The Russian Federation presents a rich pattern of different nationalities within its population and represents a unique, original model of governance of ethnic diversity. This mode is based on both territorial and non-territorial instruments. The former are based on the 22 'ethnic' Republics (21 + Crimea), which have a titular nationality each; the latter on the Federal normative framework and on the system of the Non-Territorial Cultural Autonomies.
This article describes the Russian model, first considering its historical background (with particular reference to the Soviet legacy) and then analyzing the inherent legislation. In particular, the article takes into account the Constitution...
Lisbon legislative vetoes to override the European Commission’s rulemaking. Using an
original data set of legislative vetoes of Commission acts by both European legislators from
December 2009 - April 2017, the contribution shows that levels of the formal exercise of
the legislative veto to overrule the Commission’s regulatory policies are very low.
Particularly interesting, the level of exercise of legislative veto provisions has not increased
significantly since the Lisbon Treaty came into effect, suggesting that the ways in which
the Treaty formally augmented the powers of legislative scrutiny have not resulted in
appreciably greater formal exercise of these powers ultima ratio. Moreover, no significant
differences appear between the...
The construction of the European Union has now been going on for seven decades. During this period, there were moments of soaring ambition. And there were moments of sober realism.
The College of Europe stems from a period of hope. It is itself an institution of hope, established just after Europe took a historic first step towards unification at the Congress of Europe in 1948.
My institution – the European Stability Mechanism – was born at a time that Europe needed pragmatism. It was at the height of the euro crisis. The ESM – and its predecessor, the EFSF - had to...
Every three years the European Union (EU) and the African Union (AU) hold a Summit of Heads of States and Governments to take stock of the progress made in the implementation of the Africa-EU Partnership. The 5th African Union-EU Summit will take place on 29-30 November 2017 in Abidjan. On this occasion, this paper aims to analyse the interplay between the EU Delegation (EUDEL) and the permanent missions of the EU member states to the African Union in Addis Ababa. To what extent has the EUDEL emerged as a post-Westphalian diplomatic actor that centralizes, complements or competes with the diplomatic...
This paper sets out to analyse two elements often overlooked in the literature on the European Union (EU) and international organisations, namely EU representation in the Arctic Council and the duty of sincere cooperation as a tool of EU representation. Since the EU is not a member of the Arctic Council, this paper assesses to what extent the EU is able to rely on its three member states (Denmark, Sweden and Finland), as members of the Arctic Council, to represent Union interests. After having shown the extent to which the duty of sincere cooperation has effectively been invoked by the...
The EU is putting an increasing emphasis on blended finance for development. However, analysis suggests that its use
should not be seen as a panacea, but as part of a coordinated effort to implement a broader reform agenda. The EU’s
External Investment Plan (EIP), aimed at boosting investment in Africa and the EU neighbourhood, is now fully operational.1
The key areas for the plan’s implementation (investment windows) have been approved and potential projects presented.2
While mostly aiming to contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the EIP was also developed to
tackle the ’root causes’ of the growing migration flows to the EU. The...
Gros, Daniel.; Mayer, Thomas
As early as 2010, at the outset of the sovereign debt crisis, Daniel Gros and Thomas Mayer argued that Europe needed a European Monetary Fund (EMF). In the meantime, the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) has been created, which performs the function of an EMF. It was critical in containing the cost of the crisis and four of its five country programmes have been a success. But the case of Greece shows that one needs to be prepared for failure as well. They propose in this paper to keep the ESM essentially as it is, but would empower it to set...
Adam, Ilke; Van Dijk, Mathijs
The gap in labour market participation between natives and people with an immigrant background is significant in Belgium, one of the largest in the OECD. In this Policy Brief, we present research1 that investigated one of the possible causes of this poor performance, and we propose three main policy recommendations. The research project studied whether Belgium’s complex federal state structure, and the subsequent division of responsibilities and lack of intergovernmental cooperation helps to explain this poor performance. The study concluded that governance complexity does not appear to be a main cause for Belgium’s poor results. However, more policy coordination would...
Document not complete.
Bignon, Vincent; Vuillemey, Guillaume
This paper provides the first detailed empirical analysis of the failure of a derivatives
clearinghouse: the Caisse de Liquidation, which defaulted in Paris in 1974. Using archival data,
we find three main causes of the failure: i) a weak pool of investors, ii) the inability to contain the
growth of a large member position and iii) risk-shifting decisions by the clearinghouse. Riskshifting
incentives aligned the clearinghouse’s interests with those of the defaulting member,
induced delays in the liquidation of the defaulted position and led attempts at privatee This paper provides the first detailed empirical analysis of the failure of a derivatives
clearinghouse: the Caisse de Liquidation,...
