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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,833,227 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Journal of Bacteriology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 95,202

1. Cell Envelope Components Influencing Filament Length in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 - Burnat, Mireia; Schleiff, Enrico; Flores, Enrique
Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as chains of cells (known as trichomes or filaments) that can be hundreds of cells long. The filament consists of individual cells surrounded by a cytoplasmic membrane and peptidoglycan layers. The cells, however, share a continuous outer membrane, and septal proteins, such as SepJ, are important for cell-cell contact and filament formation. Here, we addressed a possible role of cell envelope components in filamentation, the process of producing and maintaining filaments, in the model cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We studied filament length and the response of the filaments to mechanical fragmentation in a number of...

2. Role of Lipase from Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain USA300 in Hydrolyzing Triglycerides into Growth-Inhibitory Free Fatty Acids - Cadieux, Brigitte; Vijayakumaran, Vithooshan; Bernards, Mark A.; McGavin, Martin J.; Heinrichs, David E.
Part of the human host innate immune response involves the secretion of bactericidal lipids on the skin and delivery of triglycerides into abscesses to control invading pathogens. Two Staphylococcus aureus lipases, named SAL1 and SAL2, were identified in the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain USA300, which, presumably, are produced and function to degrade triglycerides to release free fatty acids. We show that the SAL2 lipase is one of the most abundant proteins secreted by USA300 and is proteolytically processed from the 72-kDa proSAL2 to the 44-kDa mature SAL2 by the metalloprotease aureolysin. We show that spent culture supernatants had lipase activity...

3. Near-Real-Time Analysis of the Phenotypic Responses of Escherichia coli to 1-Butanol Exposure Using Raman Spectroscopy - Zu, Theresah N. K.; Athamneh, Ahmad I. M.; Wallace, Robert S.; Collakova, Eva; Senger, Ryan S.
Raman spectroscopy was used to study the time course of phenotypic responses of Escherichia coli (DH5α) to 1-butanol exposure (1.2% [vol/vol]). Raman spectroscopy is of interest for bacterial phenotyping because it can be performed (i) in near real time, (ii) with minimal sample preparation (label-free), and (iii) with minimal spectral interference from water. Traditional off-line analytical methodologies were applied to both 1-butanol-treated and control cells to draw correlations with Raman data. Here, distinct sets of Raman bands are presented that characterize phenotypic traits of E. coli with maximized correlation to off-line measurements. In addition, the observed time course phenotypic responses...

4. The PqsR and RhlR Transcriptional Regulators Determine the Level of Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Producing Two Different pqsABCDE mRNA Isoforms - Brouwer, Stephan; Pustelny, Christian; Ritter, Christiane; Klinkert, Birgit; Narberhaus, Franz; Häussler, Susanne
Regulation of gene expression plays a key role in bacterial adaptability to changes in the environment. An integral part of this gene regulatory network is achieved via quorum sensing (QS) systems that coordinate bacterial responses under high cellular densities. In the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the 2-alkyl-4-quinolone (pqs) signaling pathway is crucial for bacterial survival under stressful conditions. Biosynthesis of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) is dependent on the pqsABCDE operon, which is positively regulated by the LysR family regulator PqsR and repressed by the transcriptional regulator protein RhlR. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this inhibition have remained elusive. Here,...

5. Characterization of Five β-Glycoside Hydrolases from Cellulomonas fimi ATCC 484 - Gao, Juan; Wakarchuk, Warren
The Gram-positive bacterium Cellulomonas fimi produces a large array of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Analysis of the collection of carbohydrate-active enzymes from the recent genome sequence of C. fimi ATCC 484 shows a large number of uncharacterized genes for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes potentially involved in biomass utilization. To investigate the enzymatic activity of potential β-glucosidases in C. fimi, genes encoding several GH3 enzymes and one GH1 enzyme were cloned and recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. Biochemical analysis of these proteins revealed that the enzymes exhibited different substrate specificities for para-nitrophenol-linked substrates (pNP), disaccharides, and oligosaccharides. Celf_2726 encoded a bifunctional...

