European health systems face growing, common challenges: the increasing cost of healthcare; an ageing
population associated with a rise in chronic diseases and multi-morbidity leading to a growing demand for
healthcare; shortages and an uneven distribution of health professionals; and inequalities in access to
healthcare. Given the scale of the challenge, improving the performance and sustainability of health systems
is crucial. All available tools should be used according to their specific functions, and the Sustainable
Development Goal on Health (SDG3) provides an overarching framework to strengthen health for all.
This is the second in a series of National Reports to be published as part of the new phase of the New Pact for Europe project.* While the German National Reflection Group (NRG) views the current state of the Union as critical, it is also convinced that the EU can still be a positive sum game for all. Drawing on the discussions held amongst the members of the group, this report presents a set of conclusions on how Germany sees the future of the European project.
Raunio, Tapio; Wiberg, Matti.
From the Introduction. “Today it is a tragedy that the European Union (EU) – that body long ago
established with the high and noble motive of making another war impossible – is
itself beginning to stifle democracy, in this country and around Europe. If you
include both primary and secondary legislation, the EU now generates 60 % of all
the laws that pass through Westminster.”1
This claim was made by Boris Johnson, one of the leading figures of the
‘leave’ side during the Brexit referendum campaign. Referring to a video
footage of Commissioner Viviane Reding, the United Kingdom
Independence Party (UKIP) went even further than that, arguing that...
From the Introduction. In his famous essay Cuore Tedesco, Italian political scientist Angelo
Bolaffi claims that after the birth of today’s global world we are
experiencing a “pluralization of the West”1. In particular Bolaffi defines
two moments that have contributed to distancing Europe from the United
States, paving the way to what Alberto Martinelli calls “two variants of
Western modernity”2. The first moment was the reunification between the
German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany in
1990. German reunification ended “the long road West”, according to the
definition given by Heinrich August Winkler3. The second moment was the
second Gulf War and the invasion of Iraq in...
Vogl, Matthias; Sohn, Rike
Bindenagel, James D.
From the Introduction. Congratulations ZEI Master Fellows of European Studies ‘Class of 2016’!
Your choice to study European politics, culture, economy and society at
this prestigious university will prove rewarding to you in many ways.
Graduation is just the culmination of your formal academic training, and
now you will apply what you have learned and continue to develop skills in
the working world. I congratulate you on your personal achievements, and I
wish you the best as you conclude your studies. I am sure you are excited.
You have worked hard to get here and deserve to enjoy your Final
Ceremony and also have a bit of fun.
The relationship between the European Union (EU) and the African,
Caribbean, Pacific Group of States (ACP) is one of the most unknown,
underperforming and underrated legal arrangements in the world. However,
all things considered, the EU-ACP relationship has the potential to be of
great value. It can be of growing importance if it is properly placed in the
context of foreseeable global trends. For this, the European Union and its
ACP partners need to be bold and forward looking, strategic and geopolitical.
The EU-ACP relationship can become much more relevant for
coping with a rising number of global issues. So much so, that it would
need to be invented...
From the Introduction. The UN Climate Summit in Paris was a major success for EU climate
diplomacy, far away from Copenhagen’s blow to the EU’s self-image as a
global climate leader; stood-off by China in 2009, or the disappointing
round of negotiations in Warsaw in 2013, when the EU wanted to offer
more, but could not due to its internal divisions and crises. Divided by the
economic and financial Euro crisis, and the recent major migration influx,
the tendency to prioritize national over regional issues has further eroded
the EU’s credibility as a leader in climate negotiations.
From the Introduction. Migration and the movement of people have characterized humankind for
centuries, and will continue to be so as long as there is life in our planet.
The current shape and structure of our societies would not be possible
without the desire and the need to go further to explore what is beyond the
horizon. The decision of leaving behind the motherland can be motivated
by several reasons which have been changing and evolving through history.
From tribes and groups to individual journeys, migration is essentially the
movement towards a better life, “an exercise in hope”.1
Given the looming withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union and the country’s position
as one of the main contributors to the EU budget both in gross and net terms, this paper offers an analysis
of the potential implications of Brexit for the EU budget from a political economy perspective.
