Recursos de colección

The KnowledgeBank at OSU (76.105 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

25th Hayes Graduate Research Forum (March, 2011)

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 38

  1. Effects of Processing on the Oxidative Stability of Docosahexaenoic Acid Oil

    Atnip, Allison
    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid which is essential for normal brain and retinal development. A deficiency in fetal cerebral DHA content has been associated with preterm delivery, which may lead to higher risks for autism, ADHD, and schizophrenia. Western diets are deficient in DHA intake, making the development of DHA-enriched products a growing facet of the food industry. The poor oxidative stability of DHA has made the development of such products challenging, as the oxidation is rapid and produces off-odors and flavors, making the product unacceptable to consumers. Effects of refining, bleaching, winterizing, and deodorizing on...

  2. Dynamic Trunk Control Influence on Run-to-Cut Maneuver: A Risk Factor for ACL Rupture

    Jamison, Steve
    ACL rupture is one of the most common serious knee injuries in field and court sports, with an estimated 70% of these being non-contact in nature, often from sudden changes in direction or pivoting. Previous studies have shown that knee abduction and tibial internal rotation moments independently strain the ACL. In collegiate athletes, deficits in dynamic trunk control, measured during an isolated trunk perturbation test, have been correlated to knee injury incidence. The goal of this study was to determine if dynamic trunk control during a run-to-cut maneuver was correlated to the dynamic loading of the knee during the same...

  3. What Do Fathers Do? A look into the daily activities of fathers versus mothers using time diary data

    Kotila, Letitia
    This study compares levels of mother and father involvement within activity categories that include engagement, responsibility, and childcare, across the transition to parenthood for dual-earner, first time parents. Findings indicate that while fathers are very involved with their children, there remain significant discrepancies in the amount of time mothers spend participating in childcare activities for their children. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Development of a Primary Care Clinician Intervention in the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescent: A Pound of Cure

    Anzeljc, Samantha
    Primary care clinicians, despite regular access to young families, lack a cohesive model for approaching office visits regarding excess weight. Using the 2007 Expert Committee’s Recommendations, a set of clinician guidelines on the standard of care for managing childhood obesity, we developed high quality intervention tools for clinician use to direct behavior modification in families with school-age children. We have developed “A Pound of Cure” (POC), a counseling process and educational materials founded on the ECRs, to provide clinicians with the necessary skill set to approach excess weight in children. POC modular counseling sessions and resources were piloted among physicians...

  5. Activated microglia from aged mice are less sensitive to anti-inflammatory feedback from IL-4

    Fenn, Ashley
    Aging is associated with increased inflammatory conditions both peripherally and centrally. Our lab has previously shown that microglia, innate immune cells of the central nervous system, become primed and reactive as a function of age. Following an inflammatory stimulus these primed microglia show exaggerated and prolonged activation associated with an extended sickness response and induction of depressive-like behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify a mechanistic cause for prolonged microglial activation following immune challenge. We report that following a peripheral injection of LPS, microglia from adult mice upregulate both inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2c) gene expression, extending our...

  6. Activated microglia from aged mice are less sensitive to anti-inflammatory feedback from IL-4

    Fenn, Ashley
    Aging is associated with increased inflammatory conditions both peripherally and centrally. Our lab has previously shown that microglia, innate immune cells of the central nervous system, become primed and reactive as a function of age. Following an inflammatory stimulus these primed microglia show exaggerated and prolonged activation associated with an extended sickness response and induction of depressive-like behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify a mechanistic cause for prolonged microglial activation following immune challenge. We report that following a peripheral injection of LPS, microglia from adult mice upregulate both inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2c) gene expression, extending our...

  7. Small Arts Organizations: Supporting their Creative Vitality

    Chang, Woong Jo
    This paper examines how to support the creative vitality of small arts organizations. It incorporates the Multiple Case Narrative on arts administrators at 13 selected small arts organizations and cross-references it with an in-depth case study on an emerging theatre. Highlighting the significant role of SAOs in the arts world, it explores the dynamic ecology of SAOs by focusing on the three key levers that move SAOs along the balancing point between their mission and their money in order for them to maintain their creative vitality: (1) Leadership/Entrepreneurship, (2) Technology, and (3) Support Systems. Conclusively, emphasizing that size consideration for...

