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Archive of European Integration (66.602 recursos)

The Archive of European Integration (AEI) is an electronic repository and archive for research materials on the topic of European integration and unification. The AEI collects two types of materials: certain types of independently-produced research materials and official European Community/European Union documents

Type = Working Paper

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 1.890

  1. Regional and global financial safety nets: the recent European experience and its implications for regional cooperation in Asia. Bruegel Working Paper Issue 06 / 2017

    Darvas, Zsolt
    This paper compares financial assistance programmes of four euro-area countries (Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and Cyprus) and three non-euro-area countries (Hungary, Latvia, and Romania) of the European Union in the aftermath of the 2007/08 global financial and economic crisis—which were supported by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and various European financing facilities. These programmes have distinct features compared with assistance programmes in other parts of the world, such as the size of imbalances, financing, unique cooperation of the IMF and various European facilities, and membership of a currency union in the case of euro-area countries. We evaluate the programmes by assessing their success in creating conditions to regain market access,...

  2. The political economy of Middle East and North Africa oil exporters in times of global decarbonisation. Bruegel Working Paper 05/2017

    Tagliapietra, Simone
    Endowed with half of the world’s known oil and gas reserves, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is a cornerstone of the global energy architecture. This architecture is currently undergoing a structural transformation, prompted by two different forces: decarbonisation policies and low-carbon technology advancements. The energy literature offers no comprehensive analysis of the potential impact of the global energy transformation on the MENA region. This paper seeks to fill this gap by investigating the following research question: are MENA oil exporting countries equipped to prosper in times of global decarbonisation? Making use of the Rentier State Theory and of a business-as-usual projection of the exploitation of oil resources in...

  3. From start-up to scale-up: examining public policies for the financing of high-growth ventures. Bruegel Working Paper 04 / 2017

    Duruflé, Gilles; Hellman, Thomas; Wilson, Karen
    We examine the challenge entrepreneurial companies face in going beyond the start-up phase and growing into large successful companies. We examine the long-term financing of these so-called scale-up companies, focusing on the United States, Europe and Canada. We first provide a conceptual framework for understanding the challenges of financing scale-ups. We then show some data about the various aspects of financing scale-ups in the US, Europe and Canada. Finally we raise the question of long-term public policies to support the creation of a better scale-up environment.

  4. Divorce settlement or leaving the club? A breakdown of the Brexit bill. Bruegel Working Paper Issue 03 / 2017

    Darvas, Zsolt; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Raposo, Inês Goncalves
    The ‘Brexit bill’ is an expected payment to be made by the United Kingdom that would settle its financial commitments when it leaves the European Union. While in our view this financial settlement is the least important economic issue in the Brexit negotiations, a conditional agreement at least on the methodology for calculating the Brexit bill could be a prerequisite for the more meaningful discussions on the new EUUK economic relationship after Brexit, such as future trade, financial services and labour mobility cooperation. To bring transparency to the debate and to foster a quick agreement on the bill, we make a comprehensive attempt to quantify the various assets and liabilities that...

  5. Fundamental uncertainty and unconventional monetary policy: an info-gap approach. Bruegel Working Paper Issue 1 / 2017

    Ben-Haim, Yakov; Demertzis, Maria; Van Den End, Jan Willem
    This paper applies the info-gap approach to the unconventional monetary policy of the Eurosystem and so takes into account the fundamental uncertainty on inflation shocks and the transmission mechanism. The outcomes show that a more demanding monetary strategy, in terms of lower tolerance for output and inflation gaps, entails less robustness against uncertainty, particularly if financial variables are taken into account. Augmenting the Taylor rule with a financial variable leads to a smaller loss of robustness than taking into account the effect of financial imbalances on the economy. However, in some situations, the augmented model is more robust than the baseline model. A conclusion from our framework is that including financial...

  6. Institutional investors and home bias in Europe’s Capital Markets Union. Bruegel Working Paper Issue 2 / 2017

    Darvas, Zsolt; Schoenmaker, Dirk
    Integrated capital markets facilitate risk sharing across countries. Lower home bias in financial investments is an indicator of risk sharing. We highlight that existing indicators of equity home bias in the literature suffer from incomplete coverage because they consider only listed equities. We also consider unlisted equites and show that equity home bias is much higher than previous studies perceived. We also analyse home bias in debt securities holdings, and euro-area bias. We conclude that European Union membership may foster financial integration and reduce information barriers, which sometimes limit cross-country diversification. We calculate home bias indicators for the aggregate of the euro area as if the euro area was a single...