How will the great powers behave? That is what determines the future world order – or the absence of order. Could it be that China and the EU have found an alternative for the old-fashioned grand strategies that Russia and the US are again pursuing?
The collapse of the Juncker-May talks on 4 December has plunged the Brexit process into crisis. Whether
the outstanding issues can be resolved in time for the European Council on 14-15 December is unclear. If
the problems persist, we may conclude that the Conservative minority government is incapable of delivering
Brexit and that another general election must ensue. It is in any case wholly improbable that the Tory party
can hold together once the content of the Article 50 withdrawal agreement is known.
Following significant movements of the UK position in response to EU demands, despite the current impasse on Northern Ireland agreement on sufficient progress seems close. Ahead of the 14-15 December European Summit, Fabian Zuleeg explores the likely scenarios that could be considered during the second phase of the negotiations.
Kokorin, Alexey; Korppoo, Anna
Despite the latest information from Russia’s leading climate scientists, the country’s political leadership does not acknowledge the importance of anthropogenic factors in climate change. This is in stark contrast to most other governments, which recognise that there is no longer any doubt about the human origins of climate change. Russia’s leadership has nevertheless acknowledged the negative nature of changes in the climate and noted the growing risks to Russian territory. It also emphasises the need for adaptation, in contrast to its previous tendency to dismiss such risks. In the view of Russia’s leadership, the global economic trend recognised...
Wolff, Guntram B.
Two diametrically opposed visions of the euro-area architecture have been put forward. European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker favours a model that puts the Commission at the centre of fiscal policy decision-making. The former German finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble argues that fiscal surveillance should be centred on a reformed European Stability Mechanism. Juncker’s proposal would over-emphasise the Commission when fiscal policy making is national and would unduly mix the roles of Commission and Council. Schäuble, by contrast, neglects the fact that national fiscal policy matters for the euro area not only for sustainability reasons but also because of the provisioning of...
Callan, T.; Nolan, B.; Keane, C.; Savage, M.; Walsh, J.R.
Ireland is one of the countries most severely affected by the Great Recession. National income fell by more than 10 per cent between 2007 and 2012, as a result of the bursting of a remarkable property bubble, an exceptionally severe banking crisis, and deep fiscal adjustment. This paper examines the income distribution consequences of the recession, and identifies the impact of a broad range of austerity policies on the income distribution. The overall fall in income was just under 8 per cent between 2008 and 2011, but the greatest losses were strongly concentrated on the bottom and top deciles. Tax,...
Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean; Walsh, Sharon
Past research into the determinants of appliance ownership has identified associations with socioeconomic characteristics of households. Few studies have examined the intensity with which different sorts of households use the appliances they have. This paper uses microdata to examine the factors influencing ownership and usage of electrical appliances in Irish households. We also consider the factors influencing the ownership of different cooker types, space and water heating systems and energy saving features. We find that appliance ownership and usage is
related to the socio‐economic characteristics of the household’s chief income earner as well as household characteristics such as the type...
In the late 1990s I chose the Common Travel Area (CTA) as the topic of a research paper I did as a Visiting Fellow at Trinity College Dublin. This was in the wake of opt‐outs by the Irish and British governments from the incorporation of the Schengen Agreement on the free movement of persons into the Treaty of Amsterdam. My intention was to explore the conditions under which an Irish government might see its interests as lying with EU freedom of movement rather than in the continuation of the CTA with the United Kingdom (UK). I was also interested in...
Tol, Richard S.J.; Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean
Vegetarianism is increasing in the western world. Anecdotally, this trend can be attributed to heightened health, environmental and animal welfare concerns. In this paper we investigate the factors associated with vegetarianism among adults in Ireland. Using the 2007 Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes and Nutrition, we use a logit model to assess the relationship between vegetarianism and the socioeconomic and personal characteristics of the respondents. We also analyse the factors associated with varying levels of meat consumption using an ordered logit model. This paper adds to the existing literature as it is the first paper to estimate the determinants of vegetarianism...
This paper tests whether households that are offered broadband service for the first time tend to delay in taking it up. Using cross-sectional data on broadband take-up and socioeconomic characteristics of small areas in Ireland, linked to GIS data on ADSL availability, I find that local adoption rates are positively associated with the time elapsed since service was first offered. The strength of this association increases for the first two years after local enabling of service and then decreases to zero after about five years. The paper also includes estimates of the effect of various household characteristics on adoption, finding...