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The KnowledgeBank at OSU (76.533 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Natural Resources

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 77

  1. The Effect of the Lead Water Crisis as a Focusing Event on Cooperation and Conflict Among Actors in Sebring, Ohio

    Satterfield, Jennifer
    At the same time the Flint water crisis made national news in late 2015 and early 2016, a local lead water crisis was taking place in Sebring, Ohio. This lead water crisis in Sebring was a focusing event that opened a policy window during which it was the opportune time to enact change. The environmental organization, the Ohio Environmental Council (OEC) worked with state lawmakers during this short window of time following the crisis to develop House Bill 512, a bill that established requirements governing lead and copper testing for community and non-transient water systems. Furthermore, these crises also influenced...

  2. The effect of Lake Erie algal blooms on Emerald Shiner (Notropis atherinoides) visual morphology

    Bertolini, Elizabeth
    Due to recent increases in agricultural runoff, Lake Erie has been experiencing harmful algal blooms (HABs) with rising severity. The runoff carries excess Phosphorus which is a limiting nutrient in freshwater and a main ingredient in agricultural fertilizers. This nutrient increase has been found to promote large blooms of Microcystis cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, with the most recently severe blooms occurring in 2013-2015. HABs can negatively impact ecological health; for example, algal turbidity (suspended particles found in water) reduces the light available to aquatic species, resulting in impaired vision and ability to detect predators and prey. The objective of this...

  3. Impact of Mixed and Pure Stand Eucalyptus Plantations on Soil Quality in Southern China

    O'Banion, Bridget
    Since its introduction to China in the late 1800's, the Eucalyptus tree has played a vital role in the country's development by providing a booming timber supply. The trees are grown in pure and mixed stand plantations across China, and there is interest in which plot type facilitates better growth of Eucalyptus trees. Soil quality data from pure Eucalyptus hybrid (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis) stands and mixed stands (Eucalyptus with Magnolia glanca Blume or Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun) near Liuzhou and Nanning, China, respectively, were compared to see which plantation type fostered better soil quality for Eucalyptus growth. Circular plots...

  4. Giving Up Density as an approach to identify a difference in foraging behavior between native and invasive crayfish species

    Meyer, Scott
    Invasive species are often thought to displace native species by being superior competitors through aggression and resource exploitation. In freshwater ecosystems, invasive crayfish have been frequently shown to displace native crayfish by outcompeting them for food resources. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the displacement of native crayfish, Orconectes sanbornii, by invasive crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, in Ohio streams may be due to superior foraging behavior of the invader. We also examined whether foraging behavior changed in the presence of a model fish predator. We ran a lab experiment where we used depletable food patches to compare the foraging behavior of...

  5. Exploring the Potential of Home Gardening to Increase Food Access and Enhance Community Development in Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods

    Momenee, Mara
    Studies show that community gardens increase access to fresh produce and strengthen relationships amongst residents in cities across the United States. Given these contributions to community development, local governments and organizations offer a number of resources to encourage and support those participating in community gardening. While this investment is beneficial, limited research and resources have been directed towards home gardening, an arguably more prevalent and resilient form of food production. My study aims to address this gap in food systems literature by exploring the benefits of home food gardening in urban communities, and the motivations for and barriers to home...

  6. The Long-Term Consequences of Deer Browse in Temperate and Boreal Forests

    Reed, Samuel
    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) overabundance has sparked dramatic changes in forests throughout North America. In Pennsylvania’s Allegheny National Forest and Quebec’s Anticosti Island, I investigated how deer have altered canopy structural complexity, species diversity, and carbon stocks across a controlled density gradient and a chronosequence of increasing disturbance, respectively. To measure canopy complexity, I used a Portable Canopy LiDAR (PCL) system, which records the three-dimensional arrangement of leaves and stems within a canopy using an upward-facing infrared laser. In Pennsylvania we predicted that treatment effects on forest composition and structure would support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and that stands experiencing...

