Geographical indications are a distinctive type of intellectual property rights, protected by the TRIPS Agreement. The EU and China started to negotiate the Agreement on the Cooperation on, and Protection of, Geographical Indications in March 2011. It has recently been revealed that one or two more rounds of negotiations may be necessary to conclude the Agreement. Recall that in July 2017, as a major step forward in the negotiations, the EU and China each published a list of 100 GI products that may be granted protection under the other’s jurisdiction.
Both Europe and China are endowed with a sophisticated food culture,...
Hartmann, Philipp; Huang, Haizhou; Schoenmaker , Dirk
Understanding the changing role of central banks and the novel policies they
have pursued recently is absolutely essential for analysing many economic,
financial and political issues, ranging from financial regulation and crisis, to
exchange rate dynamics and regime changes, and QE and prolonged low interest
rates. This book features contributions by many of the world’s leading experts on
central banking, providing in accessible essays a fascinating review of today’s
key policy and research issues for central banks. Luminaries including Stephen
Cecchetti, Takatoshi Ito, Anil Kashyap, Mervyn King, Donald Kohn, Otmar Issing,
Hyun Shin and William White are joined by Charles Goodhart of the London
School of Economics, whose many...
Chiacchio, Franchesco; Darvas, Zsolt; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Raposo, Inês Goncalves; Wolff, Guntram B.
The European Union significantly increased its funding for migration, asylum and integration policies in the wake of the increased inflow of asylum seekers in 2015. This study provides an overview, an analysis and an evaluation of the use of these funds, based on publicly available information, insights from interviews with various stakeholders and a survey of non-governmental organisations.
The paper also offers recommendations on how to improve the use of funds and allocation keys to Member States. The authors argue for an increase in funding in support of member states as well as for EU agencies such as Frontex and EASO...
Akgüç, Mehtap; Beblavý, Miroslav; Simonelli, Felice
European air travel has witnessed a tremendous evolution since the late 1990s following the liberalisation process, with many new entrants to the market. Several of these new entrants are low-cost carriers (LCCs), offering lower fares and thereby making air transport accessible to a larger number of people. This broader access and increased connectivity have the potential to bring people and regions closer together in Europe.
Against this background, the objective of the current report is to understand to what extent, and through which channels, LCCs have contributed and can contribute to European integration. Relying on a mixed set of approaches including...
Askitas, Nikos; Bosc, Romain; de Groen, Willem Pieter; Eichhorst, Werner; Kilhoffer, Zachary; Lenaerts, Karolien; Meys, Nicolas; Ody, Margard; Salez, Nicolas
By comparing the online talent platform economy and the temporary agency work sector, this study aims to contribute to a rapidly growing literature on new forms of work and their impact on the labour market. It shows that online talent platforms and temporary work agencies do have features in common, but there are also significant differences between the two, which make it difficult to use temporary agency work as a model for the online talent platform economy; in many cases, it would not be a good fit. That being said, the call by policy-makers, social partners and other stakeholders for...
The current system of government in Russia will not collapse, although signs of destabilisation may appear. The authorities will not carry out any reforms, political or economic. A process of ‘technocratisation’ will take place. The economy will remain dependent on external factors. Despite the implementation of energy infrastructure projects, exports of raw materials will not rise significantly. The economy will continue to stagnate, and the government will partially reduce social spending. Russia will attempt to drive a wedge between the United States and its allies by offering the latter the prospect of normalised relations and economic cooperation. Moscow will intensify...
The convergence process in Europe has bifurcated: the new member states (NMSs) from Central and
Eastern Europe are catching up in terms of income per capita, as one would expect, with the initially
poorer ones growing generally at a faster pace. Within the euro area, however, the North has diverged
from the South since the start of the financial crisis. This pattern, reflecting East-West convergence but
also North-South divergence within the euro area, can be observed for a number of indicators, such as
real wages, investment and consumption.
According to the principle of mutual recognition in EU criminal justice, judicial decisions taken in one
member state should automatically be accepted and enforced across the Union. Mutual recognition
presupposes mutual trust, suggesting that all member states share with the EU the same foundational
values, including the rule of law, respect for human rights and that judicial decisions are the outcome
of fair and independent processes. The EU’s legislative bodies have adopted a series of laws in the
criminal justice area on the basis of mutual trust without leeway to opt out if doubts arise concerning
the issuing member state’s respect for values common to the...
Rule of law realities in the Western Balkans mean that these countries oscillate between semi-consolidated democracies and hybrid regimes. As the EU itself struggles to address internal challenges through a reform process, its accession framework for the Western Balkans (WBs) must also be upgraded. Having served its core purpose of ‘stabilising’ the post-war region, and with only one success story – Croatia’s EU accession – the Stabilisation and Association Process (SAP) has failed to accelerate the transformation and the EU’s accession track for other WB countries. The EU’s response to this stuck-in-transition region over the past years has been insufficient...
