Recursos de colección

The KnowledgeBank at OSU (75.894 recursos)

Knowledge Bank contains collections of presentations, publications and reports related to Ohio State University.

Poster Presentations

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 386

  1. Metabolic engineering for enhanced furfural tolerance during cellulosic butanol fermentation by glycerol-supplemented Clostridium beijerinckii

    Agu, Chidozie; Ujor, Victor C.; Ezeji, Thaddeus C.
    The inability of Clostridium beijerinckii to efficiently utilize glycerol, currently experiencing a market glut due to increased biodiesel production is a major impediment to adopting glycerol metabolism as a strategy for increasing NAD(P)H regeneration to mitigate lignocellulose-derived inhibitor ( e.g. furfural) toxicity, and improve butanol titer during fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates (LBH). Therefore, metabolic engineering was pursued to enhance glycerol utilization in C. beijerinckii to improve NAD(P)H regeneration and butanol production in furfural-replete LBH. Towards this goal, glycerol catabolic arsenal from the hyper-glycerol utilizing bacterium, Clostridium pasteurianum was cloned and overexpressed in C. beijerinckii. Glycerol dehydrogenase (gldh), the first enzyme in the glycerol catabolic pathway, catalyzes an NAD(P)H...

  2. Metabolic engineering for enhanced furfural tolerance during cellulosic butanol fermentation by glycerol-supplemented Clostridium beijerinckii

    Agu, Chidozie; Ujor, Victor C.; Ezeji, Thaddeus C.
    The inability of Clostridium beijerinckii to efficiently utilize glycerol, currently experiencing a market glut due to increased biodiesel production is a major impediment to adopting glycerol metabolism as a strategy for increasing NAD(P)H regeneration to mitigate lignocellulose-derived inhibitor ( e.g. furfural) toxicity, and improve butanol titer during fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates (LBH). Therefore, metabolic engineering was pursued to enhance glycerol utilization in C. beijerinckii to improve NAD(P)H regeneration and butanol production in furfural-replete LBH. Towards this goal, glycerol catabolic arsenal from the hyper-glycerol utilizing bacterium, Clostridium pasteurianum was cloned and overexpressed in C. beijerinckii. Glycerol dehydrogenase (gldh), the first enzyme in the glycerol catabolic pathway, catalyzes an NAD(P)H...

  3. The effect of soil cation balancing on soil properties and weed communities in an organic rotation

    Linder, Katie
    Many organic farmers in Ohio subscribe to soil balancing, or Base Cation Saturation Ratio (BCSR), to manage soil fertility, weeds and crops. BCSR calls for a balanced soil (~70% Ca, ~10% Mg, ~5%K). However, research has not substantiated this claim. An experiment was initiated in 2014 to evaluate the effect of BCSR on weed and crop communities, and soil properties in a 4-crop rotation. The experimental design is a randomized complete block, with 3 BCSR treatments, limestone, limestone with gypsum, GFF (a commercially-available blend from Green Field Farms Cooperative), plus a non-amended control. Soil was sampled in November 2013 and...

  4. The effect of soil cation balancing on soil properties and weed communities in an organic rotation

    Linder, Katie
    Many organic farmers in Ohio subscribe to soil balancing, or Base Cation Saturation Ratio (BCSR), to manage soil fertility, weeds and crops. BCSR calls for a balanced soil (~70% Ca, ~10% Mg, ~5%K). However, research has not substantiated this claim. An experiment was initiated in 2014 to evaluate the effect of BCSR on weed and crop communities, and soil properties in a 4-crop rotation. The experimental design is a randomized complete block, with 3 BCSR treatments, limestone, limestone with gypsum, GFF (a commercially-available blend from Green Field Farms Cooperative), plus a non-amended control. Soil was sampled in November 2013 and...

  5. Response of grafted glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybean plants to glyphosate

    Chen, Yin
    Previous research established that grafting imparts herbicide tolerance from a glyphosate tolerant (RR) soybean rootstock to a conventional (CN) scion. However, no information is available regarding how soybean growth stage, genotype and environment affects the tolerance level expressed in the CN scion. Experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to determine the effect of these variables. Three soybean growth stages (3, 6 and 10-leaf stage), graft combinations of 6 soybean genotypes (3 CN and 3 RR) and 2 temperature conditions were evaluated. Glyphosate rates used were 0.84 and 1.68 kg ae/ha. In every experiment all chimeras of CN/CN died and...

  6. Response of grafted glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybean plants to glyphosate

    Chen, Yin
    Previous research established that grafting imparts herbicide tolerance from a glyphosate tolerant (RR) soybean rootstock to a conventional (CN) scion. However, no information is available regarding how soybean growth stage, genotype and environment affects the tolerance level expressed in the CN scion. Experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to determine the effect of these variables. Three soybean growth stages (3, 6 and 10-leaf stage), graft combinations of 6 soybean genotypes (3 CN and 3 RR) and 2 temperature conditions were evaluated. Glyphosate rates used were 0.84 and 1.68 kg ae/ha. In every experiment all chimeras of CN/CN died and...

