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Archive of European Integration (77.602 recursos)

The Archive of European Integration (AEI) is an electronic repository and archive for research materials on the topic of European integration and unification. The AEI collects two types of materials: certain types of independently-produced research materials and official European Community/European Union documents

Status = Published

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 8.243

  1. Modelling Eligibility for Medical Cards and GP Visit Cards: Methods and Baseline Results. ESRI WP515. November 2015

    Callan, T.; Colgan, B.; Keane, C.; Walsh, J.R.
    The Irish healthcare system includes a complex mix of entitlements – some are universal, others age-related, and some are income-related. In this report, we concentrate on the major income-related entitlements in the current system i.e., the Medical Card and the GP Visit Card. Most medical cards are provided on an income-tested basis, and provide free access to in-patient and out-patient care in public hospitals, to GP care, and to prescription drugs. We examine how the income test for such schemes can be modelled using the detailed income and demographic information in the Survey on Income and Living Conditions. The approach...

  2. Investment vs. Refurbishment: Examining Capacity Payment Mechanisms Using Mixed Complementarity Problems With Endogenous Probability. ESRI WP507. July 2015

    Lynch, Muireann A.; Devine, Mel T.
    Capacity remuneration mechanisms exist in many electricity markets. Capacity mechanism designs do not explicitly consider the effects of refurbishment of existing generation units in order to increase their reliability. This paper presents a mixed complementarity problem with endogenous probabilities to examine the impact of refurbishment on electricity prices and generation investment. Capacity payments are found to increase reliability when refurbishment is not possible, while capacity payments and reliability options yield similar results when refurbishment is possible. Final costs to consumers are similar under the two mechanisms with the exception of the initial case of overcapacity.

  3. Macroprudential Policy in a Recovering Market: Too Much too Soon?. ESRI WP500. May 2015

    McQuinn, Kieran; Duffy, David; Mc Inerney, Niall
    The aftermath of the 2007/08 financial crisis has resulted in many Central Banks and regulatory authorities examining the appropriateness of macroprudential policy as an effective and efficient policy option in preventing the emergence of future credit bubbles. Specific limits on loan-to-value (LTV) and loan-to-income (LTI) ratios have been assessed and applied in a large number of markets both in developing and developed economies as a means of ensuring greater financial stability. The Irish property and credit market were particularly affected in the crisis as the domestic housing market had, since 1995, experienced sustained price and housing supply increases. Much of...

  4. The Social Cost of Carbon. ESRI WP377. February 2011

    Tol, Richard S.J.
    This paper surveys the literature on the economic impact of climate change. Different methods have been used to estimate the impact of climate change on human welfare. Studies agree that there are positive and negative impacts. In the short term, positive impacts may dominate, but these are largely sunk. In the longer term, there are net negative impacts. Poorer people tend to be more vulnerable to climate change. There is a trade-off between development policy and climate policy. Estimated aggregate impacts are not very large, but they are uncertain and incomplete. Estimates of the marginal impacts suggest that greenhouse gas...

  5. Scenarios of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Aviation. ESRI WP244. May 2008

    Mayor, Karen; Tol, Richard S.J.
    We use a model of international and domestic tourist numbers and flows to forecast tourist numbers and emissions from international tourism out to 2100. We find that between 2005 and 2100 international tourism grows by a factor of 12. Not only do people take more trips but these also increase in length. We find that the growth in tourism is mainly fuelled by an increase in trips from Asian countries. Emissions follow this growth pattern until 2060 when emissions per passenger-kilometre start to fall due to improvements in fuel efficiency. Forecasted emissions are also presented for the four SRES scenarios...

  6. The trouble with PESCO. The mirages of European defence. POINT OF VIEW 69, February 2018

    Gotkowska, Justyna
    The creation of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in December 2017 crowned the series of recent debates and actions aimed at strengthening the common security and defence policy of the EU. However, the compromise around PESCO has revealed strategic divergences among France, Germany and the countries on the eastern flank related to the perceptions of threats and challenges, the development of the EU’s security and defence policy, and the future of trans-Atlantic relations. The debates on PESCO in Western Europe have also highlighted a growing gap between the political narratives and military reality.

  7. From vassalisation to emancipation. Ukrainian-Russian gas co-operation has been revised. OSW Commentary NUMBER 263 | 07.03.2018

    Kardaś, Szymon; Iwański, Tadeusz
    The awards by the Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (further: the Arbitral Tribunal) concerning the contract on gas supplies to Naftohaz and the volume of Russian gas transit via Ukraine have radically changed the model of gas relations between the two countries as they have existed until now. Kyiv’s victory is its crowning achievement in the process of emancipation from Russian dominance in the energy sector which began after the Revolution of Dignity. This has also significantly strengthened Ukraine’s position with regard to Russia and the EU because Gazprom was found to have been in breach of...

  8. Should all producers of renewable energy automatically receive GOs? CEPS Commentary, 12 March 2018

    Jansen, Jaap
    In this contribution, Jaap Jensen finds that the practice of automatically issuing guarantees of origin (GOs) to all producers of renewable energy undermines EU energy and climate objectives.

  9. Trade policy-making under irrationality. CEPS Commentary, 12 March 2018

    Pelkmans, Jacques.
    Jacques Pelkmans reminds the EU and its WTO partners that trust and the global public good of a rules-based WTO are fragile accomplishments that deserve to be protected, even if the means seem to come from a former imperial age.

