Recursos de colección

The KnowledgeBank at OSU (75.279 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Poster Presentations

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 193

  1. Metabolic engineering for enhanced furfural tolerance during cellulosic butanol fermentation by glycerol-supplemented Clostridium beijerinckii

    Agu, Chidozie; Ujor, Victor C.; Ezeji, Thaddeus C.
    The inability of Clostridium beijerinckii to efficiently utilize glycerol, currently experiencing a market glut due to increased biodiesel production is a major impediment to adopting glycerol metabolism as a strategy for increasing NAD(P)H regeneration to mitigate lignocellulose-derived inhibitor ( e.g. furfural) toxicity, and improve butanol titer during fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates (LBH). Therefore, metabolic engineering was pursued to enhance glycerol utilization in C. beijerinckii to improve NAD(P)H regeneration and butanol production in furfural-replete LBH. Towards this goal, glycerol catabolic arsenal from the hyper-glycerol utilizing bacterium, Clostridium pasteurianum was cloned and overexpressed in C. beijerinckii. Glycerol dehydrogenase (gldh), the first enzyme in the glycerol catabolic pathway, catalyzes an NAD(P)H...

  2. The effect of soil cation balancing on soil properties and weed communities in an organic rotation

    Linder, Katie
    Many organic farmers in Ohio subscribe to soil balancing, or Base Cation Saturation Ratio (BCSR), to manage soil fertility, weeds and crops. BCSR calls for a balanced soil (~70% Ca, ~10% Mg, ~5%K). However, research has not substantiated this claim. An experiment was initiated in 2014 to evaluate the effect of BCSR on weed and crop communities, and soil properties in a 4-crop rotation. The experimental design is a randomized complete block, with 3 BCSR treatments, limestone, limestone with gypsum, GFF (a commercially-available blend from Green Field Farms Cooperative), plus a non-amended control. Soil was sampled in November 2013 and...

  3. Response of grafted glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybean plants to glyphosate

    Chen, Yin
    Previous research established that grafting imparts herbicide tolerance from a glyphosate tolerant (RR) soybean rootstock to a conventional (CN) scion. However, no information is available regarding how soybean growth stage, genotype and environment affects the tolerance level expressed in the CN scion. Experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to determine the effect of these variables. Three soybean growth stages (3, 6 and 10-leaf stage), graft combinations of 6 soybean genotypes (3 CN and 3 RR) and 2 temperature conditions were evaluated. Glyphosate rates used were 0.84 and 1.68 kg ae/ha. In every experiment all chimeras of CN/CN died and...

  4. Weed Control and Tolerance of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to Fomesafen

    Mohseni-Moghadam, Mohsen
    Weed management in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) continues to be a challenge for vegetable growers in Ohio. Field experiments were conducted at the North Central Agricultural Research Station in Fremont, OH in 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the tolerance of tomato to fomesafen and the efficacy of this herbicides on weed control. The crop was machine-transplanted in June 5, 2009 and June 3, 2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4 replications. Pre-transplant treatments were applied on June 4, 2009, and May 27, 2010 and included fomesafen at 280, 350, 420, 560, and 840 g ai ha-1....

  5. Bioabatement to remove microbial inhibitors from Miscanthus giganteus hydrolysates for enhanced butanol fermentation

    Agu, Chidozie Victor
    The recalcitrant nature of cheap lignocellulose warrants pretreatment process to disrupt the lignin matrix and expose the carbohydrate fraction to enzymatic saccharification. Generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) during the pretreatment process undermines large-scale utilization of biomass for biofuel (e.g. butanol) production. LDMICs are derived from lignin (e.g. vanillin), cellulose (e.g. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]), and hemicellulose (e.g. acetic acid) fractions of lignocellulose. These compounds impair butanol fermentation by disrupting the growth of butanol-producing Clostridium beijerinckii through diverse mechanisms including perturbation of redox and energy state of the cell, inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, and damage to cell membrane, nucleic acids and...

  6. Long-legged fly (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) communities in Ohio agroecosystems and assessing their role as biological control agents in vegetable crops

    Kautz, Andrea
    Biological control is a vital ecosystem service provided by a diverse guild of predators in agroecosystems. Biodiversity is thought to be linked to ecosystem functioning through more efficient resource capture and niche partitioning. Understanding the factors that impact the diversity of these predators is therefore important to our understanding of how to enhance biocontrol services. Long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are a particularly ubiquitous yet understudied group of insect predators that are common in all habitats in Ohio, including agricultural systems. Previous studies have shown that these flies are sensitive to environmental changes, at least in natural systems like grasslands and...

