Bulmer, Simon; Paterson, William E.
This paper presents a set of theses to argue that, two decades after German re-unification and the end of the Cold War, Germany is playing a changed role in the European Union. It argues that changes in the European Union, German domestic politics and in its bilateral diplomacy have resulted in the emergence of a normalized European policy. The paper explores the sources of these changes from enlargement, strains in the euro-zone and bilateral relations with France, through changed processes of policy-making to public opinion. Since Germany has played a leading role in the integration process, the paper‘s findings have...
This paper investigates the factors behind political Group membership in the European Parliament. At the beginning of each legislative term, political Groups are formally constituted. In June 2009, more than 150 national parties, from the 27 member countries of the EU, joined one of the seven transnational groupings. Two main explanations of Group membership are advanced. A first, traditional argument for Group membership is based on the ideological or policy compatibility of the member parties within each political Group. National parties will join the political Group that
best matches their programmatic position. A second argument focuses, instead, on the structure of...
Boerger-De Smedt, Anne
Basé sur une recherche extensive en archives, cet article examine les origines historiques de la première Cour de Justice européenne. Par une analyse détaillée des négociations du Traité de Paris (1951), il retrace le chemin, semé d’embuches, parcouru par les Six pour déterminer la forme à donner au pilier judiciaire des institutions de la CECA et pour définir sa composition, son fonctionnement et surtout ses compétences. L’auteur défend la thèse que les Pères de l’Europe (ou, du moins, la plupart d’entre eux) n’ont pas eu, durant cette période conceptrice, une vision claire de la contribution future que la Cour pourrait...
Cardiff EDC, .
A guide to information sources on the Kingdom of Norway, with hyperlinks to information within European Sources Online and on external websites.
Cardiff EDC, .
A guide to information sources on the Republic of Malta, with hyperlinks to information within European Sources Online and on external websites.
Cardiff EDC, .
Ръководство към информационните източници, посветени на Република
България, предлагащо хиперлинкове, препращащи към информация в
European Sources Online и във външни уебсайтове
Cardiff EDC, .
A guide to information sources on the Republic of Bulgaria, with hyperlinks to information within European Sources Online and on external websites (For other language versions of this record click on the original url)
Köppel, Petra; Sohm, Stefanie
Markets and environmental conditions are in a continual state of flux, put growing pressure on corporations, and forcing them to adapt. New technologies are being created, new markets are emerging, and large new corporations are being founded on almost a daily basis. Furthermore, the emerging economies are already producing
corporations which are operating on a global scale. This internationalization of the markets goes hand in hand with the increasingly transnational activities of corporations and thus with the enhanced cooperation between them and their employees and partners, competitors and colleagues from completely different cultures. Corporate culture is influenced by regional,
national and international...
Blazejewski, Susanne; Dorow, Wolfgang
Over the past few years, “globalization” has become a catchword. It reflects a widening horizon, particularly in the business world. Transactions are taking on international dimensions, the networks of relationships in business, politics and society are growing ever more complex. The problem that emerges is this: heterogeneity leads to complexity, and complexity leads to heterogeneity.
New forms of governance, such as the Open Method of Coordination have become more and more popular within European policy-making. This paper discusses an example of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) under-analysed so far by the literature, namely the OMC in Education and Training. The argument presented here is that exactly this policy area has experienced through the use of the OMC significant developments over the last 10 years resulting in a fundamentally changed EU involvement in the education and training policy. Understanding the sometimes contradictory motivation of the different actors when creating the OMC in E&T is essential...
Carrera, Sergio; Rostas, Iulius; Vosyliūtė , Lina
The notion of ‘anti-Gypsyism’ aims to refocus public policies addressing Roma discrimination in order
to place responsibility for combating structural, historically-embedded and systemic forms of racism,
discrimination and exclusion towards Roma squarely on state institutions and actors. This report
examines the ways in which policies and funding combat ‘anti-Gypsyism’ in the European Union and
selected Member States and assesses the added value of the ‘anti-Gypsyism’ concept, with particular
reference to its institutional forms. It explores ways in which these institutional forms could be
combated by identifying some ‘promising practices or experiences’ found in five selected EU Member
States (Germany, Romania, Spain, Sweden and the UK). These ‘promising...