  7. The effects of overwinter survival on juvenile Asian carps, Bighead Carp and Koi Carp

    Fisher, Kevin
    Bighead carp Hypophythalmichthys nobilis is a warm water species native to Asia, currently invasive to Mississippi River basin rivers. Concerns exist about how Asian carps may impact the multibillion-dollar annual U.S. sport fishery if they are able to invade the Great Lakes. However, a gap in scientific data exists regarding survival of age-0 Bighead Carp in winter water conditions similar to the Great Lakes. An experiment was conducted from November 2014 to April 2015 which examined the survival, growth, proximate body composition, and biochemical adaptations of age-0 Bighead carp and Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio of different sizes subjected to simulated...


    Hayes, Jeffry
    A novel axenic apparatus was designed and constructed for use as a research platform in germ-free fish larvae culture and the development of antibiotic alternatives. The system contains many innovations to the systems most used in germ-free aquaculture research today. Using a cichlid (Synspilum) species and a cichlid hybrid (Synspilum x Amphilophus), the system was tested under holoxenic conditions to ensure that fish can survive in such an apparatus. The system has six chambers, of which three were stocked with Synspilum and three with the hybrid (n=15 each). Two control tanks were set up and one was stocked with the...

  9. Perceived Impacts of Community Gardens: Analysis by Structure and Funding Sources

    Kitchen, Dustin
    Community gardening programs are present in many communities throughout Ohio. Little research has looked into the relationship of structural factors of a garden and the perceived impacts garden leaders see from their work. This study examines how various structural factors of a garden a impacts perceived by garden leadership. Garden affect leaders from throughout Ohio completed an online survey regarding their garden. These gardens vary widely in leadership structure as well as where they derive their funding. Along with these, thee gardens tend to perceive high levels of impacts within their communities. Mann-Whitney U tests indicate significant differences on perceived...

  10. Breeding success in relation to nestling physiological stress in Prothonotary Warblers at Hoover Reservoir in Delaware County, Ohio

    Edic, Kira
    Prothonotary Warblers (Prothonotaria citrea) are a neotropical migratory songbird that inhabit wooded swamp areas and have slowly been declining¬¬ in numbers across their range. Using a population of these birds at Hoover Reservoir in Delaware County, Ohio, we measured the physiological stress levels of nestlings in relation to post-fledging survival and time of year. We collected feathers from recently fledged birds and related corticosterone levels (CORT) to fledge date. We additionally placed radio transmitters on a fledgling from each nest to determine if stress levels are related to post-fledging survival. Using these results, we sought to determine if physiological stress...

  11. Poor Pawpaw Production in Woodland Patches- What's the Explanation?

    Brigner, Liberty
    The pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a small fruit-bearing tree in the Annonaceae family, known for being the only tree native to the United States that bears large edible fruit (Callaway, 1990). These trees are of high cultural importance to the state of Ohio and the surrounding region for their history as a reliable and nutritious food source, an indicator of good ecological condition and, due to their clonal growth, effective erosion control. Although common in the region, fruit production is often limited, and large-scale cultivation and commercialization has not been historically successful. To determine what affects fruit production in the...

  12. Why does predator abundance increase after invasion of a non-native prey?

    O'Shaughnessey, Erin
    Invasive species have been shown to have substantial effects on native food webs though their potential roles as novel predators or novel prey. As novel prey, invasive species have been recently shown to cause native predator populations to increase in abundance and growth rate following introduction. However, we know little about whether the magnitude of the effect of invasive species as novel prey depends on particular traits of native predator species. The goal of this study was to conduct a literature search to identify the characteristics of native predators that might influence the magnitude of effect that non-native prey might...

  13. Measuring the Implicit Value of Subsurface Mineral Rights in Eastern Ohio

    Cultice, Brian
    Shale gas development has proliferated in eastern Ohio, leading to questions about the economic impacts of the influx of entities seeking to explore and extract minerals in the region. A major source of economic gain for landowners in these areas is direct revenue from the purchasing and leasing of mineral rights by the mineral extraction industry. However, there is a history of mineral development in Eastern Ohio, implying the existence of split estates, situations in which the surface and subsurface rights for a given parcel of land are separately owned. While mineral rights are directly traded in the market, their...