  7. Improving Freezing Tolerance of Cold-Sensitive Grape Cultivars Using Abscisic Acid

    Li, Shouxin
    Grape and wine industries in colder regions such as Ohio have been expanding rapidly and demand for premium wine grapes has also increased. However, several popular cultivars are sensitive to freezing temperatures below -20°C. The goal of this study was to improve freezing tolerance of sensitive grape cultivars using abscisic acid (ABA). The objectives of this research are to: 1) evaluate the response of greenhouse- and field-grown wine grape cultivars to exogenous ABA, 2) characterize the changes of freezing tolerance, water content, and soluble sugars in bud tissues of greenhouse- and field-grown vines in response to exogenous ABA. In the...

  8. Horizontal Gene Transfer and Gene Duplication of Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Genes in an Invasive Insect Pest

    Zhao, Chaoyang
    Insects were long thought to lack endogenous genes encoding plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). However, this hypothesis has been challenged since symbiotic-independent PCWDE genes and enzymes were found in several insect species. As an economically-important wood-feeding beetle, how the invasive insect emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) degrades plant cell walls and utilizes their contents is of high interest. We identified three glycoside hydrolase (GH) gene families and one polysaccharide lyase (PL) gene family within the A. planipennis genome, which putatively encode for α-L-arabinofuranosidases (GH43), endoglucanases (GH44), polygalacturonases (GH28) and Rhamnogalacturonases (PL4), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they exhibit close...

  9. Comparison of Parthenium argentatum and Hevea brasiliensis rubber: Effect of non-rubber constituents on rubber intrinsic properties

    Mohammad Ali Monadjemi, Shirin
    Natural rubber (NR) is an indispensable polymer used to manufacture industrial products and has many exceptional features that makes it as yet irreplaceable by synthetic rubber. Currently, almost all NR used in commerce comes from the hevea tree (Hevea brasiliensis). However, to meet the increasing demand for NR, guayule (Parthenium argentatum) has emerged on the market as a sustainable commercial source of high quality rubber. Guayule rubber (GR) has similarities to hevea rubber but also has unique properties. For example, it was found to be malleable at extremely cold temperatures. We aim to understand causes of this malleability to tap this potential for aerospace, cryogenic...

  10. A Tool to Assess Heating Efficiency of Direct-fired Heater with the Impact of Humidity Control

    Lee, Wee Fong
    Heating is one of the top two expenses of greenhouse operations in northern climates. Direct-fired heater (DFH) that has been promoted having high heating efficiency, 99.9%, compared to 80-94% of conventional indirect-fired heaters (IFH), could be an energy efficient choice. However, the high efficiency claim does not consider energy lost through air intake during combustion process. Fresh air intake is important for clean combustion and extra dehumidification for the water vapor generated from the combustion process to maintain a healthy environment for plant growth. The actual heating efficiency of a DFH is affected by amount of fresh air intake where...

  11. Transcriptomic evidence for dramatic functional transition of the Malpighian Tubules after a blood meal in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Esquivel, Carlos
    Vector-borne diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are important for global health, because cause hundreds of thousands of deaths and sickening hundreds of millions people each year. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), is enhancing this risk in the world and the United States. Ae. albopictus is vector of diseases such as West Nile fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis. To date, this research has used single-end RNA-Seq to demonstrate that a blood meal affects the expression of more than 1800 non-redundant transcripts and 15 metabolic pathways in Malpighian tubules of the Asian tiger mosquito, in a manner that...

  12. Predicting food production potential of urban vacant lots through soil quality

    Cheng, Zhiqiang
    Post-industrial cities such as Cleveland have accumulated substantial number of vacant lots due to home foreclosures and urban sprawl over the past two decades. Interest in this land has escalated recently due to increased demand for food security in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. We measured soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters in vacant lots in the Hough neighborhood in Cleveland to assess their suitability for food production. Each lot was divided into three approximately equal sections and nine soil cores were collected from each section. The results revealed huge spatial variability in soil properties within vacant lots. Soil pH ranged from...

