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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,692,467 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Journal of Bacteriology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 94,885

1. Correction for Anand et al., The Major Outer Sheath Protein (Msp) of Treponema denticola Has a Bipartite Domain Architecture and Exists as Periplasmic and Outer Membrane-Spanning Conformers - Anand, Arvind; Luthra, Amit; Edmond, Maxwell E.; LeDoyt, Morgan; Caimano, Melissa J.; Radolf, Justin D.

2. Correction for Anand et al., TprC/D (Tp0117/131), a Trimeric, Pore-Forming Rare Outer Membrane Protein of Treponema pallidum, Has a Bipartite Domain Structure - Anand, Arvind; Luthra, Amit; Dunham-Ems, Star; Caimano, Melissa J.; Karanian, Carson; LeDoyt, Morgan; Cruz, Adriana R.; Salazar, Juan C.; Radolf, Justin D.

3. A Signaling Pathway Involving the Diguanylate Cyclase CelR and the Response Regulator DivK Controls Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Barnhart, D. Michael; Su, Shengchang; Farrand, Stephen K.
The production of cellulose fibrils is involved in the attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to its plant host. Consistent with previous studies, we reported recently that a putative diguanylate cyclase, celR, is required for synthesis of this polymer in A. tumefaciens. In this study, the effects of celR and other components of the regulatory pathway of cellulose production were explored. Mutational analysis of celR demonstrated that the cyclase requires the catalytic GGEEF motif, as well as the conserved aspartate residue of a CheY-like receiver domain, for stimulating cellulose production. Moreover, a site-directed mutation within the PilZ domain of CelA, the catalytic...

4. SCO5745, a Bifunctional RNase J Ortholog, Affects Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor - Bralley, Patricia; Aseem, Madiha; Jones, George H.
The bacterial RNases J are considered bifunctional RNases possessing both endo- and exonucleolytic activities. We have isolated an RNase J ortholog from Streptomyces coelicolor encoded by the gene sco5745. We overexpressed a decahistidine-tagged version of SCO5745 and purified the overexpressed protein by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. We demonstrated the presence of both 5′-to-3′ exonucleolytic and endonucleolytic activities on the Bacillus subtilis thrS transcript. Exonucleoytic activity predominated with 5′ monophosphorylated thrS, while endonucleolytic activity predominated with 5′ triphosphorylated thrS. While sco5745 is the only RNase J allele in S. coelicolor, the gene is not essential. Its disruption resulted in delayed production...

5. Regulatory and Functional Diversity of Methylmercaptopropionate Coenzyme A Ligases from the Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Demethylation Pathway in Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 and Other Proteobacteria - Bullock, Hannah A.; Reisch, Chris R.; Burns, Andrew S.; Moran, Mary Ann; Whitman, William B.
The organosulfur compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced by phytoplankton and is ubiquitous in the surface ocean. Once released from phytoplankton, marine bacteria degrade DMSP by either the cleavage pathway to form the volatile gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) or the demethylation pathway, yielding methanethiol (MeSH), which is readily assimilated or oxidized. The enzyme DmdB, a methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA)-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, catalyzes the second step in the demethylation pathway and is a major regulatory point. The two forms of DmdB present in the marine roseobacter Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, RPO_DmdB1 and RPO_DmdB2, and the single form in the SAR11 clade bacterium “Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique”...

6. An Archaeal Glutamate Decarboxylase Homolog Functions as an Aspartate Decarboxylase and Is Involved in β-Alanine and Coenzyme A Biosynthesis - Tomita, Hiroya; Yokooji, Yuusuke; Ishibashi, Takuya; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki
β-Alanine is a precursor for coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis and is a substrate for the bacterial/eukaryotic pantothenate synthetase and archaeal phosphopantothenate synthetase. β-Alanine is synthesized through various enzymes/pathways in bacteria and eukaryotes, including the direct decarboxylation of Asp by aspartate 1-decarboxylase (ADC), the degradation of pyrimidine, or the oxidation of polyamines. However, in most archaea, homologs of these enzymes are not present; thus, the mechanisms of β-alanine biosynthesis remain unclear. Here, we performed a biochemical and genetic study on a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homolog encoded by TK1814 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. GADs are distributed in all three domains...

7. Bacterial Flagellin-Specific Chaperone FliS Interacts with Anti-Sigma Factor FlgM - Galeva, Anna; Moroz, Natalia; Yoon, Young-Ho; Hughes, Kelly T.; Samatey, Fadel A.; Kostyukova, Alla S.
Flagella are extracellular organelles that propel bacteria. Each flagellum consists of a basal body, a hook, and a filament. The major protein of the filament is flagellin. Induction of flagellin gene expression coincides with secretion of FlgM. The role of FlgM is to inhibit FliA (σ28), a flagellum-specific RNA polymerase responsible for flagellin transcription. To prevent premature polymerization of newly synthesized flagellin molecules, FliS, the flagellin-specific chaperone, binds flagellin and facilitates its export. In this study, the interaction between FlgM and FliS from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was characterized using gel shift, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, circular dichroism, limited proteolysis, and...

