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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (80.208 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

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Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 86

  1. Behavioral Spillover Across Health and Environmental Domains

    Tippett, Emma
    Existing research on behavioral spillover reveals that an intervention targeting one behavior has the potential to increase or decrease the motivation to engage in other related behaviors. Given the focus of prior spillover research is largely within one domain (e.g., environmental behaviors), it is not known if behavioral spillover occurs between health behaviors and environmental behaviors. Our research focuses on documenting positive spillover between these two domains, - which will open up an opportunity to promote environmental behaviors through health-based interventions (or vice versa). In an attempt to mend this gap in existing behavioral research, a Qualtrics survey has been...

  2. Estimating seasonal avian diversity in an urban wetland in Columbus, Ohio

    Carr, Kaitlin
    Biodiversity can be a useful measure of overall health of an ecosystem. Despite seasonal changes in avian communities, diversity is often measured only during the breeding season. Monitoring avian species over seasonal variations has the potential to expand our understanding of the ways in which habitats can be utilized by a variety of species. In a 52-acre urban wetland, avian species were captured using mist netting over a period of three years. This method allowed for sampling of secretive species that standard audio-visual surveys often fail to detect. Plumage characteristics were used in identifying species. We calculated diversity using Shannon's...

  3. Promoting Cover Crop Adoption to Improve Water Quality in Agricultural Landscapes

    Carros, Olivia
    Nutrient loading and associated algal blooms resulting from agricultural runoff are a pressing environmental concern for the Great Lakes. Cover crops are an important Best Management Practice (BMP) useful for reducing nutrient runoff while providing a wide variety of other on-farm benefits. 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted to learn more about the motivations, benefits, and constraints associated with cover crop adoption among different types of farmers. Three distinct groups of farmers were identified within the sample, sharing certain characteristics: 1) enthusiastic (or early) adopters, 2) new (or middle) adopters, and 3) tentative (or late) and non-adopters. Middle and tentative/non-adopters lacked...

  4. The Impact of Collaborative Consumption on the Environmental Efficiency of Well-Being (EWEB) of Residents in Columbus, Ohio

    Chang, Sophie
    Consumer society has resulted in a wide range of environmental impacts, which has led to questions about whether consumer society and individual consumption actually enhance well- being. There is evidence that pursuing consumerism and consumption negatively impacts well- being (Briceno and Stagl, 2006). The key research question for this study is whether humans can both reduce environmental impacts and improve well-being by altering their consumption patterns. This study examines whether engaging in collaborative consumption can lead to higher levels of well-being and lower ecological footprints. Collaborative consumption is "a form of social exchange that takes place among people known to...

  5. The Role of Taxonomic and Functional Macroinvertebrate Diversity as Indicators of Nutrient Pollution in Ohio Streams

    Pocock, Krystal L.
    Nutrient pollution of United States surface waters, primarily due to agricultural and urban runoff, is currently one of the biggest contributors to the impairment of aquatic ecosystems. Sensitivity of aquatic macroinvertebrates to environmental stressors (e.g. excess nutrients) has made them historic indicators of water quality. Taxonomic indices are commonly used to represent macroinvertebrate diversity, however, the use of functional traits as a diversity measure has become increasingly popular due to their ability to mechanistically link macroinvertebrate communities to environmental stressors. The objectives of this research project were to 1) quantify macroinvertebrate diversity across watersheds of varying land use (e.g. agricultural,...

  6. The Use of Magnetotactic Bacteria to Remove Phosphorus from Eutrophic Conditions

    Balcerzak, Ashlee
    Eutrophication or excess nutrients in rivers and lakes is a problem in the Midwest commonly caused by high levels of phosphorus in runoff from agricultural land. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), a magnetite-containing microorganism found in aquatic ecosystems, may contain intracellular inclusions of phosphorus. This study will test how effective MTB is at removing high concentrations of phosphorus from eutrophic conditions. The hypothesis for this project is that MTB will have some capability to remove phosphorus from their water environments, offering a microbiological solution in places where eutrophication occurs. Methods include growing the type strain of MTB, Magnetospirillum magneticum, AMB-1, in media...