  7. Weed Control and Tolerance of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to Fomesafen

    Mohseni-Moghadam, Mohsen
    Weed management in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) continues to be a challenge for vegetable growers in Ohio. Field experiments were conducted at the North Central Agricultural Research Station in Fremont, OH in 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the tolerance of tomato to fomesafen and the efficacy of this herbicides on weed control. The crop was machine-transplanted in June 5, 2009 and June 3, 2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4 replications. Pre-transplant treatments were applied on June 4, 2009, and May 27, 2010 and included fomesafen at 280, 350, 420, 560, and 840 g ai ha-1....

  8. Weed Control and Tolerance of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) to Fomesafen

    Mohseni-Moghadam, Mohsen
    Weed management in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) continues to be a challenge for vegetable growers in Ohio. Field experiments were conducted at the North Central Agricultural Research Station in Fremont, OH in 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the tolerance of tomato to fomesafen and the efficacy of this herbicides on weed control. The crop was machine-transplanted in June 5, 2009 and June 3, 2010. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4 replications. Pre-transplant treatments were applied on June 4, 2009, and May 27, 2010 and included fomesafen at 280, 350, 420, 560, and 840 g ai ha-1....

  9. Bioabatement to remove microbial inhibitors from Miscanthus giganteus hydrolysates for enhanced butanol fermentation

    Agu, Chidozie Victor
    The recalcitrant nature of cheap lignocellulose warrants pretreatment process to disrupt the lignin matrix and expose the carbohydrate fraction to enzymatic saccharification. Generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) during the pretreatment process undermines large-scale utilization of biomass for biofuel (e.g. butanol) production. LDMICs are derived from lignin (e.g. vanillin), cellulose (e.g. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]), and hemicellulose (e.g. acetic acid) fractions of lignocellulose. These compounds impair butanol fermentation by disrupting the growth of butanol-producing Clostridium beijerinckii through diverse mechanisms including perturbation of redox and energy state of the cell, inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, and damage to cell membrane, nucleic acids and...

  10. Bioabatement to remove microbial inhibitors from Miscanthus giganteus hydrolysates for enhanced butanol fermentation

    Agu, Chidozie Victor
    The recalcitrant nature of cheap lignocellulose warrants pretreatment process to disrupt the lignin matrix and expose the carbohydrate fraction to enzymatic saccharification. Generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) during the pretreatment process undermines large-scale utilization of biomass for biofuel (e.g. butanol) production. LDMICs are derived from lignin (e.g. vanillin), cellulose (e.g. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]), and hemicellulose (e.g. acetic acid) fractions of lignocellulose. These compounds impair butanol fermentation by disrupting the growth of butanol-producing Clostridium beijerinckii through diverse mechanisms including perturbation of redox and energy state of the cell, inhibition of glycolytic enzymes, and damage to cell membrane, nucleic acids and...

  11. Long-legged fly (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) communities in Ohio agroecosystems and assessing their role as biological control agents in vegetable crops

    Kautz, Andrea
    Biological control is a vital ecosystem service provided by a diverse guild of predators in agroecosystems. Biodiversity is thought to be linked to ecosystem functioning through more efficient resource capture and niche partitioning. Understanding the factors that impact the diversity of these predators is therefore important to our understanding of how to enhance biocontrol services. Long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are a particularly ubiquitous yet understudied group of insect predators that are common in all habitats in Ohio, including agricultural systems. Previous studies have shown that these flies are sensitive to environmental changes, at least in natural systems like grasslands and...

  12. Long-legged fly (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) communities in Ohio agroecosystems and assessing their role as biological control agents in vegetable crops

    Kautz, Andrea
    Biological control is a vital ecosystem service provided by a diverse guild of predators in agroecosystems. Biodiversity is thought to be linked to ecosystem functioning through more efficient resource capture and niche partitioning. Understanding the factors that impact the diversity of these predators is therefore important to our understanding of how to enhance biocontrol services. Long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are a particularly ubiquitous yet understudied group of insect predators that are common in all habitats in Ohio, including agricultural systems. Previous studies have shown that these flies are sensitive to environmental changes, at least in natural systems like grasslands and...

  13. Improving Freezing Tolerance of Cold-Sensitive Grape Cultivars Using Abscisic Acid

    Li, Shouxin
    Grape and wine industries in colder regions such as Ohio have been expanding rapidly and demand for premium wine grapes has also increased. However, several popular cultivars are sensitive to freezing temperatures below -20°C. The goal of this study was to improve freezing tolerance of sensitive grape cultivars using abscisic acid (ABA). The objectives of this research are to: 1) evaluate the response of greenhouse- and field-grown wine grape cultivars to exogenous ABA, 2) characterize the changes of freezing tolerance, water content, and soluble sugars in bud tissues of greenhouse- and field-grown vines in response to exogenous ABA. In the...