6. A Novel, Broad-Range, CTXΦ-Derived Stable Integrative Expression Vector for Functional Studies - Das, Bhabatosh; Kumari, Reena; Pant, Archana; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Saxena, Shruti; Mehta, Ojasvi; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish
CTXΦ, a filamentous vibriophage encoding cholera toxin, uses a unique strategy for its lysogeny. The single-stranded phage genome forms intramolecular base-pairing interactions between two inversely oriented XerC and XerD binding sites (XBS) and generates a functional phage attachment site, attP(+), for integration. The attP(+) structure is recognized by the host-encoded tyrosine recombinases XerC and XerD (XerCD), which enables irreversible integration of CTXΦ into the chromosome dimer resolution site (dif) of Vibrio cholerae. The dif site and the XerCD recombinases are widely conserved in bacteria. We took advantage of these conserved attributes to develop a broad-host-range integrative expression vector that could...

7. Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to Norepinephrine (NE) Requires Conversion of NE to 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic Acid - Pasupuleti, Sasikiran; Sule, Nitesh; Cohn, William B.; MacKenzie, Duncan S.; Jayaraman, Arul; Manson, Michael D.
Norepinephrine (NE), the primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, has been reported to be a chemoattractant for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Here we show that nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 grown in the presence of 2 μM NE is also attracted to NE. Growth with NE induces transcription of genes encoding the tyramine oxidase, TynA, and the aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase, FeaB, whose respective activities can, in principle, convert NE to 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DHMA). Our results indicate that the apparent attractant response to NE is in fact chemotaxis to DHMA, which was found to be a strong attractant for E. coli....

8. Role of Adaptor TrfA and ClpPC in Controlling Levels of SsrA-Tagged Proteins and Antitoxins in Staphylococcus aureus - Donegan, Niles P.; Marvin, Jonathan S.; Cheung, Ambrose L.
Staphylococcus aureus responds to changing extracellular environments in part by adjusting its proteome through alterations of transcriptional priorities and selective degradation of the preexisting pool of proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the proteolytic adaptor protein MecA has been shown to play a role in assisting with the proteolytic degradation of proteins involved in competence and the oxidative stress response. However, the targets of TrfA, the MecA homolog in S. aureus, have not been well characterized. In this work, we investigated how TrfA assists chaperones and proteases to regulate the proteolysis of several classes of proteins in S. aureus. By fusing the...

9. Sporulation during Growth in a Gut Isolate of Bacillus subtilis - Serra, Cláudia R.; Earl, Ashlee M.; Barbosa, Teresa M.; Kolter, Roberto; Henriques, Adriano O.
Sporulation by Bacillus subtilis is a cell density-dependent response to nutrient deprivation. Central to the decision of entering sporulation is a phosphorelay, through which sensor kinases promote phosphorylation of Spo0A. The phosphorelay integrates both positive and negative signals, ensuring that sporulation, a time- and energy-consuming process that may bring an ecological cost, is only triggered should other adaptations fail. Here we report that a gastrointestinal isolate of B. subtilis sporulates with high efficiency during growth, bypassing the cell density, nutritional, and other signals that normally make sporulation a post-exponential-phase response. Sporulation during growth occurs because Spo0A is more active per...

10. Two Fis Regulators Directly Repress the Expression of Numerous Effector-Encoding Genes in Legionella pneumophila - Zusman, Tal; Speiser, Yariv; Segal, Gil
Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular human pathogen that utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system to translocate a large repertoire of effectors into host cells. For most of these effectors, there is no information regarding their regulation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the three L. pneumophila Fis homologs in the regulation of effector-encoding genes. Deletion mutants constructed in the genes encoding the three Fis regulators revealed that Fis1 (lpg0542 gene) and Fis3 (lpg1743) but not Fis2 (lpg1370) are partially required for intracellular growth of L. pneumophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii. To identify pathogenesis-related genes...

