes a closer look at these changes and how they affect politics, business and society. By facilitating an informed understanding of these changes, this series aims to contribute constructively to debates regarding the principles of a new global order...
This paper outlines five lessons from the Latin American debt crises of 1982-1989 and 2001-2002 that are applicable to present-day Europe.
Dimitrova, Antoaneta; Steunenberg, Bernard
This paper proposes an analytical framework, which we use to examine the implementation of the European Union’s policy on movable cultural heritage. We apply this framework to the case of transposition and implementation of the EU rules regarding movable cultural heritage in Bulgaria. We
find different implementation outcomes stemming from one and the same formal policy. Due to high levels of polarization between political decision makers, the implementing actors have broad discretion to apply different informal policies. In depth analysis of implementation also suggests that under these conditions different implementing players have followed their normative orientations and applied completely different informal...
Bulmer, Simon; Paterson, William E.
This paper presents a set of theses to argue that, two decades after German re-unification and the end of the Cold War, Germany is playing a changed role in the European Union. It argues that changes in the European Union, German domestic politics and in its bilateral diplomacy have resulted in the emergence of a normalized European policy. The paper explores the sources of these changes from enlargement, strains in the euro-zone and bilateral relations with France, through changed processes of policy-making to public opinion. Since Germany has played a leading role in the integration process, the paper‘s findings have...
This paper investigates the factors behind political Group membership in the European Parliament. At the beginning of each legislative term, political Groups are formally constituted. In June 2009, more than 150 national parties, from the 27 member countries of the EU, joined one of the seven transnational groupings. Two main explanations of Group membership are advanced. A first, traditional argument for Group membership is based on the ideological or policy compatibility of the member parties within each political Group. National parties will join the political Group that
best matches their programmatic position. A second argument focuses, instead, on the structure of...
Boerger-De Smedt, Anne
Basé sur une recherche extensive en archives, cet article examine les origines historiques de la première Cour de Justice européenne. Par une analyse détaillée des négociations du Traité de Paris (1951), il retrace le chemin, semé d’embuches, parcouru par les Six pour déterminer la forme à donner au pilier judiciaire des institutions de la CECA et pour définir sa composition, son fonctionnement et surtout ses compétences. L’auteur défend la thèse que les Pères de l’Europe (ou, du moins, la plupart d’entre eux) n’ont pas eu, durant cette période conceptrice, une vision claire de la contribution future que la Cour pourrait...
Cardiff EDC, .
A guide to information sources on the Kingdom of Norway, with hyperlinks to information within European Sources Online and on external websites.