  8. (E)MERGING VOICES: UNDERSTANDING CONSTRUCTIONS OF CITIZENSHIP FROM THE ECONOMIC MARGINS

    Kock, Stacia
    Using feminist theory as a background, this study explores the relationship between citizenship and economic identities, specifically looking at how those living in poverty define citizenship. Whether political or social in nature, citizenship as both an identity and a political construct influences the lives of all Americans. Feminist theorists (Jaggar, 2006; Kymlicka & Norma, 1994; Lister, 1997; 2003; Young, 2000) have long argued that citizenship excludes certain individuals on the basis of gender, racial, sexual, economic, and national identities. Yet, as this study aims to explore, do those who are thought to be excluded from citizenship understand themselves as excluded?...

  9. Lexical Ambiguity in Evolutionary Discourse: Implications for Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

    Rector, Meghan
    This study investigates lexical ambiguity in evolutionary discourse and explores the implications of such language for teaching, learning, and assessment. Specifically, this study investigated what students' mean when they use five terms that commonly occur in evolutionary explanations: pressure, select, adapt, need, and must. The study employed a new technological tool known as the Assessment Cascade System (ACS) to investigate the frequency with which undergraduate biology majors spontaneously incorporate lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations, as well as their definitions and explanations of what they meant when they used such terms. Among the 1282 initial responses, 81% of students spontaneously...

  10. Atomic Scale Modeling of the Effect of Irradiation on Silica Optical Fibers

    Govindarajan, Harish
    Optical fibers and optically-based sensors find extensive use in instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants due to their desirable characteristics and advantages over traditional electrical transmission systems, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Vitreous silica which has a high melting point (~1650°C), is a suitable material for optical fiber and sensor applications within high-temperature reactor pressure vessels. However, although pure vitreous silica-core fibers are transparent over a broad spectrum (ultraviolet to near infrared), irradiation causes the optical fibers to “darken” and form “color centers”. This leads to preferential absorption of light at frequencies specific to the defect...

  11. Evidence for a step-wise program of T cell development within the human tonsil

    McClory, Susan
    Human T cell development within the thymus is a well-characterized event, and it is known that a functional thymus is required for normal T cell generation to take place. Individuals with poor thymic function, from either congenital abnormality or post-natal injury, have a difficult time mounting a proper immune response and suffer from debilitating immune deficiency. Thus, it would be highly beneficial to identify an extrathymic human tissue that can support T cell differentiation so that we may eventually augment T cell production in these individuals. However, to date, no definitive site of extrathymic T cell development has been established....

  12. Insights into the faithful translation of the genetic code by the ribosome

    McClory, Sean
    In order to synthesize functional proteins from mRNA, the ribosome must correctly pair each 3 base mRNA codon with the corresponding 3 base anticodon of the cognate (correct) aminoacyl(aa)-tRNA. While this process largely depends upon codon-anticodon base-pairing, the ribosome’s job is complicated by the fact that there exists a large cellular pool of near-cognate aa-tRNAs capable of forming partial matches with the codon being translated, and these vastly outnumber cognate aa-tRNAs. The ribosome maintains high accuracy during translation by breaking the aa-tRNA selection process into two phases, initial selection and proofreading, increasing the accuracy by providing two opportunities for near-cognate...

  13. Word Frequency and Processing: Why the Brain Stores Some Words Whole and Others in Parts

    Parker, Jeffrey
    In this study I show evidence which suggests that how often a word occurs is instrumentally important in understanding how the mind stores and processes words; moreover, I suggest that the mind uses a previously undiscussed process of stripping parts from frequent complex words to recognize simpler and less frequent words found therein. This suggests an important interaction between word frequency and the structure of word storage in the mind. When processing a word, several factors affect how the word will be processed. For example, does the word contain multiple parts like govern-ment or is the word simple like govern? Research...