  7. The moderating effect of stress on the relationship between air pollution and self-rated health in minorities

    Brown, Kathryn
    Minorities have long been discriminated against in the United States, and redlining policies pursued in the 1920s-60s prevented African-Americans from moving outside polluted inner city neighborhoods. This resulted in the siting of many environmentally hazardous facilities in these neighborhoods, exposing minorities to increased levels of air pollution that persist today. Exposure to air pollution is associated with low birth weight, asthma, diabetes, heart attacks, strokes, and obesity. Minorities also experience higher levels of perceived discrimination, a reliable predictor of chronic stress. Chronic stress leads to constant output of the stress hormone cortisol, which increases blood pressure, insulin resistance, cholesterol, and...

  8. Examining Carry-Over Effects in Resident and Migratory Sparrows Using Feather Corticosterone

    Cupito, Adam
    Many factors influence a bird's likelihood of survival, including access to food, quality of habitat, and protection from depredation. This study is aimed to assess winter survival rates in relation to corticosterone, a hormone that regulates stress responses. For many birds, both winter and molt (annual replacement of feathers) can be stressful seasons with potentially high mortality rates. An acute or chronic stress response during molt might have a carry-over effect onto winter survival rates, known as a seasonal interaction. We examined overwinter survival rates in populations of migratory White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and resident Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in...

  9. The Role of State Environmental Justice Actions on Reducing Air Pollution Inequality from 1995-2004

    Saalman, Grace
    In 1994 President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 12898 requiring state environmental protection agencies to consider how decisions differentially impact poor and minority communities. Since this time, states have enacted a diverse set of actions to achieve environmental justice (EJ) in their states. Despite this ongoing effort to minimize the racial and economic gaps in exposure, there is still evidence of disparities. For example from 1995 to 2004 national-level research indicates that African Americans were consistently exposed to almost twice the amount of toxic air pollutants as Whites (Ard 2015). Moreover, African Americans of greater socioeconomic status were more exposed...

  10. The Effect of the Lead Water Crisis as a Focusing Event on Cooperation and Conflict Among Actors in Sebring, Ohio

    Satterfield, Jennifer
    At the same time the Flint water crisis made national news in late 2015 and early 2016, a local lead water crisis was taking place in Sebring, Ohio. This lead water crisis in Sebring was a focusing event that opened a policy window during which it was the opportune time to enact change. The environmental organization, the Ohio Environmental Council (OEC) worked with state lawmakers during this short window of time following the crisis to develop House Bill 512, a bill that established requirements governing lead and copper testing for community and non-transient water systems. Furthermore, these crises also influenced...

  11. The effect of Lake Erie algal blooms on Emerald Shiner (Notropis atherinoides) visual morphology

    Bertolini, Elizabeth
    Due to recent increases in agricultural runoff, Lake Erie has been experiencing harmful algal blooms (HABs) with rising severity. The runoff carries excess Phosphorus which is a limiting nutrient in freshwater and a main ingredient in agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient increase has been found to promote large blooms of Microcystis cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, with the most recently severe blooms occurring in 2013-2015. HABs can negatively impact ecological health; for example, algal turbidity (suspended particles found in water) reduces the light available to aquatic species, resulting in impaired vision and ability to detect predators and prey. The objective of this...

  12. Impact of Mixed and Pure Stand Eucalyptus Plantations on Soil Quality in Southern China

    O'Banion, Bridget
    Since its introduction to China in the late 1800's, the Eucalyptus tree has played a vital role in the country's development by providing a booming timber supply. The trees are grown in pure and mixed stand plantations across China, and there is interest in which plot type facilitates better growth of Eucalyptus trees. Soil quality data from pure Eucalyptus hybrid (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis) stands and mixed stands (Eucalyptus with Magnolia glanca Blume or Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun) near Liuzhou and Nanning, China, respectively, were compared to see which plantation type fostered better soil quality for Eucalyptus growth. Circular plots...

  13. Giving Up Density as an approach to identify a difference in foraging behavior between native and invasive crayfish species

    Meyer, Scott
    Invasive species are often thought to displace native species by being superior competitors through aggression and resource exploitation. In freshwater ecosystems, invasive crayfish have been frequently shown to displace native crayfish by outcompeting them for food resources. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the displacement of native crayfish, Orconectes sanbornii, by invasive crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, in Ohio streams may be due to superior foraging behavior of the invader. We also examined whether foraging behavior changed in the presence of a model fish predator. We ran a lab experiment where we used depletable food patches to compare the foraging behavior of...