11. Unique Genomic Arrangements in an Invasive Serotype M23 Strain of Streptococcus pyogenes Identify Genes That Induce Hypervirulence - Bao, Yunjuan; Liang, Zhong; Booyjzsen, Claire; Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Li, Yang; Lee, Shaun W.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Song, Hui; Castellino, Francis J.
The first genome sequence of a group A Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M23 (emm23) strain (M23ND), isolated from an invasive human infection, has been completed. The genome of this opacity factor-negative (SOF−) strain is composed of a circular chromosome of 1,846,477 bp. Gene profiling showed that this strain contained six phage-encoded and 24 chromosomally inherited well-known virulence factors, as well as 11 pseudogenes. The bacterium has acquired four large prophage elements, ΦM23ND.1 to ΦM23ND.4, harboring genes encoding streptococcal superantigen (ssa), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (speC, speH, and speI), and DNases (spd1 and spd3), with phage integrase genes being present at one flank...

12. A CRISPR with Roles in Myxococcus xanthus Development and Exopolysaccharide Production - Wallace, Regina A.; Black, Wesley P.; Yang, Xianshuang; Yang, Zhaomin
The Gram-negative soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus utilizes its social (S) gliding motility to move on surfaces during its vegetative and developmental cycles. It is known that S motility requires the type IV pilus (T4P) and the exopolysaccharide (EPS) to function. The T4P is the S motility motor, and it powers cell movement by retraction. As the key regulator of the S motor, EPS is proposed to be the anchor and trigger for T4P retraction. The production of EPS is regulated in turn by the T4P in M. xanthus, and T4P− mutants are S− and EPS−. In this study, a ΔpilA...

13. Oxygen-Dependent Control of Respiratory Nitrate Reduction in Mycelium of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) - Fischer, Marco; Falke, Dörte; Pawlik, Tony; Sawers, R. Gary
Several members of the obligately aerobic genus Streptomyces are able to reduce nitrate, catalyzed by Nar-type respiratory nitrate reductases. A unique feature of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) compared with other streptomycetes is that it synthesizes three nonredundant Nar enzymes. In this study, we show that Nar2 is the main Nar enzyme active in mycelium and could characterize the conditions governing its synthesis. Nar2 was present at low levels in aerobically cultivated mycelium, but synthesis was induced when cultures were grown under oxygen limitation. Growth in the presence of high oxygen concentrations prevented the induction of Nar2 synthesis. Equally, an abrupt shift...

14. Haemophilus ducreyi RpoE and CpxRA Appear To Play Distinct yet Complementary Roles in Regulation of Envelope-Related Functions - Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Baker, Beth; Fortney, Kate R.; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S.; Spinola, Stanley M.
Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid and a chronic limb ulceration syndrome in children. In humans, H. ducreyi is found in an abscess and overcomes a hostile environment to establish infection. To sense and respond to membrane stress, bacteria utilize two-component systems (TCSs) and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. We previously showed that activation of CpxRA, the only intact TCS in H. ducreyi, does not regulate homologues of envelope protein folding factors but does downregulate genes encoding envelope-localized proteins, including many virulence determinants. H. ducreyi also harbors a homologue of RpoE, which is the only ECF sigma factor...

15. Charge Requirements of Lipid II Flippase Activity in Escherichia coli - Butler, Emily K.; Tan, Wee Boon; Joseph, Hildy; Ruiz, Natividad
Peptidoglycan (PG) is an extracytoplasmic glycopeptide matrix essential for the integrity of the envelope of most bacteria. The PG building block is a disaccharide-pentapeptide that is synthesized as a lipid-linked precursor called lipid II. The translocation of the amphipathic lipid II across the cytoplasmic membrane is required for subsequent incorporation of the disaccharide-pentapeptide into PG. In Escherichia coli, the essential inner membrane protein MurJ is the lipid II flippase. Previous studies showed that 8 charged residues in the central cavity region of MurJ are crucial for function. Here, we completed the functional analysis of all 57 charged residues in MurJ...

