Crescenzi, Riccardo; Giua, Mara
This paper looks at the Cohesion Policy of the European Union (EU) and investigates how the
EU agricultural and rural development policies shape its influence on regional growth. The
analysis of the drivers of regional growth shows that the EU Regional Policy has a positive
and significant influence on economic growth in all regions. However, its impact is stronger
in the most socio-economically advanced areas and is maximised when its expenditure is
complemented by Rural Development and Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) funds. The
top-down funding of the CAP seems to be able to concentrate some benefits in the most
deprived areas. Conversely only the most dynamics rural...
D’Errico, Marco; Macchiarelli, Corrado; Serafini, Roberta
This paper discusses how income inequality developed during the current crisis in euro area
countries, as well as the role played by each income source. Based on an extended definition
of income – including additional components which do not appear in the standard Eurostat
definitions – we complement the information provided by the Gini index and quantile ratios
by computing an alternative inequality indicator, developed by Zenga (2007), and its
decomposition by income source. While broadly confirming the distributional effect of the
crisis documented in previous studies, we find that in specific countries the level of inequality
appears higher when alternative measures are taken into account, and...
Cesaroni, Tatiana; De Santis, Roberta
Current account (CA) dispersion within European Union (EU) member states has been
increasing progressively since the 1990s. Interestingly, the persistent deficits in many
peripheral countries have not been accompanied by a significant growth process able to
stimulate a long run rebalancing as neoclassical theory predicts. To shed light on the issue
this paper investigates the determinants of Eurozone CA imbalances, focusing on the role
played by financial integration. The analysis considers two samples of 22 OECD and 15 EU
countries, three time horizons corresponding to various steps in European integration,
different control variables and several panel econometric methods. The results suggest that
within the OECD and EU groups,...
Crescenzi, Riccardo; Pietrobelli, Carlo; Rabellotti, Roberta
This paper contributes to the current debate in both Economic Geography and International Business on the nature and strategies of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) from emerging countries (EMNEs). The paper fills a relevant gap in the existing literature by shedding new light on the location strategies of EMNEs at the national and regional level, looking at their investment drivers and systematically comparing them with those of multinationals from advanced countries (AMNEs). The empirical analysis looks at the location choices of MNEs in the European Union (EU-25) regions and unveils that EMNEs follow distinctive location strategies. Their attraction into large regional markets...
What are the likely consequences of Brexit for the status and rights of British citizenship? Can
the fact that every British national is an EU citizen mitigate the possible negative
consequences of the UK’s withdrawal from the EU on the plane of rights enjoyed by the
citizens of the UK? These questions are not purely hypothetical, as the referendum on June 23
can potentially mark one of the most radical losses in the value of a particular nationality in
recent history. This paper reviews the possible impact that the law and practice of EU
citizenship can have on the conduct of Brexit negotiations and surveys the...
Bilgel, Fırat; Can Karahasan, Burhan
This study seeks to estimate the economic effects of PKK terrorism in Turkey in a causal
framework. We create a synthetic control group that reproduces the Turkish real per capita
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) before PKK terrorism emerged in the second half of the 1980s.
We compare the GDP of the synthetic Turkey without terrorism to the actual Turkey with
terrorism for the period 1955-2008. Covering the period of 1988-2008, we find that the Turkish
per capita GDP would have been higher by an average of about $1,585 per year had it not
been exposed to PKK terrorism. This translates into an average of 13.8 percent...
Iordanoglou, Chrysafis; Matsaganis, Manos
Grexit was narrowly averted in summer 2015. Nevertheless, the view that Greece might be
better off outside the Euro area has never really gone away. Moreover, although Marine Le
Pen’s bid for the French presidency was frustrated in May 2017, in Italy a disparate coalition,
encompassing Beppe Grillo’s Movimento Cinque Stelle as well as Matteo Salvini’s Lega Nord, has
called for a referendum on exiting the Euro. In this context, our argument that Grexit cannot
save Greece may be of some relevance to national debates elsewhere in Europe. The paper
examines the case for Grexit by offering a detailed account of its likely effects. Its structure...
Concern for economic and social conflicts remains one of the most defining features
of contemporary political and constitutional systems. This is particularly evident in
Western democracies where political alignments are traditionally conceived along
the left-right divide, a conflict line whose current configuration is reminiscent of the
ideological cleavages associated with the 19th and 20th Century class struggles. This
type of conflict (hereafter, first type conflicts), alongside playing a crucial role in the
shaping of national political identities, has prominently featured in constitutional
history as one of the main variables contributing to the rise of constitutional
This paper explores the potential role of industrial policy to stimulate post-crisis recovery in
South East Europe (SEE). Policy reactions in the region have focused on fiscal consolidation
and austerity, while the design of active industrial policies to improve competitiveness has
been less in evidence. The paper reviews the experience of industrial policies in the EU and
shows how these policies have evolved from vertical to horizontal approaches, and how the
latter versions of policy have been transferred to the accession states in SEE. The paper
reviews the evolution of industrial policies in eight countries of the region and the impact of
these policies on industrial production....