  7. Recent Case Law on External Competences of the European Union: How Member States can embrace their own Treaty. EPIN Working Paper No. 43 / January 2017

    Erlbacher, Friedrich
    The challenges facing Europe today cannot be addressed without putting into practice one of the main objectives pursued by member states when concluding the Treaty of Lisbon, argues the author of this paper; that objective being that the Union should be capable of acting as a strong and united player on the international scene, rather than as a more or less effective coordination platform for 28 international policies. Brexit and the new administration in Washington only reinforce this finding. To ensure that the Union can play this role, member states must, however, accept that the Union effectively exercises the competences...

  8. A European unemployment benefits scheme: Lessons from Canada. CEPS Working Document No. 2017-02 / January 2017

    Wood, Donna E.
    In many federal political systems, responsibility for unemployment has a multi-tiered architecture, with competence for key elements − including unemployment insurance, social assistance, and the public employment service − dispersed across different orders of government. This paper tells the story of the long transformation of unemployment insurance into a federal responsibility in Canada, and seeks to identify lessons from Canada’s experience that might be useful as Europeans consider the potential of an EU-wide unemployment benefits scheme in response to the financial and euro crisis that started in 2008. Most European scholars look to the United States for transferable ideas. I argue that Canada is a more salient...

  9. CoCo Design, Risk Shifting Incentives and Financial Fragility. ECMI Working Paper No. 2 / January 2017

    Chan, Stephanie; van Wijnbergen, Sweder
    Contingent convertible capital (CoCo) is a debt instrument that converts to equity or is written off if the issuing bank fails to meet a distress threshold. The conversion increases the issuer’s lossabsorption capacity, but results in wealth transfers between CoCo holders and shareholders, which in turn gives rise to risk-shifting incentives to shareholders. Using the framework of call options, we find that the risk-shifting incentives arising from issuing CoCos relative to subordinated debt have two opposite effects: higher risk increases the probability of CoCo conversion, while lowering the benefit of the wealth transfer relative to the same amount of subordinated debt. For writedown CoCos, the risk-shifting incentive...

  10. Towards More Resilient Economies: The role of well-functioning economic structures. CEPS Working Document No. 2017-03 /January 2017

    Sondermann, David
    Economic resilience is essential to better withstand adverse shocks and reduce the economic costs associated with them. We propose different measures of resilience and empirically gauge how countries differ in their shock absorption capacity, while controlling for the quality of their economic structures. The paperfindsrobust evidence that sound labour and product markets, framework conditions and political institutions increase resilience to adverse shocks and reduce the incidence of crisis more generally. In the presence of a common shock, a country with weaker economic structures can, on average, suffer up to twice the output loss in a given year compared to a country with sound institutional parameters. Similarly, the likelihood...

  11. European Fiscal Union: Economic rationale and design challenges. CEPS Working Document No. 2017-01 / January 2017

    Thirion, Gilles
    Proposals for different types of elements of a fiscal union have flourished in recent years, both from academic and policy circles. Since a fiscal union could take a constellation of different forms, this paper first provides an analytical framework pinpointing the five key elements of a fiscal union. It takes stock of the existing features of EMU that embed some form of fiscal union, and then critically analyses the main arguments for and against further fiscal integration. Finally, it surveys the key proposals for a fiscal capacity and different types of Eurobonds.

  12. Measuring fiscal spillovers in EMU and beyond: A Global VAR approach. CEPS Working Paper No. 428 / December 2016

    Belke, Ansgar; Osowski, Thomas
    This paper identifies and measures fiscal spillovers in the EU countries empirically using a global vector autoregression (GVAR) model. Our aim is to look at the sign and the absolute values of fiscal spillovers in a country-wise perspective and at the time profile (impulse response) of the impacts of fiscal shocks. We find moderate spillover effects of fiscal policy shocks originating in Germany and France. However, there is significant variation regarding magnitude of the spillovers among destination countries and country clusters. Furthermore, we find some evidence that spillovers generated by German or French fiscal spillovers are stronger for EMU than non-EMU countries in Europe. JEL codes: C50, E61,...

  13. Reform of the European Union financial supervisory and regulatory architecture and its implications for Asia. Bruegel Working Paper Issue 9, November 2016

    Darvas, Zsolt; Schoenmaker, Dirk; Véron, Nicolas
    European Union countries offer a unique experience of financial regulatory and supervisory integration, complementing various other European integration efforts following the second world war. Financial regulatory and supervisory integration was a very slow process before 2008, despite significant cross-border integration especially of wholesale financial markets.However, the policy framework proved inadequate in the context of the major financial crisis in the EU starting in 2007, and especially in the euro area after 2010. That crisis triggered major changes to European financial regulation and to the financial supervisory architecture, most prominently with the creation of three new European supervisory authorities in 2011 and the...

