Despite vast literatures on interest representation in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU), few studies have tried to compare lobbying across the two cases. Those who do are interested primarily in the existence of different lobbying styles and distinguish between an aggressive pressure group approach in the US and a more consensus oriented informational lobbying in the EU. However, the origins of these differences have received little attention and references most often point to different political “cultures” and lobbying traditions. This paper takes issue with this cultural explanation and links the observed lobbying styles with differences in...
Crespy, Amandine; Schmidt, Vivien
From the Introduction. In the aftermath of the EU’s enlargement towards Central and Eastern Europe, many
scholars and observers of European integration were proclaiming that the French-German “engine” of Europe had come to an end. The political legitimacy of French-German
initiatives was contested by coalitions of smaller member states and the ‘new Europe’ was calling for new leadership dynamics. However, the experience of the Eurozone debt crisis provided dramatic evidence that no alternative to the Franco-German partnership has yet to emerge in the enlarged EU. In a time of existential crisis, Franco-German initiatives appear to have remained the basic dynamic of integration....
The paper finds out that the increased incentive structures under the ENP and the more intense socialization dynamics in which Eastern ENP countries have been brought in since the launch of the ENP are not reflected into their regime patterns. However, on the long run (1991-2010) the EU democracy promotion in the region under consideration appears to be largely consistent. In addition, a content analysis of Progress Reports released by the European Commission on the implementation process of ENP Action Plans (ENPAPs) reveals that most Eastern partners have considered in their reform agendas the democracy-related objectives of these documents and...
Storey, Andy; Durac, Vincent
The idea of the EU constituting a form of ‘normative power’ in its external relations is
one which holds significant appeal – not only to European policymakers but also to a
number of academic commentators. This article first outlines what is meant by
‘normative power’, and then offers a critique based on a political economy understanding
of the ways in which ‘norms’ and interests are intermeshed. The example of relations
between the EU and Morocco is examined in detail. It is concluded that the EU claim to
represent a ‘normative power’ – understood in a necessarily positive and idealist sense –
is misleading, but that the EU...
Schmidt, Vivien A.
When European ministers meet in the Council, they bring to the table very different visions of
what the EU is and should be as well as of their country’s role in the EU. Although ministers
have 27 different senses of their country's identity in Europe, they tend to hold one or more of
four basic discourses about the EU’s identity: the pragmatic discourse of a borderless problemsolving
free market; the normative discourse of a bordered values-based community; the
principled discourse of a border-free, rights-based post-national union; the strategic discourse of
a global actor doing international relations differently. Can such visions co-exist? And can the
EU continue to...
Portela, Clara; Jasper, Ulla
Nuclear weapons remain the unquestioned core of the defence postures of France and the United Kingdom. At
the same time, the European Union is progressively enhancing its common foreign and security posture, notably
through the establishment of a European Security and Defence Policy. Yet, despite evident progress in the CFSP,
whose ultimate purpose is to lead to a “common defence policy”, EU member states still deal with nuclear issues
on a strictly national basis. Our paper seeks to contrast the progress of EU‐integration with the continuance of
national nuclear deterrence in Europe by analysing how this is presented in European public discourse. How is
This paper provides a political economy explanation for the occurrence of fiscal consolidation by
looking at the distributional effects of preceding real exchange rate depreciations across and within
countries. Existing studies show that successful fiscal consolidation episodes tend to be preceded by
downwards exchange rate movements (Giavazzi and Pagano 1990; Hjelm 2002; Lambertini and
Tavares 2005). We show that the mechanism through which this happens differs across open and
closed economies. In the former, there is a “good-times effect” following depreciation that induces
the public to accept fiscal reform in the form of a social pact that contains budgetary provisions,
provided it has similar distributional implications. By...
This study aims to analyze how the secondment of public servants has affected the development of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). I will look at how these
officials influence, and are influenced by, EU decision-making processes; how their baggage of knowledge and assumptions change with their secondment; and how they, in
turn, transform decision-making processes in their respective institutions. It is hypothesized
that these networks, through processes of mutual learning and socialization, contribute to the Europeanization of national foreign policies, on the one hand, and to the development of common assumptions, approaches and values in foreign policy, on the other. Basing...
Civil wars and humanitarian contingencies are a common fact of life in many societies. In the post-cold war era, bringing an end to intrastate conflicts and building a long-lasting peace have become important policy agenda items of the international community. However, the knowledge about how international and regional organizations cooperate with one another in post-conflict reconstruction is very limited. Increasingly, the study of security must confront the question of how international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the North Atlantic Treaty Association (NATO) can best...
The transfer of rules, such as in the European Union's recent enlargements, requires well-functioning institutions of government as well as societal actors ready to engage with the new rules. Officials of the European Commission and other practitioners highlighted the need for both in the run-up to enlargement, while critics of the 2004 and 2007 rounds have faulted the state-centric approach employed by the EU for undercutting societal actors in the new member states.
This paper examines data from the World Values Survey and World Bank Governance Indicators and shows that state capacity and organized interests do indeed go hand in hand:...