8. Salinity-Dependent Impacts of ProQ, Prc, and Spr Deficiencies on Escherichia coli Cell Structure - Kerr, Craig H.; Culham, Doreen E.; Marom, David; Wood, Janet M.
ProQ is a cytoplasmic protein with RNA chaperone activities that reside in FinO- and Hfq-like domains. Lesions at proQ decrease the level of the osmoregulatory glycine betaine transporter ProP. Lesions at proQ eliminated ProQ and Prc, the periplasmic protease encoded by the downstream gene prc. They dramatically slowed the growth of Escherichia coli populations and altered the morphologies of E. coli cells in high-salinity medium. ProQ and Prc deficiencies were associated with different phenotypes. ProQ-deficient bacteria were elongated unless glycine betaine was provided. High-salinity cultures of Prc-deficient bacteria included spherical cells with an enlarged periplasm and an eccentric nucleoid. The...

9. Physiological Framework for the Regulation of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Public Goods in Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Mellbye, Brett; Schuster, Martin
Many bacteria possess cell density-dependent quorum-sensing (QS) systems that often regulate cooperative secretions involved in host-microbe or microbe-microbe interactions. These secretions, or “public goods,” are frequently coregulated by stress and starvation responses. Here we provide a physiological rationale for such regulatory complexity in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using minimal-medium batch and chemostat cultures, we comprehensively characterized specific growth rate-limiting macronutrients as key triggers for the expression of extracellular enzymes and metabolites directly controlled by the las and rhl QS systems. Expression was unrelated to cell density, depended on the secreted product's elemental composition, and was induced only when the...

10. Genetic Redundancy, Proximity, and Functionality of lspA, the Target of Antibiotic TA, in the Myxococcus xanthus Producer Strain - Xiao, Yao; Wall, Daniel
We recently showed that type II signal peptidase (SPaseII) encoded by lspA is the target of an antibiotic called TA (myxovirescin), which is made by Myxococcus xanthus. SPaseII cleaves the signal peptide during bacterial lipoprotein processing. Bacteria typically contain one lspA gene; however, strikingly, the M. xanthus DK1622 genome contains four (lspA1 to lspA4). Since two of these genes, lspA3 and lspA4, are located in the giant TA biosynthetic gene cluster, we hypothesized they may play a role in TA resistance. To investigate the functions of the four M. xanthus lspA (lspAMx) genes, we conducted sequence comparisons and found that they...

11. Global Identification of Genes Affecting Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis and Iron Homeostasis - Hidese, Ryota; Mihara, Hisaaki; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Esaki, Nobuyoshi
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous cofactors that are crucial for many physiological processes in all organisms. In Escherichia coli, assembly of Fe-S clusters depends on the activity of the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly and sulfur mobilization (SUF) apparatus. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the mechanisms that control Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis are still poorly defined. In this study, we performed a global screen to identify the factors affecting Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis using the Keio collection, which is a library of 3,815 single-gene E. coli knockout mutants. The approach was based on radiolabeling of the...

12. Genetic Evidence for the Involvement of the S-Layer Protein Gene sap and the Sporulation Genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in Phage AP50c Infection of Bacillus anthracis - Plaut, Roger D.; Beaber, John W.; Zemansky, Jason; Kaur, Ajinder P.; George, Matroner; Biswas, Biswajit; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Hannah, Ryan M.; Pope, Robert K.; Read, Timothy D.; Stibitz, Scott; Calendar, Richard; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga
In order to better characterize the Bacillus anthracis typing phage AP50c, we designed a genetic screen to identify its bacterial receptor. Insertions of the transposon mariner or targeted deletions of the structural gene for the S-layer protein Sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in B. anthracis Sterne resulted in phage resistance with concomitant defects in phage adsorption and infectivity. Electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with AP50c revealed phage particles associated with the surface of bacilli of the Sterne strain but not with the surfaces of Δsap, Δspo0A, Δspo0B, or Δspo0F mutants. The amount of Sap in the...

13. YfbA, a Yersinia pestis Regulator Required for Colonization and Biofilm Formation in the Gut of Cat Fleas - Tam, Christina; Demke, Owen; Hermanas, Timothy; Mitchell, Anthony; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Schneewind, Olaf
For transmission to new hosts, Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, replicates as biofilm in the foregut of fleas that feed on plague-infected animals or humans. Y. pestis biofilm formation has been studied in the rat flea; however, little is known about the cat flea, a species that may bridge zoonotic and anthroponotic plague cycles. Here, we show that Y. pestis infects and replicates as a biofilm in the foregut of cat fleas in a manner requiring hmsFR, two determinants for extracellular biofilm matrix. Examining a library of transposon insertion mutants, we identified the LysR-type transcriptional regulator YfbA, which...