  14. An Analysis of Levels of Optimism, Self-Efficacy, and Types of Motivations of Farmers in Alternative Agriculture: Understanding Small and Medium-Scale Organic and Local Farmers at the Rural-Urban Interface

    Goldberg, Kayla
    This research focuses on comparing farmers at the rural-urban interface involved in various types of alternative agriculture, such as organic crop production, and various types of marketing such as local-direct sales, and local-intermediated sales. The internal factors that are analyzed are farmer levels of optimism in regards to their farms, self-efficacy related to making positive changes in their communities, feelings of belongingness in their communities, and motivations or goals related to farming. The research looks first at differences and similarities across alternative types: organic, local, both organic and local (dual-motivated), and neither. The second analysis looks at comparisons across farmers...

  15. Evaluating the Impacts of Outdoor Orientation Programs at The Ohio State University

    Rhodus, Ethan
    Across higher education institutions, pre-enrollment programs (PEP) have been developed to improve the transition experience for incoming students. Of these PEP, outdoor orientation programs have been highly successful in increasing student retention, improving sense of belonging, and increasing student GPA. While there has been previous research looking at programs offered for incoming students at The Ohio State University, there has not been a focused project looking at the differences in outcomes between the various types of programs. Anecdotal evidence suggests that outdoor orientation programs have had success at OSU, but only limited evaluation of these programs has occurred. The aim...

  16. How Physical Amenities Relate to the Mental Well-being of Columbus Residents

    Goldberg, Kori
    Research into the well-being of individuals and communities has identified a number of environmental factors that contribute to overall well-being. This project looks at two neighborhoods within Columbus (Olde Towne East and Clintonville) and the relationship that physical amenities in those neighborhoods may have to the mental well-being scores of the residents. Three amenities, green space, blue space, and walkability were analyzed specifically.

  17. The Optokinetic Response of Fishes to Different Levels of Turbidity

    Robbins, Jeffrey
    Many fish need light to school, reproduce, and forage. Without enough light penetrating into an aquatic system fish may not be able to accomplish these tasks, thus compromising their ability to persist. Turbidity, or suspended particles in the water, is a serious global problem due to increased run-off from urban and agricultural activities. High turbidity has the potential to reduce light to a point where fish are unable to detect the visual environment. The first objective to this project was to develop an optomotor response apparatus for testing the visual abilities of fish under increasing turbidity. Due to the optokinetic...

  18. Social Sustainability in the Food System: Examining Innovative Local Government Plans

    Metzler, Rachel
    Over fourteen percent of households in the United States (US) are food insecure (USDA, 2013). At the same time, small and midsize farmers have been under pressure for the past 40 years from an economic and political system that champions and rewards large-scale commodity production (USDA, 2012). Communities, including local government actors, across the country are acting to build food systems that address these issues. These actions, which are one focus within the broader alternative agrifood movements (AAMs), are largely based upon the ideal of creating a just and sustainable food system (Constance, et. al, 2014). However, the incorporation of...

  19. The relationship between turbidity and carotenoid-based coloration of centrarchid fishes in urban streams

    Atkinson, Tiffany
    Agricultural and urbanization practices cause runoff of nutrients and sediments into aquatic systems, leading to elevated turbidity levels (i.e., amount of suspended particles in the water) and loss of aquatic biodiversity. Increased turbidity can alter visual environments through the differential scattering and absorption of light underwater. Therefore, in fishes that use visual cues to find mates, the effectiveness of visual signals can be compromised by turbidity and interfere with mating systems such that hybridization can occur. Carotenoid pigments responsible for red and yellow color patterns are energetically costly for fish to acquire from their diet. If signals are interrupted by...

  20. Effects of aquatic habitat degradation on hybridization between two species of Sunfish: Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)

    Wittman, Jacob
    Stream habitat degradation includes factors such as as increased turbidity and excessive sedimentation of the streambed resulting from surrounding urban land use and development. It is hypothesized that these two physical characteristics of streams have the greatest effect on hybridization of closely related fishes, leading to decreased biodiversity. The objective of this research was to determine if there is a correlation between substrate sedimentation, turbidity, and Hybrid Sunfish abundances. Hybridization between Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus; an indicator of poor water quality), referred to as Hybrid Sunfish, was investigated. Additionally, species composition in degraded systems was investigated...

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