In political and institutional terms, the “first” and the “second” pillar of the European Union’s (EU) decision-making machinery seem strictly different. They concern different policies, and they represent different institutional frameworks. This apparent difference is reflected in integration theory: most of the attempts to explain the European model of ‘politics beyond the
nation-state’ either tackle the first or the second pillar – and more often do we find explanations why a particular theory or model cannot be applied to both pillars, than attempts to compare findings in the two pillars.
This paper proposes a shift of perspective. Instead of assuming from the...
Arguments are all pervasive in negotiations; and yet, conventional negotiation theories often treat them as merely epiphenomenal to power and interests. The past decade, however, witnessed a growing interest in theories of deliberation and their application at the international level. This article takes stock of the state of the art. It argues that the “delibera-tive turn” has forced both rationalist and constructivist scholars to refine their arguments and reconsider their methodology. We argue that the new research frontier for constructivists is in assessing under which circumstances arguments affect negotiating actors‟ preferences, and subsequently lead to outcomes that are not easily...
Panke , Diana
Compared to big states, small states face resource-related disadvantages in European negotiations. They have fewer votes, less economic power, fewer administrative
resources and less staff and experts in policy fields. This leads to disadvantages in negotiations. Yet small states can concentrate their limited resources on issues of
great importance and can punch above their weight. This is especially effective through argumentative instead of bargaining-based strategies and requires that
arguments resonate well with the views of the Council, the Presidency, the Commission or the Parliament. The Vodka-case illustrates how small states applied a broad variety of policy-shaping strategies and achieved a compromise outcome very...
This paper reviews the literature on public goods in relation to the following three questions. Why is government organized across multiple levels? Does efficiency determine the level at which decisions are made? Does efficiency frame how policy problems are bundled in jurisdictions? Rather than examine how government structure may or may not lead to efficient outcomes, this essay is concerned with how efficiency constrains government. Rather than explain variation in government, the concern here is to probe some fundamental commonalities in government structure. Such commonalities are sometimes taken for granted precisely because they appear to be constants in an otherwise...
The historical analysis shows that - numerous difficulties and delays notwithstanding - “deepening” in the double sense of a rise in the scope and the level of European integration in the terms of institution-building, democratic legitimacy and European policies was the predominant trend in the history of European integration. “Widening” in the sense of a geographical spill-over never did prevent “deepening”. Rather it proved to be, even if at different degrees, a precondition for some steps of “deepening”. In order to substantiate this thesis this final state of the art paper of Team 2 will combine findings on the driving...
Contrary to the wide majority of studies that try to characterise EU external governance by
looking at the macro structures of association relations, our comparative analysis shows that
overarching foreign policy initiatives such as the EEA, Swiss-EU Bilateralism or the ENP
have little impact on the modes how the EU seeks to expand its policy boundaries in
individual sectors. In contrast, modes of external governance follow sectoral dynamics which
are astonishingly stable across countries. These findings highlight the importance of
institutional path-dependencies in projecting governance modes from the internal to the
external constellation, and question the capacity to steer these functionalist patterns of
external governance through rationally planned...
The change in the legal status of third country nationals who are long term EU residents in
Community law coupled with the growing powers of the Community in the field of immigration beg
for a fundamental reinterpretation of Article 12 EC. The narrow reading of the term ‘nationality’ in
Article 12 EC limiting it to the nationalities of the Member States for the purposes of Community law
seems to be impermissible given the growing number of third country nationals falling within the
scope of Community law to whom the article should potentially apply. Given that Directive
2003/109/EC does not outlaw nationality discrimination the non-application of Article...
Although the legal and the political-scientific literatures on European competition policy (‘ECP’) are vast, there is no work that goes beyond the rationalization of stylized historical and/or legal facts. This approach may be justified on grounds of the political complexity of ECP and/or the heterogeneity of units of analysis. Nevertheless, the failure to come up with a positive device that identifies conditions under which specific policy decisions may or may not be possible has limited our assessments of the policy to value judgments rather than to true explanations. This paper attempts to remedy this situation by offering a logically complete...
Jones, Jason Cannon
The great experiment in monetary unification across Europe is just beginning to provide the data
needed to test the theories and debates surrounding the costs and benefits of forming a union. This
paper will explore one particular aspect of the unification process, the effect it had on monetary and
fiscal strategic interaction. Using a panel structural VAR to measure monetary and fiscal policy
interaction among EMU members before and after joining the EMU, a difference in this interaction is
detected. Pre‐EMU the monetary and fiscal authority acted as strategic substitutes in the case of a
monetary response to a fiscal receipts shock (such as a discretionary...
In this paper, the rising divergence in sectoral wage moderation within European Monetary Union (EMU) member states since the introduction of the Euro is examined. During the 1980s and 1990s, wage restraint cycles between exposed, manufacturing sectors, and sheltered, private services sectors within EMU candidate-countries were highly synchronous, and differences in wage inflation between sectors within countries was low. After 1996,
significant divergence in sectoral wage inflation emerged, and synchronicity of wage restraint cycles between sectors collapsed after 1999. This paper will address the question of why divergence occurred between sectoral wage restraint within EMU countries after 1996. It will be...