  14. Exploring the Potential of Home Gardening to Increase Food Access and Enhance Community Development in Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    Momenee, Mara
    Studies show that community gardens increase access to fresh produce and strengthen relationships amongst residents in cities across the United States. Given these contributions to community development, local governments and organizations offer a number of resources to encourage and support those participating in community gardening. While this investment is beneficial, limited research and resources have been directed towards home gardening, an arguably more prevalent and resilient form of food production. My study aims to address this gap in food systems literature by exploring the benefits of home food gardening in urban communities, and the motivations for and barriers to home...

  15. The Long-Term Consequences of Deer Browse in Temperate and Boreal Forests

    Reed, Samuel
    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) overabundance has sparked dramatic changes in forests throughout North America. In Pennsylvania’s Allegheny National Forest and Quebec’s Anticosti Island, I investigated how deer have altered canopy structural complexity, species diversity, and carbon stocks across a controlled density gradient and a chronosequence of increasing disturbance, respectively. To measure canopy complexity, I used a Portable Canopy LiDAR (PCL) system, which records the three-dimensional arrangement of leaves and stems within a canopy using an upward-facing infrared laser. In Pennsylvania we predicted that treatment effects on forest composition and structure would support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and that stands experiencing...

  16. The effects of overwinter survival on juvenile Asian carps, Bighead Carp and Koi Carp

    Fisher, Kevin
    Bighead carp Hypophythalmichthys nobilis is a warm water species native to Asia, currently invasive to Mississippi River basin rivers. Concerns exist about how Asian carps may impact the multibillion-dollar annual U.S. sport fishery if they are able to invade the Great Lakes. However, a gap in scientific data exists regarding survival of age-0 Bighead Carp in winter water conditions similar to the Great Lakes. An experiment was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 which examined the survival, growth, proximate body composition, and biochemical adaptations of age-0 Bighead carp and Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio of different sizes subjected to simulated...

  17. THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN AXENIC SYSTEM, AND THE SURVIVAL, GROWTH, AND BASELINE MICROBIAL LOAD OF THE REARING ENVIRONMENT, FOOD SOURCE AND INTERNAL MICROBIOTA OF A CICHLID FISH

    Hayes, Jeffry
    A novel axenic apparatus was designed and constructed for use as a research platform in germ-free fish larvae culture and the development of antibiotic alternatives. The system contains many innovations to the systems most used in germ-free aquaculture research today. Using a cichlid (Synspilum) species and a cichlid hybrid (Synspilum x Amphilophus), the system was tested under holoxenic conditions to ensure that fish can survive in such an apparatus. The system has six chambers, of which three were stocked with Synspilum and three with the hybrid (n=15 each). Two control tanks were set up and one was stocked with the...

  18. Perceived Impacts of Community Gardens: Analysis by Structure and Funding Sources

    Kitchen, Dustin
    Community gardening programs are present in many communities throughout Ohio. Little research has looked into the relationship of structural factors of a garden and the perceived impacts garden leaders see from their work. This study examines how various structural factors of a garden a impacts perceived by garden leadership. Garden affect leaders from throughout Ohio completed an online survey regarding their garden. These gardens vary widely in leadership structure as well as where they derive their funding. Along with these, thee gardens tend to perceive high levels of impacts within their communities. Mann-Whitney U tests indicate significant differences on perceived...

  19. Breeding success in relation to nestling physiological stress in Prothonotary Warblers at Hoover Reservoir in Delaware County, Ohio

    Edic, Kira
    Prothonotary Warblers (Prothonotaria citrea) are a neotropical migratory songbird that inhabit wooded swamp areas and have slowly been declining¬¬ in numbers across their range. Using a population of these birds at Hoover Reservoir in Delaware County, Ohio, we measured the physiological stress levels of nestlings in relation to post-fledging survival and time of year. We collected feathers from recently fledged birds and related corticosterone levels (CORT) to fledge date. We additionally placed radio transmitters on a fledgling from each nest to determine if stress levels are related to post-fledging survival. Using these results, we sought to determine if physiological stress...

  20. Poor Pawpaw Production in Woodland Patches- What's the Explanation?

    Brigner, Liberty
    The pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a small fruit-bearing tree in the Annonaceae family, known for being the only tree native to the United States that bears large edible fruit (Callaway, 1990). These trees are of high cultural importance to the state of Ohio and the surrounding region for their history as a reliable and nutritious food source, an indicator of good ecological condition and, due to their clonal growth, effective erosion control. Although common in the region, fruit production is often limited, and large-scale cultivation and commercialization has not been historically successful. To determine what affects fruit production in the...

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