  13. Cooperative endurance: A remarkable strategy adopted by symbiotic bacteria to persist in their nematode vector

    An, Ruisheng
    Symbioses between microbes and animals are ubiquitous, yet little is known about the intricate mechanisms maintaining such associations. In an emerging animal-microbe symbiosis model system represented by the partnership between insect-pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus temperata and insect-parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, we investigated molecular mechanisms adopted by the bacteria to persist in the enduring nematode vector in search of their insect host. Using selective capture of transcribed sequences approach, 50 transcripts were identified to be up-regulated and 56 were down-regulated by the bacteria during persistence in the nematode compared with growth in culture medium. Real-time PCR analysis of 14 representative transcripts displayed...

  14. Cooling Capacity Assessment of Semi-closed Greenhouses

    Lee, Wee Fong
    Energy and labor are the two largest expenditures of greenhouse operations. High energy cost and large CO2 footprint associated with greenhouse heating have motivated research activities in the areas of energy conservation and alternative energy. Dutch researchers have demonstrated energy saving potential of closed greenhouse operation in the Netherlands. This study hypothesized that semi-closed operation was better suited for Ohio and other US northern climate regions. A decision support tool has been developed to assess energy recovery potential and other benefits of semi-closed operations. The results showed that a greenhouse can be closed 90% of the time using only 50%...

  15. QUANTIFICATION OF VIRAL RNA CONCENTRATIONS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE KILLED VACCINES FOR IBDV, BY REAL TIME RT-PCR.

    Rauf, Abdul
    In this study we standardized a method for viral RNA extraction from commercially available killed and live vaccines against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). We also used a prototype strains (STC) of know titer to prepare killed vaccine in our laboratory. We used the same live virus to develop a standard curve . We were able to show the differences in RNA content between the different vaccines.

  16. Starch hydrolysis by a co-immobilized alpha-amylase and glucoamylase

    Dai, Zifei
    The industrial hydrolysis of starch involves several steps and several enzymes including, alpha-amylase (AA), glucoamylase (GluA), and pullulanase. Among the enzymes only GluA is used in immobilized form. There are several studies investigating immobilization of starch hydrolysis enzymes individually, however, only few studies exist on immobilization of multi-enzyme system. The objective of this study is to develop a co-immobilized enzyme system for single step hydrolysis of starch to glucose. The immobilized enzyme system comprised of entrapped GluA inside the calcium alginate beads and adsorbed AA on the surface of the beads. The arrangement will provide the hydrolysis of starch into...

  17. A UPLC-MS/MS Method for Quantitative Determination of Intact 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate and its Polyglutamyl Derivatives in Raw Vegetables

    Chao, Wang
    No

  18. Quantification of Anthocyanins and other Phenolics in Native Andean Potatoes

    Polit, M. Fernanda
    Potato is currently the fifth most important crop worldwide after sugar cane, maize, wheat and rice with a production of >321 million tones in 2007. Potato is notably recognized as a source of carbohydrates, high-quality proteins, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B3 and minerals such as potassium, phosphorous and magnesium. Besides these basic nutrients, some colored potato varieties contain significant amounts of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity. The objective of this research was to identify potato varieties with increased phenolic content. This was achieved through quantification of total phenolics and anthocyanins in 20 varieties of native...

  19. Evaluation of three insect scouting methods: Effects of overhead collection, greenhouse temperature and air jet on collection of whitefly from a B. tabaci-poinsettia system.

    Biffi, Alfredo A.
    Scouting for insect pest is the backbone of a successful Integrated Pest Management (IPM). But it is troublesome and time consuming. The goal of this research project is to develop a high resolution overhead greenhouse insect scouting device that efficiently detect and collect insect pests population. Three greenhouse insect scouting methods (yellow sticky card, mobile overhead sticky card and mobile overhead vacuum) were compared to determinate collection efficiency (CE) of adult whiteflies (B.tabaci) from a Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) crop. The main objective was to estimate CE of two mobile overhead scouting methods and study the effects of temperature and the...

  20. Relationship between FHB and DON among SRWW Cultivars with Different Levels of Type II Resistance

    Li, Cunyu
    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is among several mycotoxins produced by Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), in infected wheat spikes. Cultivar resistance is a recommended strategy for managing FHB and DON, with resistance to the spread of visual symptoms (Type II resistance) generally corresponding to resistance to DON accumulation (Type III resistance). However, the relationship between visual symptoms and DON is highly variable. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of cultivar on the FHB/DON functional relationship. Three experiments were conducted in two years, using three cultivars with different levels of Type II resistance (Truman, moderately resistant; Hopewell,...

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