Following the presentation of the draft secession treaty by the Commission on 28 February and the interventions of four former, wannabe or acting UK Prime Ministers, Andrew Duff discusses the prospects of the future relationship between the European Union and the UK.
Since January 2013 Rike Sohn is a Research Fellow at ZEI and a Coordinator of the comparative research and consulting project “Sustainable Regional Integration in West Africa and Europe”, jointly implemented with the West Africa Institute (WAI), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). She has observed international climate negotiations since working for
ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability at COP15 in
Copenhagen. Rike Sohn holds an M.A. in International Political Economy and Development from Fordham University, New York, and is currently studying for an M.S. in Environmental Studies at University of Hagen.
If the UK revokes Article 50, it must expect that the EU27 would insist on applying new terms and
conditions to its renewed membership. These would include a reaffirmation of 'ever closer union',
agreement to contribute more to a higher EU budget, an end to British opt-outs in justice and home affairs,
participation in common defence policy, engagement with Banking Union, and commitment to a common
refugee policy. Britain should also drop referendums on future EU treaty changes.
Stratulat, Corina; Rittelmeyer, Yann-Sven; Butcher, Paul
President Macron’s idea of holding ‘democratic conventions’ across Europe provides a genuine opportunity to help improve the public’s trust and engagement in European decision-making. But at the same time there is a risk that unrealistic expectations will be raised, and a poorly-implemented strategy could do more harm than good.
In this paper, we lay out a detailed and ambitious framework to ensure that the idea delivers on its potential, while minding the pitfalls. It involves a bottom-up strategy, operating at local, national and European levels, designed to discuss specific policy proposals and shape a reform agenda. The paper includes a visual...
The collapse of the Juncker-May talks on 4 December has plunged the Brexit process into crisis. Whether
the outstanding issues can be resolved in time for the European Council on 14-15 December is unclear. If
the problems persist, we may conclude that the Conservative minority government is incapable of delivering
Brexit and that another general election must ensue. It is in any case wholly improbable that the Tory party
can hold together once the content of the Article 50 withdrawal agreement is known.
Following significant movements of the UK position in response to EU demands, despite the current impasse on Northern Ireland agreement on sufficient progress seems close. Ahead of the 14-15 December European Summit, Fabian Zuleeg explores the likely scenarios that could be considered during the second phase of the negotiations.
The energy policy of the European Commission has deepened integration of EU natural gas matters. Energy cooperation at EU level and policy mechanisms for cooperation with third countries are harmonized to a large extent. The author concludes that integration strategies of the EU Commission follow the spillover-logic as set out by the theory of Neofunctionalism - a concept first developed by Ernst Bernard Haas to explain the post-war creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) as peace-preserving institutions. According to this theory, integration in one sector creates further integration in related policy...
Regardless of the outcome of the Article 50 negotiations, Britain and Europe will remain inextricably linked even after Brexit. But what this partnership will look like largely depends on whether the former can, in the next few weeks, persuade its soon-to-be-gone EU partners that the time is ripe to move on to the second phase of the Brexit talks. If a provisional political agreement on the nature of the future relationship between the UK and the EU cannot be found, there is a serious risk that the negotiation talks will result in a purely technical treaty of secession, reverting the...
To improve the ability of the European Commission to tackle the challenges faced by the European Union, President Juncker has introduced organisational and institutional changes in the Commission. With the Juncker Commission more than halfway through its mandate, this Discussion paper takes stock of the ways in which the introduced innovations have changed the way the Brussels executive works.
Britain's efforts to leave the European Union are in trouble. At the press conference on 31 August after the
third round of talks, Michel Barnier evinced his frustration: "The UK wants to take back control, it wants to adopt its own standards and regulations but it
also wants to have these standards recognised automatically in the EU. That is what the UK
papers ask for. This is simply impossible."
The study identifies and defines the social costs of the inefficient management of EU funds for Bulgaria. It is analyzed the last due programme period (2007-2015) and its prolongation. As methodology of the research the V4 BM model of Al-Debei and Avison (2010) which has not been used for analysis of EU funds management for cohesion policy in the public sector, is applied. In this way its potential for application in this field is tested. The concept of the study could be successfully used for analysis of the social costs of inefficient management of EU funds in other member-states.