The rule of law crisis, which evolved into a detrimental to democratic standards process of changing the
entire system of the state, has also deeply influenced the condition and functioning of the civil society
sector. The gradual erosion of the checks and balances system accelerates the process of limiting the
operational space and independence of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This paper focuses on
NGOs perceived as organisations independent from the state, working at the national or local levels in
the public purpose, and whose role is to monitor the actions of the state (also known as watchdog
The Capital Markets Union (CMU) initiative has set out important priorities in the area of asset allocation, such as increasing retail participation, promoting sustainable investment, and removing barriers to cross-border activities. Capital markets are expected to enhance long-term value creation in the real economy, and institutional investors to play a more constructive role in achieving this overall objective.
This second Interim Report is based on the discussions among the experts present at the Task Force meeting held on 24 October 2017, additional secondary research and targeted bilateral consultations. The main ideas will be considered Final Task Force Report, which will put...
Zachmann, Georg.; Marcu, Andrei
Designing a new long-term climate strategy (LTCS) implies decisions about how to deal with important climate policy questions. These decisions will shape the strategy and therefore the European climate policy debate.
Given the different tasks an LTCS will need to perform, several coordinated strategy documents with clearly defined purposes will be needed: a sequence (or suite) of strategic documents that outline the EU’s decarbonisation strategy for different audiences.
Given the wide-ranging implications of the drive for net-zero emissions and the limited power of the European Commission to push through top-down legislation, soft instruments such as the LTCS are crucial. A transparent and...
Retail and corporate banks have to cope with legacy issues that impede their efficiency and reactivity. In particular, different norms within groups are still used for accountancy, cost allocation systems and product hierarchies. Also, the share of IT spending used to maintain existing IT systems remains high. Yet, many of the banks’ activities are being rapidly digitalised, especially in consumer finance. The potential of data analytics is being gradually unleashed at different stages of the products. In that context, regulators should favour the digitalisation of banks while alleviating related risks. They should also build on this mutation to raise consumers’...
Carrera, Sergio; Den, Hertog; Núñez Ferrer, Jorge
This study offers a comparative assessment of the frameworks for governance and oversight of selected EU trust funds (EUTFs) and the Facility for Refugees in Turkey (FRT). It explores how these EUTFs and the FRT add to and ‘mix’ the instruments set up under the EU Multiannual Financial Framework. It addresses the issue of their added value in light of the EU Better Regulation guidelines, their impact on the role of the European Parliament as a budgetary authority and the right to good administration. The study recommends reducing the complexity of the EUTF and FRT governance frameworks, and strengthening their...
Rizos, Vasileios; Behrens, Arno; Drabik, Eleanor; Rinaldi, David; Tuokko, Katja
The circular economy is attracting significant interest worldwide, as evidenced by the numerous government strategies, business commitments and partnerships devoted to its development. At the EU level, the Action Plan for the Circular Economy and several other policy documents have demonstrated a strong commitment to move towards a low-carbon and circular economy. While the calls for a new economic model grow louder, it is clear that the transformation of markets and industries on a large scale will not be an easy achievement. It will require well-designed and ambitious policies to foster the transition as well as new business models.
Bank failures have multiple causes though they are typically precipitated by a rapidly unfolding funding crisis. The European Union’s new prudential liquidity requirements offer some safeguards against risky funding models, but will not prevent such scenarios. The speed of events seen in the 2017 resolution of a Spanish bank offers a number of lessons for the further strengthening of the resolution framework within the euro area, in particular in terms of inter-agency coordination, the use of payments moratoria and funding of the resolution process.
Egenhofer, Christian.; Drabik, Eleanor; Alessi, Monica; Rizos, Vasileios
The Ecodesign Directive (ED) provides consistent EU-wide rules for improving the
environmental performance of products, such as household appliances, information and
communication technologies or engineering. This report summarises the responses of 27
stakeholders who were interviewed to obtain their assessment of the implementation of the
ED, particularly the successes and shortcomings, the results and the processes and the
Directive’s contribution to encouraging the circular economy. The objective was to gather
the views of both EU-level and Member State experts and stakeholders on the following
To what extent has the Directive met its objectives?
What are the main obstacles in the implementation?
How does the ED interact...
Aydin, Mustafa; Triantaphyllou, Dimitrios
The Black Sea region is coming into its own - but it is a contested and sometimes dangerous neighbourhood. It has undergone countless political transformations over time. And now, once again, it is becoming the subject of an intense debate. This reflects the changing dynamics of the Black Sea countries and the complex realities of their politics and conflicts, economies and societies. Geography, the interests of others and the region’s relations with the rest of the world in large part explain its resurgence. Straddling Europe and Asia, the
Black Sea links north to south and east to west. Oil, gas, transport...
Mehrotra, Santosh; Raman, Ravi; Kumra, Neha; Kalaiyarasan, .; Röß, Daniela
India is among the countries with the lowest proportion of trained youth in the world. Even worse, vocational education in secondary schools has received very limited funding since the mid-1980s;nit has remained non-aspirational, of poor quality and involves little industry collaboration. The Vocational Education and Training (VET) system in Germany, in contrast, shows a much higher proportion of youth participation, more intense involvement of the private sector and is anchored in the law.