At the European Council of 9-10 March, Theresa May will, In all likelihood, at last invoke Article 50, setting into motion a process that will result in the withdrawal of the UK out of the EU and, hopefully, a new agreement between the UK and the EU on their long-term relation. In this Discussion Paper Andrew Duff gives an outline of what will follow after the launch of Article 50 based on what we know so far (the content of Article 50, Theresa May’s speech at Lancaster House and the Brexit white paper), and discusses the points of ambiguity and...
Over the years, the rest of the European Union has got very used to being lectured at by British prime ministers.
So the deeply critical tone of Theresa May's speech at Lancaster House (17 January) when she spoke about the
EU's failings – and her unseemly boastfulness about Britain – shocked nobody.1 There were nevertheless some
important clues in her speech about what in the Brexit negotiations will be really difficult issues to resolve; there
were also ambiguities and provocations.
The election of the next president of the European Parliament will take place next Tuesday in Strasbourg. Already the press wheels out its usual reports of backroom deals and an imminent ‘stitch-up’ between party bosses. However, the truth is much more democratic and therefore complicated, says Andrew Duff. Who gets the top job is a decision that belongs uniquely to MEPs. In this Discussion Paper, he takes a closer look at the election of Martin Schulz’s successor and discusses Parliament’s rules for the election; the candidates; what may motivate MEPs to vote for whom; and lastly, whether this election matters...
Donald Trump’s victory in the 2016 US presidential elections has shaken long-held assumptions about American foreign policy. In many ways, Trump’s foreign policy discourse (insofar one can discern a coherent one) is defined by his opposition to the grand strategy of international liberal order building and forward-leaning military posture in Europe and Asia that previous administrations have more or less consistently pursued since World War II. In this Discussion Paper, Giovanni Grevi takes a step back from the flurry of commentaries that followed Trump’s election and attempts to provide the reader with some coordinates to navigate the uncertainty surrounding President...
Paul, Amanda; Sammut, Dennis
The “four-day war”, fought between the Armenian and Azerbaijani armed forces from 1-5 April 2016, has forced the international community to take a fresh look at the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Although the fighting ended with a truce reached under Russia’s auspices, it showed the threat for further escalation and violence to be very real, raising the stakes for both sides in the conflict, and for the international community. In this Discussion Paper, Amanda Paul and Dennis Sammut discuss the latest developments in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, and argue that, with prospects of a resolution once more on the horizon, it is important...
The conflicts of the twentieth century and especially the Second World War have shown that the possession of energy is of strategic importance. However, even in the years that followed the last major oil shock in 1986, the energy questions were carelessly ignored driven by the idea that the European Union was in a state of energy abundance.
Last month, a majority of British voters decided that the UK should leave the European Union (EU). In the wake of the Brexit result, anti-EU politicians in a host of member states began to float the idea of putting the same ‘in-out’ option to electorates in their own countries. As the economic and political fallout of the UK’s choice to withdraw from the EU continues to unfold, an acute sense of uncertainty gathers steam and ripples not just through the remaining member states but also their EU-hopeful neighbours in the Balkans. What will the departure of the UK from the...
On 28 June 2016, just a few days after the historic Brexit vote, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini presented the paper on the new European Union Global Strategy (EUGS) at the European Council, outlining the strategic coordinates for the EU’s foreign and security policy. In this Discussion Paper, Giovanni Grevi takes a closer look at the EUGS and assesses its main rationale, features, added value and prospects against the backdrop of an ever more complex world. Not only is the EU dealing with increasingly contested and polarised politics at home, but the...
Berton, Beatrice; Ekman, Alice; Schmidt, Juliane; Selleslaghs, Joren; Stang, Gerald; Van Langenhove, Luk
The ongoing consultation process on the European Union Global Strategy (EUGS) presents an occasion for the European Union (EU) to redress the European Security Strategy’s (ESS) shortcomings and update its stance on multilateralism. As rule-based multilateralism remains deeply entrenched in the Union’s DNA, the EUGS is unlikely to represent ground-breaking innovations as to how the EU should act in international affairs.
The key challenge in respect of the EU’s multilateralism is twofold. The first challenge lies in setting out clear priorities for the EU’s multilateral action to be pursued collectively by the member states; and the second in determining the form...