  14. Improving Freezing Tolerance of Cold-Sensitive Grape Cultivars Using Abscisic Acid

    Li, Shouxin
    Grape and wine industries in colder regions such as Ohio have been expanding rapidly and demand for premium wine grapes has also increased. However, several popular cultivars are sensitive to freezing temperatures below -20°C. The goal of this study was to improve freezing tolerance of sensitive grape cultivars using abscisic acid (ABA). The objectives of this research are to: 1) evaluate the response of greenhouse- and field-grown wine grape cultivars to exogenous ABA, 2) characterize the changes of freezing tolerance, water content, and soluble sugars in bud tissues of greenhouse- and field-grown vines in response to exogenous ABA. In the...

  15. Horizontal Gene Transfer and Gene Duplication of Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Genes in an Invasive Insect Pest

    Zhao, Chaoyang
    Insects were long thought to lack endogenous genes encoding plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). However, this hypothesis has been challenged since symbiotic-independent PCWDE genes and enzymes were found in several insect species. As an economically-important wood-feeding beetle, how the invasive insect emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) degrades plant cell walls and utilizes their contents is of high interest. We identified three glycoside hydrolase (GH) gene families and one polysaccharide lyase (PL) gene family within the A. planipennis genome, which putatively encode for α-L-arabinofuranosidases (GH43), endoglucanases (GH44), polygalacturonases (GH28) and Rhamnogalacturonases (PL4), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they exhibit close...

  16. Horizontal Gene Transfer and Gene Duplication of Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Genes in an Invasive Insect Pest

    Zhao, Chaoyang
    Insects were long thought to lack endogenous genes encoding plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). However, this hypothesis has been challenged since symbiotic-independent PCWDE genes and enzymes were found in several insect species. As an economically-important wood-feeding beetle, how the invasive insect emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) degrades plant cell walls and utilizes their contents is of high interest. We identified three glycoside hydrolase (GH) gene families and one polysaccharide lyase (PL) gene family within the A. planipennis genome, which putatively encode for α-L-arabinofuranosidases (GH43), endoglucanases (GH44), polygalacturonases (GH28) and Rhamnogalacturonases (PL4), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they exhibit close...

  17. Comparison of Parthenium argentatum and Hevea brasiliensis rubber: Effect of non-rubber constituents on rubber intrinsic properties

    Mohammad Ali Monadjemi, Shirin
    Natural rubber (NR) is an indispensable polymer used to manufacture industrial products and has many exceptional features that makes it as yet irreplaceable by synthetic rubber. Currently, almost all NR used in commerce comes from the hevea tree (Hevea brasiliensis). However, to meet the increasing demand for NR, guayule (Parthenium argentatum) has emerged on the market as a sustainable commercial source of high quality rubber. Guayule rubber (GR) has similarities to hevea rubber but also has unique properties. For example, it was found to be malleable at extremely cold temperatures. We aim to understand causes of this malleability to tap this potential for aerospace, cryogenic...

  18. Comparison of Parthenium argentatum and Hevea brasiliensis rubber: Effect of non-rubber constituents on rubber intrinsic properties

    Mohammad Ali Monadjemi, Shirin
    Natural rubber (NR) is an indispensable polymer used to manufacture industrial products and has many exceptional features that makes it as yet irreplaceable by synthetic rubber. Currently, almost all NR used in commerce comes from the hevea tree (Hevea brasiliensis). However, to meet the increasing demand for NR, guayule (Parthenium argentatum) has emerged on the market as a sustainable commercial source of high quality rubber. Guayule rubber (GR) has similarities to hevea rubber but also has unique properties. For example, it was found to be malleable at extremely cold temperatures. We aim to understand causes of this malleability to tap this potential for aerospace, cryogenic...

  19. A Tool to Assess Heating Efficiency of Direct-fired Heater with the Impact of Humidity Control

    Lee, Wee Fong
    Heating is one of the top two expenses of greenhouse operations in northern climates. Direct-fired heater (DFH) that has been promoted having high heating efficiency, 99.9%, compared to 80-94% of conventional indirect-fired heaters (IFH), could be an energy efficient choice. However, the high efficiency claim does not consider energy lost through air intake during combustion process. Fresh air intake is important for clean combustion and extra dehumidification for the water vapor generated from the combustion process to maintain a healthy environment for plant growth. The actual heating efficiency of a DFH is affected by amount of fresh air intake where...

  20. A Tool to Assess Heating Efficiency of Direct-fired Heater with the Impact of Humidity Control

    Lee, Wee Fong
    Heating is one of the top two expenses of greenhouse operations in northern climates. Direct-fired heater (DFH) that has been promoted having high heating efficiency, 99.9%, compared to 80-94% of conventional indirect-fired heaters (IFH), could be an energy efficient choice. However, the high efficiency claim does not consider energy lost through air intake during combustion process. Fresh air intake is important for clean combustion and extra dehumidification for the water vapor generated from the combustion process to maintain a healthy environment for plant growth. The actual heating efficiency of a DFH is affected by amount of fresh air intake where...

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