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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (75.279 recursos)
Many studies have focused on the micro- and nanometer scale distribution of organic matter is shales. In this research, we are attempting to examine organic matter distribution at a larger ~ 0.1-1 millimeter scale, which would be easier to link to bulk reservoir properties. We investigate samples from Pt. Pleasant Shale (also known as the Utica Shale) from Eastern Ohio, United States, using X-ray computed-tomography (XCT) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Comparing both sets of data, we hope to find a stronger correlation between the XCT values and the distribution of organic matter and minerals in the shale. We scanned Utica...
Perez, Victor, Jr.
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) constitutes a significant carbon pool in the global carbon cycle and is influential in many other processes e.g., altering the fate of contaminants, acting as redox and pH buffers, etc. The ubiquitous dispersal of DOM in the aqueous environment originates from sources ranging from autochthonous (microbial) to allochthonous (terrestrial) precursors. The source of the DOM dictates its composition, which in turn impacts its reactivity in the environment. The isolation of DOM from natural waters is a common practice to preserve and concentrate DOM, yet the extraction method may significantly alter its composition. This study explores the...
Carbon dioxide sequestration into porous rock intervals beneath the Earth’s surface is an emerging technique of reducing the amounts gaseous CO2 emitted by energy production through the burning of coal/peat. Target intervals of rock must have sufficient pore space, permeability, thickness, depth from the surface, and must be located beneath an impermeable geologic seal to serve as a reservoir for the sequestration of supercritical CO2. The Upper Cambrian-Early Ordovician Knox Supergroup including the Copper Ridge Dolomite, Rose Run Sandstone, and Beekmantown Dolomite formations found within the Aristech Well in Scioto County, Ohio may have all the necessary requirements to serve...
Methane hydrates are a frozen mixture of natural gas and water which remain stable in sea floor sediment. In the future these could become a valuable source of energy however with current technology extraction is impractical. I believe that the hydrates change the sediment surrounding them both physically and chemically, potentially altering mineral makeup. This experiment used X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) to measure density differences within the core, allowing me to interpret the mineralization of the sediment from hole KC 151 in the Gulf of Mexico. The initial results do show promise as the segment of core which is believed...
Crinoids were relatively unaffected by the end-Devonian Hangenberg event, but the major clades of Devonian durophagous fishes suffered significant extinctions. These dominant Devonian fishes were biting or nipping predators. In response to the Hangenberg event, Lower Mississippian crinoids underwent an adaptive radiation, while fish clades with a shell-crushing durophagous strategy emerged. Durophagous predators were more effective predators on camerate crinoids and it is hypothesized that through the Lower Mississippian, camerate crinoids evolved more effective anti-predatory strategies in order to compensate for the more effective predatory strategy of the durophagous fishes. More convex plates and longer spines are commonly regarded to...
Mills, Jacqueline A.
Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is the process in which a solution, consisting of sediments and chemicals, is injected below the crustal surface at high pressures to break up rock and enhance natural gas and oil production. This process produces waste water, which is then injected deep into the earth’s crust for disposal. The deep injection well in Youngstown, Ohio became operational in January 2011 and just three months later, the first induced earthquakes occurred. After the 10th earthquake in a matter of months, the well was voluntarily shut down. The shutdown was followed days later with a magnitude 4.0 earthquake. Researching...
Faulting in the formations that make up the Rome trough beneath Southeastern Ohio and Eastern Kentucky was caused by the mountain building processes uplifting the Appalachian Mountains. Though generally inactive at present, these faults reflect zones of weakness within the basement rocks activated by current crustal stresses. With the increase in subsurface engineering in Ohio and Kentucky, the detailed structure of rock units is becoming more important for aspects of oil and gas migration and recovery, CO2 sequestration, and waste injection. Knowing the position of faults allows engineers to better estimate pathways for subsurface fluid and gas migration. It is...
Over geologic timescales, weathering of silicate rocks plays a significant role in the regulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and thereby global climate. The Sierra de las Minas of Guatemala, my study area, has high physical erosion, frequently occurring from landslides. This erosion increases water throughflow and water contact with fresh mineral surfaces, which in turn may increase chemical weathering in the region. Carbonation, the mode of chemical weathering of particular interest to this study, involves dissolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide by rain water, forming soluble carbonates. My study aims to describe components of an important process in the carbon cycle,...
The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica constitute a large and significantly ice free area of Antarctica at 78 degrees south latitude. Over the past 19 years data have been gathered on the lakes located in Taylor Valley, Antarctica as part of the McMurdo Valley Long-Term Ecological Research program (MCM-LTER). This study is part of a larger study that seeks to understand the impact of climate on the biological processes in all the ecosystems within Taylor Valley, including the lakes. These lakes are stratified, closed-basin systems and are permanently covered with ice. The work presented here focuses on one of the...
The recent shale gas boom has brought much attention to Ohio because of its location above the Utica Shale, an Ordovician age rock formation that acts as both a source rock and reservoir rock for large amounts of hydrocarbons. Gas exploration is recent so minimal information is currently available to the scientific community. The goal of this research project is to measure the mineralogy and total organic carbon (TOC) of Utica Shale samples and to determine the relationships among these data with depth and east-west location. The mineralogical analysis focuses on the amount of clay minerals with respect to non-clay...
Cave passages and the sediments contained in them often preserve large scale climate changes. The major rivers and tributaries in the Columbus area served as outlets for glacial melt waters. The down cutting of these rivers led to the formation of a phreatic to vadose transition in numerous local caves. There were two components to the research: Collection of sediment samples and searches of the surrounding area for clues to explain the caves’ evolution. Samples were collected in two major ways. The first, involved extracting surface sediment from caves with a rock hammer. The second employed a manual corer to extract...
Many natural and anthropogenic factors affect the geochemistry of surface waters like rivers and streams in rural and urban areas. Much impact on fresh water in the United States comes from non-point sources, with population and land use playing an important role. Major components of input into surface waters are chloride and sodium, derived mostly from urban contributions such as road salt, and nitrate, largely from agricultural sources like fertilizers, as well as the burning of fossil fuels. Fresh water quality historical data exists for many Ohio rivers, however much of it has never been further utilized to observe ion...
Although Central Africa’s Congo River is the world’s second largest river based on drainage area and discharge; little in-situ hydrologic data has been collected from this area. This lack of data limits our understanding of the water cycle throughout the region. The region receives significant rainfall on both sides of the equator at different times of the year, due to the annual south-north migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, a low-pressure zone around the equator which leads to heavy precipitation). Many satellite missions have been launched that image the earth using visible band frequencies or radar technologies (e.g., LandSat...
Starting in 1904 through the mid 1930’s, Cobalt’s mines and mills operated continuously. From then until 1989, operations were intermittent. Mining practices predating the 1930’s left significant pollution. Evident as; historic remnant mine workings, waste rock piles, and tailings ponds. Within the Cobalt mining camp, we must familiarize ourselves with the geomorphic setting to proper facilitate the rehabilitation of the tailings as well as the environment. Cobalt’s mining legacy has taught us how arsenic has poisoned the landscape, but what is there to learn from this, and how can we revitalize Ontario’s most historic City.
Shell Oil Company