16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrB Sensor Kinase Interactions with FtsI and Wag31 Proteins Reveal a Role for MtrB Distinct from That Regulating MtrA Activities - Plocinska, Renata; Martinez, Luis; Gorla, Purushotham; Pandeeti, Emmanuel; Sarva, Krishna; Blaszczyk, Ewelina; Dziadek, Jaroslaw; Madiraju, Murty V.; Rajagopalan, Malini
The septal association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrB, the kinase partner of the MtrAB two-component signal transduction system, is necessary for the optimal expression of the MtrA regulon targets, including ripA, fbpB, and ftsI, which are involved in cell division and cell wall synthesis. Here, we show that MtrB, irrespective of its phosphorylation status, interacts with Wag31, whereas only phosphorylation-competent MtrB interacts with FtsI. We provide evidence that FtsI depletion compromises the MtrB septal assembly and MtrA regulon expression; likewise, the absence of MtrB compromises FtsI localization and, possibly, FtsI activity. We conclude from these results that FtsI and MtrB are...

17. Assembling Flagella in Salmonella Mutant Strains Producing a Type III Export Apparatus without FliO - Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Inoue, Tomoharu; Samatey, Fadel A.
The type III export apparatus of the Salmonella flagellum consists of six transmembrane proteins (FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR) and three soluble proteins (FliH, FliI, and FliJ). Deletion of the fliO gene creates a mutant strain that is poorly motile; however, suppressor mutations in the fliP gene can partially rescue motility. To further understand the mechanism of suppression of a fliO deletion mutation, we isolated new suppressor mutant strains with partially rescued motility. Whole-genome sequence analysis of these strains found a missense mutation that localized to the clpP gene [clpP(V20F)], which encodes the ClpP subunit of the ClpXP...

18. Methylamine Utilization via the N-Methylglutamate Pathway in Methylobacterium extorquens PA1 Involves a Novel Flow of Carbon through C1 Assimilation and Dissimilation Pathways - Nayak, Dipti D.; Marx, Christopher J.
Methylotrophs grow on reduced single-carbon compounds like methylamine as the sole source of carbon and energy. In Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, the best-studied aerobic methylotroph, a periplasmic methylamine dehydrogenase that catalyzes the primary oxidation of methylamine to formaldehyde has been examined in great detail. However, recent metagenomic data from natural ecosystems are revealing the abundance and importance of lesser-known routes, such as the N-methylglutamate pathway, for methylamine oxidation. In this study, we used M. extorquens PA1, a strain that is closely related to M. extorquens AM1 but is lacking methylamine dehydrogenase, to dissect the genetics and physiology of the ecologically relevant...

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20. Involvement of PG2212 Zinc Finger Protein in the Regulation of Oxidative Stress Resistance in Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 - Dou, Yuetan; Aruni, Wilson; Luo, Tianlong; Roy, Francis; Wang, Charles; Fletcher, Hansel M.
The adaptation of Porphyromonas gingivalis to H2O2-induced stress while inducible is modulated by an unknown OxyR-independent mechanism. Previously, we reported that the PG_2212 gene was highly upregulated in P. gingivalis under conditions of prolonged oxidative stress. Because this gene may have regulatory properties, its function in response to H2O2 was further characterized. PG2212, annotated as a hypothetical protein of unknown function, is a 10.3-kDa protein with a cysteine 2-histidine 2 (Cys2His2) zinc finger domain. The isogenic mutant P. gingivalis FLL366 (ΔPG_2212) showed increased sensitivity to H2O2 and decreased gingipain activity compared to the parent strain. Transcriptome analysis of P. gingivalis...

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