Tervo, Tomi; Pelkmans, Jacques; Heene, Aime
The historical shipping routes between Helsinki/Turku, Finland and Stockholm, Sweden have been
operated for decades as duopolies with some insignificant fringe competition. Although the traffic to
and from Estonia was already lively and its effects were being felt by Viking Line, the Estonian accession
in 2004 had a profound effect; it offered an opportunity to cut costs by flagging ships over to Estonia
and by introducing Estonian salary levels for the on-board workforce, thus significantly reducing
personnel costs. This business case analyses the response of Viking Line to this changing environment.
Cachin, Elise; Heene, Aime; Pelkmans, Jacques.
EU institutions have consequently made telecoms integration! in the European Union a priority
through programmes such as the "Digital Agenda". Three Roaming Regulations were adopted in 2007, 2009 and 2012 introducing caps on roaming fees until 2022 to foster competition and market integration while ensuring affordable roaming prices for consumers.
The Roaming Regulation packages faced strong industry resistance. The imposed price caps were believed to be too low to reflect the true costs of data and were therefore perceived as the reason for cutbacks in infrastructure investments. This case will analyse how Vodafone reacted to the capping of roaming fees, with particular...
Akutsina, Alisa; Rinaldi, David; Roy, Thibault
This business case analyses why and how E.ON reacted to the EU climate regulations
and to the changing environment of the European energy market. In December
2008 the European Parliament adopted the EU Climate and Energy Package to
significantly decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 and to promote
renewables. The overcapacity on the market and the drop of wholesale price of
electricity hit traditional oil, gas and coal energy utilities such as E.ON. The fast
development of renewables also impacted the market structure. Faced with a
disrupted market, E.ON carried massive losses. This business case analyses the
corporate answers to this profoundly changing environment, from 2008 more
The year 2016 offered two additional opportunities to the ECJ to pronounce itself on
the crucial and tricky tension between the preservation of the criminal policy’s
effectiveness on the one hand and the concrete protection of Human Rights on the
other. In its first judgment Aranyosi and Căldăraru2
, rendered in April and already
, the Court had to rule on the protection of the principle of human
dignity and the prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatments in the field of EU
criminal cooperation. The question submitted to the ECJ was whether solid evidence,
showing that the detention conditions in a Member State issuing a European arrest
The present economic crisis in Russia is conditioned above all by political factors. The crisis is proof of a serious dysfunction of the model of economic governance which is subordinated to the government elite’s individual interests. Because oil prices were at a high level until 2014, this model could work at a relatively low social cost.
From the Executive Summary. Gas production in Russia has been stagnating in recent years because
of a significant decline in Gazprom’s output. The share of Russia’s
largest gas company relative to total domestic production has also
been shrinking systematically. The main causes of the weakening of
Gazprom’s positioninRussia’s gasmarket concern, onthe onehand, the
unfavourable situation in external markets (especially the decline in
the volume of gas supplies to Ukraine), and on the other, declining gas
consumption in Russia itself and rising competition from Russia’s socalled
independent gas producers (Rosneft, Novatek). The fiscal policy
towards the gas sector has also exacerbated these negative trends.
Cardiff EDC, .
A guide to information sources on Armenia, with hyperlinks to information within European Sources Online and on external websites.
The present work is dedicated to the analysis of the nature and impact of EU’s engagement in the
Caspian region. This territory is divided between two approaches performed by the EU: the European
Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and the EU Central Asia Strategy for a New Partnership (EUCAS).
The former has been characterized by a ‘transition paradigm’ inspired by the enlargement toolkit,
while the EUCAS adopted a ‘pragmatic modernization paradigm’ aimed at supporting Central Asia
countries in their modernization path.
The study intends to analyse to what extent the EU’s action proved to have normative
characteristics when dealing with oil-rich and authoritarian Caspian littoral states. The core
‘Brexit’ – the departure of the UK from the European Union – will have important
implications for international trade in Europe and beyond. This paper explores two
related questions. First, how may the trade arrangement between the UK and the
remaining EU countries be reconfigured? The spectrum appears to run from free trade
and elements of the Single Market (‘soft Brexit’) to the full re-imposition of tariffs
across the Channel (‘hard Brexit’). Secondly, what scope does the UK possess for reorganising
its future trade relationship with non-EU countries? Is there, for example, a
glittering range of free trade possibilities around a dynamic globe, or are the openings