  14. Parenting Perfectionism as a Predictor of Parental Adjustment

    Lee, Meghan
    Perfectionism is conceptualized as the extent to which an individual holds excessively high standards for themselves, and is thought to be multi-dimensional, consisting of maladaptive and beneficial aspects. This paper aimed to examine the new construct of parenting perfectionism, defined as perfectionism specific to the parenting role, through two dimensions: self-oriented, or personal desire for perfection, and societal-oriented, or perceived societal expectations for perfection. Using longitudinal data from a sample of 182 dual-earner couples at the transition to parenthood, as part of the New Parents Project, I investigated the association between parenting perfectionism and parental adjustment. Results indicate that for...

  15. Pharmacologic Restoration of PP2A Activity by FTY720 as a Novel Therapy for Polycythemia Vera

    Oaks, Joshua
    Polycythemia Vera (PV) is an incurable rare myeloproliferative disorder driven by Jak2 V617F with few viable treatment options and no curative therapy available. With the intention of developing a curative treatment modality, we examined the interplay between the known tumor suppressor PP2A and the driver of PV, Jak2 V617F. We found PP2A to be inactivated by Jak2 V617F activity and that forced PP2A activity is produces a loss of Jak2 V617F activity and function. Of particular interest we found that the clinically relevant PP2A activator/immunosuppressant FTY720 (2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride, fingolimod, Gilenya) to activate PP2A in PV model cell lines and primary...

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibition of Human Bladder Cancer by Broccoli Isothiocyanates: Characterization, Absorption, Metabolism and Interconversion

    Abbaoui, Besma
    Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the fifth most common neoplasm and the twelfth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In addition, bladder cancer is estimated to be the most expensive cancer to treat with $3.7 billion in direct costs and is of growing concern due to the expansion of global tobacco use, the main etiologic risk factor. There are two differing variants of this disease: a superficial and an invasive type. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, is associated with a lower bladder cancer risk. These...

  17. Characterizing Vegetable Tissue Under Elevated Pressure Using In Situ Electrical Conductivity Measurement and Instrumental Analysis

    Park, Sung Hee
    A study was conducted to investigate the pressure-induced textural changes in selected low acid vegetable samples (carrot, potato, and red radish) using in situ electrical conductivity measurements. In situ electrical conductivity of the vegetable samples, as a function of pressure and holding time at 25ºC, was recorded every 30 s for 10 min under elevated pressures (200, 400, 600 MPa) using a custom made electrical conductivity cell. Pressure treatment increased electrical conductivity values of all the processed samples as a function of target pressure and holding time up to a certain threshold level. Beyond this threshold level, the electrical conductivity...

  18. As Though Heard from Afar: Score Indications in Debussyste Compositions

    Harrison, Jane
    Since their advent in musical scores during the sixteenth century, composers have used dynamic markings (symbols based on Italian words that conveyed relative volume levels such as the abbreviation p for piano, or soft) and performance indications (more lengthy descriptions of the desired speed, style, or timbre of sound) with increasing frequency and precision. Around 1900 the debussyste composers continued the trend of increasing use and finer nuance of directions in musical scores, but in a unique way. They strongly favored the soft side of the dynamic spectrum and performance indications calling for delicate sounds, such as lointain (far off),...

  19. Human Growth, Environmental Stress, and the Costs of Reproduction

    Vercellotti, Giuseppe
    Variation in height and body proportions is relatively well understood at the inter-population level, but less is known about variation within groups. This study explores intra-population variation in body proportions among 172 (88 female; 84 male) rural Amazonians. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) stunting is associated with changes in body proportions; 2) males and females respond differently to similar environmental stressors and 3) female growth is negatively affected by the costs of reproduction. Height, sitting height and total leg length were examined in different population subsamples in relation to biocultural factors. Differences in proportions were examined using the Quick-Test...

  20. The effect of soy addition on the satiety, glycemic index, and insulinemic index of a soft pretzel

    Simmons, Amber
    The contribution of calories from nutrient-poor snack foods is rising in many Western diets, possibly contributing to the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Soy offers unique potential to provide high quality protein, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals to snack foods to produce a more healthful nutritional profile. In this study, 27.3% of wheat flour was replaced with soy ingredients in a soft pretzel in order to observe the changes in the product's satiety, glycemic index (GI), and insulinemic index (II). First, the soy pretzel was tested for consumer acceptability by 51 untrained sensory panelists on a 9-point hedonic scale. Second,...

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