  10. A Brexit Gentlemen’s Agreement. CEPS Commentary, 9 March 2018

    Gros, Daniel.
    Now that the contours of the future trade relationship between the UK and the EU are gradually emerging, Daniel Gros reflects on what it would take for that relationship to minimise the friction that Brexit will inevitably generate.

  11. The Future of the Schengen Area: Latest Developments and Challenges in the Schengen Governance Framework since 2016

    Carrera, Sergio; Stefan, Marco
    This study takes stock of the main developments that have occurred in the Schengen Governance Framework since 2016. It analyses the legitimacy of a number of States’ decisions to maintain internal border controls and assesses the most recent policy proposals in the field of internal police checks in light of relevant EU legal standards. The paper also questions the legality of the border walls and fences, which have recently been erected at the EU external borders and within the Schengen area. The study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of...

  12. On International Women’s Day: More focus needed on integrating migrant women. CEPS Commentary, 8 March 2018

    Barslund, Mikkel; Laurentsyeva, Nadzeya
    To mark International Women’s Day, two CEPS economists, Mikkel Barslund and Nadzeya Laurentsyeva, tackle the challenge facing policy-makers of how best to integrate women migrants into the labour market.

  13. Theresa May’s Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement. CEPS Commentary, 6 March 2018

    Emerson, Michael
    In examining May’s first attempt to operationally define the UK’s future trade relations with the EU, Michael Emerson finds that she draws heavily on the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area model.

  14. Trump’s trade policy turns destructive. CEPS Commentary, 5 March 2018

    Pelkmans, Jacques.
    With his reckless imposition of import tariffs, President Trump has set in motion a nightmare scenario of tit-for-tat trade wars that the world has not seen for generations.

  15. Modelling the Impact of Direct and Indirect Taxes Using Complementary Datasets. ESRI WP496. February 2015

    Savage, Michael; Callan, Tim
    Comprehensive modelling of the impact of taxes and tax policy options requires data on the impact at micro-level of both direct and indirect taxes. There are, however, limits on the amount of data that can be gathered by any one survey. With some exceptions, most notably the Living Costs and Food Survey (LCF) in the UK, most national expenditure surveys are not suitable for use in detailed modelling of the direct tax and welfare system. This makes approaches which impute expenditure data into detailed income surveys of considerable interest. In this paper, we assess the sensitivity of the distributional effects...

  16. Estimating Building Energy Ratings for the Residential Building Stock: Location and Occupancy. ESRI WP489. August 2014

    Curtis, John; Devitt, Niamh; Whelan, Adele
    The common EU framework for assessing the energy performance of residential buildings and awarding Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) is an important resource in the context of informing effective policy measures to improve energy efficiency. However, properties that have been assessed to-date are not likely to be fully representative of the entire housing stock and therefore provide a faulty baseline from which to devise policy actions. The paper presents a methodology to estimate the energy performance of all residential properties and, combined with census data, identifies what distinguishes the most energy inefficient properties, whether it is location, ownership, age or other...

  17. Decomposing patterns of emission intensity in the EU and China: how much does trade matter?. ESRI WP462. July 2013

    Di Cosmo, Valeria; Hyland, Marie
    This paper uses data from the World Input Output Database (WIOD) to examine channels through which CO2 emissions are embodied within and imported into the European production process. We apply a metric to calculate sectoral emission intensity and thus rank countries and sectors in the EU in terms of their emission intensity, and look at the evolution of patterns of emission intensity in 2005 and in 2009. We use an input-output price model to simulate the effect that a rise in the price of EU-ETS allowances, from $17 to $25 /tonne, would have on the final price of goods in...

  18. Climate Policy Under Fat‐Tailed Risk: An Application of Dice. ESRI WP403. August 2011

    Hwang, Chang; Reynes, Frederic; Tol, Richard S.J.
    Uncertainty plays a significant role in evaluating climate policy, and fat‐tailed uncertainty may dominate policy advice. Should we make our utmost effort to prevent the arbitrarily large impacts of climate change under deep uncertainty? In order to answer to this question we propose an new way of investigating the impact of (fat‐tailed) uncertainty on optimal climate policy: the curvature of carbon tax against the uncertainty. We find that the optimal carbon tax increases as the uncertainty about climate sensitivity increases, but it does not accelerate as implied by Weitzman’s Dismal Theorem. We find the same result in a wide variety...

  19. The Role of Decision-Making Biases in Ireland’s Banking Crisis. ESRI WP389. May 2011

    Lunn, Pete
    This paper considers Ireland’s banking crisis from the perspective of behavioural economics. It assesses whether known biases in judgement and decision-making were instrumental in the development and severity of the crisis. It investigates evidence that key decision-makers, including consumers, businesspeople, bankers and regulators, as well as parties such as civil servants, politicians, academics and journalists, were influenced by seven specific phenomena which have been identified previously via experiments and field studies. It concludes that evidence is consistent with the influence of these established phenomena. Ireland’s long boom, rapid financial integration and lack of relevant past experience may have increased the...


    Tol, Richard S.J.
    This paper uses a vote-counting procedure to estimate the probability density function of the total economic impact as a parabolic function of global warming. There is a wide range of uncertainty about the impact of climate change up to 3ºC, and the information becomes progressively more diffuse beyond that. Warming greater than 3ºC most likely has net negative impacts, and warming greater than 7ºC may lead to a total welfare loss. The expected value of the social cost of carbon is about $29/tC in 2015 and rises at roughly 2% per year.

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