14. Lipoteichoic Acids, Phosphate-Containing Polymers in the Envelope of Gram-Positive Bacteria - Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique
Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are polymers of alternating units of a polyhydroxy alkane, including glycerol and ribitol, and phosphoric acid, joined to form phosphodiester units that are found in the envelope of Gram-positive bacteria. Here we review four different types of LTA that can be distinguished on the basis of their chemical structure and describe recent advances in the biosynthesis pathway for type I LTA, d-alanylated polyglycerol-phosphate linked to di-glucosyl-diacylglycerol. The physiological functions of type I LTA are discussed in the context of inhibitors that block their synthesis and of mutants with discrete synthesis defects. Research on LTA structure and function...

15. Assessment of the Requirements for Magnesium Transporters in Bacillus subtilis - Wakeman, Catherine A.; Goodson, Jonathan R.; Zacharia, Vineetha M.; Winkler, Wade C.
Magnesium is the most abundant divalent metal in cells and is required for many structural and enzymatic functions. For bacteria, at least three families of proteins function as magnesium transporters. In recent years, it has been shown that a subset of these transport proteins is regulated by magnesium-responsive genetic control elements. In this study, we investigated the cellular requirements for magnesium homeostasis in the model microorganism Bacillus subtilis. Putative magnesium transporter genes were mutationally disrupted, singly and in combination, in order to assess their general importance. Mutation of only one of these genes resulted in strong dependency on supplemental extracellular...

16. Editorial Board

17. CodY-Mediated Regulation of the Staphylococcus aureus Agr System Integrates Nutritional and Population Density Signals - Roux, Agnès; Todd, Daniel A.; Velázquez, Jose V.; Cech, Nadja B.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.
The Staphylococcus aureus Agr system regulates virulence gene expression by responding to cell population density (quorum sensing). When an extracellular peptide signal (AIP-III in strain UAMS-1, used for these experiments) reaches a concentration threshold, the AgrC-AgrA two-component regulatory system is activated through a cascade of phosphorylation events, leading to induction of the divergently transcribed agrBDCA operon and the RNAIII gene. RNAIII is a posttranscriptional regulator of numerous metabolic and pathogenesis genes. CodY, a global regulatory protein, is known to repress agrBDCA and RNAIII transcription during exponential growth in rich medium, but the mechanism of this regulation has remained elusive. Here...

18. Calvin Cycle Mutants of Photoheterotrophic Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria Fail To Grow Due to an Electron Imbalance Rather than Toxic Metabolite Accumulation - Gordon, Gina C.; McKinlay, James B.
Purple nonsulfur bacteria grow photoheterotrophically by using light for energy and organic compounds for carbon and electrons. Disrupting the activity of the CO2-fixing Calvin cycle enzyme, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO), prevents photoheterotrophic growth unless an electron acceptor is provided or if cells can dispose of electrons as H2. Such observations led to the long-standing model wherein the Calvin cycle is necessary during photoheterotrophic growth to maintain a pool of oxidized electron carriers. This model was recently challenged with an alternative model wherein disrupting RubisCO activity prevents photoheterotrophic growth due to the accumulation of toxic ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) (D. Wang, Y. Zhang,...

19. Role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Membrane Vesicles in Iron Acquisition - Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Weinrick, Brian C.; Piqué, Daniel G.; Jacobs, William R.; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodriguez, G. Marcela
Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles packed with molecules that can modulate the immune response. Because environmental conditions often influence the production and content of bacterial vesicles, this study examined M. tuberculosis microvesicles released under iron limitation, a common condition faced by pathogens inside the host. The findings indicate that M. tuberculosis increases microvesicle production in response to iron restriction and that these microvesicles contain mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Consequently, the results revealed a role of microvesicles in iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis, which can be critical for survival in the...

20. Identification of a 5′-Deoxyadenosine Deaminase in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Its Possible Role in Recycling the Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzyme Reaction Product 5′-Deoxyadenosine - Miller, Danielle; O'Brien, Kaitlin; Xu, Huimin; White, Robert H.
We characterize here the MJ1541 gene product from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, an enzyme that was annotated as a 5′-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.31/3.5.4.28). The MJ1541 gene product catalyzes the conversion of 5′-deoxyadenosine to 5′-deoxyinosine as its major product but will also deaminate 5′-methylthioadenosine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and adenosine to a small extent. On the basis of these findings, we are naming this new enzyme 5′-deoxyadenosine deaminase (DadD). The Km for 5′-deoxyadenosine was found to be 14.0 ± 1.2 μM with a kcat/Km of 9.1 × 109 M−1 s−1. Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes account for nearly 2% of the M. jannaschii genome, where the major...

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