  14. Business Cycle Synchronization in the EMU: Core vs. Periphery. CEPS Working Documents No. 427, 14 November 2016

    Belke, Ansgar; Domnick, Clemens; Gros, Daniel.
    This paper examines business cycle synchronization in the European Monetary Union with a special focus on the core-periphery pattern in the aftermath of the crisis. Using a quarterly index for business cycle synchronization by Cerqueira (2013), our panel data estimates suggest that it is countries belonging to the core that are faced with increased synchronization among themselves after 2007Q4, whereas peripheral countries decreased synchronization with regards to the core, non-EMU countries and among themselves. Correlation coefficients and nonparametric local polynomial regressions corroborate these findings. The usual focus on co-movements and correlations might be misleading, however, since we also find large...

  15. Some are more equal than others: new estimates of global and regional inequality. Bruegel Working Paper Issue 8, 8 November 2016

    Darvas, Zsolt
    In this Working Paper, Zsolt Darvas estimates the global and regional distribution of income and calculates statistics of global and regional income inequality.

  16. Providing efficient network access to green power generators: A long-term property rights perspective. Bruegel Working Paper Issue 7 2016

    Petropoulos, Georgios; Willemsz, Bert
    Coordinating the timing and location of new production facilities is one of the challenges of liberalized power sectors. It is complicated by the presence of transmission bottlenecks, oligopolistic competition, and the unknown prospects of low-carbon technologies. We build a model encompassing a late and early investment stage, a clean (green) and dirty (brown) technologies, and a single transmission bottleneck and compare dynamic efficiency of several market designs. Allocating network access on a short-term competitive basis distorts investment decisions as brown firms will pre-empt green competitors by investing early. Compensating early investors for future network congestion, as for instance in the E.U., only exacerbates this problem. Dynamic efficiency is restored with long-term...

  17. Income convergence during the crisis: did EU funds provide a buffer? Bruegel Working Paper Issue 6 2016

    Merler, Silvia
    This paper shows that economic convergence continued during the crisis for the EU as a whole, although at a slower pace, but for regions in the EU14, and especially in the euro area, convergence appears to have stopped during the crisis, or even switched to a divergence path.

  18. Ultra-low or Negative Yields on Euro-Area Long-term Bonds: Causes and Implications for Monetary Policy. CEPS Working Document No. 426 / September 2016

    Gros, Daniel.
    The importance of monetary policy for the current ultra-low interest rates is often over-estimated. As emphasised by ECB President Draghi himself, monetary policy cannot determine long-term rates directly, and its influence on long-term real rates is even more limited and indirect. Moreover, long-term bond yields have fallen to unprecedented low levels throughout developed countries. The influence of any single central bank on bond yields in its currency area must be quite limited if global capital markets are integrated. The importance of the ECB’s policy in driving down rates in the euro area is widely assumed to be substantial. But even the ECB...

  19. Potential Economic Effects of TTIP for the Netherlands and the EU. CEPS Working Document No. 425 / September 2016

    Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo
    The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is a comprehensive preferential trade agreement that is expected to have a significant effect in EU and US bilateral trade and investment relations. As the negotiations are ongoing, this paper uses a scenario analysis to estimate the potential effects of TTIP under likely negotiated outcomes. In our main scenario, we assume a final trade deal where current tariffs are eliminated and non-tariff barriers are significantly reduced. Using a CGE model (WorldScan), we simulate the potential economic effects for the Netherlands and the EU. We find that US-Dutch bilateral trade doubles and this is translated into a positive but moderate effect...

  20. China’s Belt and Road initiative: can Europe expect trade gains? Bruegel Working Paper ISSUE 5/2016

    Garcia Herroro, Alicia; Xu, Jianwei
    The Belt and Road initiative, recently embarked on by China, aims to improve cross-border infrastructure in order to reduce transportation costs across a massive geographical area between China and Europe. We estimate how much trade might be created among Belt and Road countries as a consequence of the reduction in transportation costs (both railway and maritime) and find that European Union countries, especially landlocked countries, should benefit considerably. This is also true for eastern Europe and Central Asia and, to a lesser extent, south-east Asia. In contrast, if China were to seek to establish a free trade area within the...

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