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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,707,477 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Journal of Bacteriology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 94,924

1. Towards an Informative Mutant Phenotype for Every Bacterial Gene - Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjun; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P.; Skerker, Jeffrey M.
Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in...

2. Communication, Cooperation, and Social Interactions: a Report from the Third Young Microbiologists Symposium on Microbe Signalling, Organisation, and Pathogenesis - Caly, Delphine L.; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; An, Shi-qi; Helaine, Sophie; Malone, Jacob G.; Ryan, Robert P.
The third Young Microbiologists Symposium took place on the vibrant campus of the University of Dundee, Scotland, from the 2nd to 3rd of June 2014. The symposium attracted over 150 microbiologists from 17 different countries. The significant characteristic of this meeting was that it was specifically aimed at providing a forum for junior scientists to present their work. The meeting was supported by the Society for General Microbiology and the American Society for Microbiology, with further sponsorship from the European Molecular Biology Organization, the Federation of European Microbiological Societies, and The Royal Society of Edinburgh. In this report, we highlight...

3. A Sporulation Factor Is Involved in the Morphological Change of Clostridium perfringens Biofilms in Response to Temperature - Obana, Nozomu; Nakamura, Kouji; Nomura, Nobuhiko
Biofilm formation has been associated with bacterial pathogenesis, such as nosocomial and chronic infections, as the resistance of biofilms to environmental stresses has increased. Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive spore-forming anaerobic pathogen. This organism survives antibiotic treatment through the formation of biofilms or spores, but the environmental and regulatory factors involved in the biofilm formation remain unclear. Here, we observed that temperature regulates C. perfringens biofilm morphology. At 37°C, C. perfringens adhered to the substrate surface and formed a flat, thin biofilm, herein referred to as adhered biofilm. However, at 25°C, this bacterium did not adhere and produced a threadlike...

4. Plasmid Conjugation from Proteobacteria as Evidence for the Origin of Xenologous Genes in Cyanobacteria - Encinas, David; Garcillán-Barcia, M. Pilar; Santos-Merino, María; Delaye, Luis; Moya, Andrés; de la Cruz, Fernando
Comparative genomics have shown that 5% of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 genes are of probable proteobacterial origin. To investigate the role of interphylum conjugation in cyanobacterial gene acquisition, we tested the ability of a set of prototype proteobacterial conjugative plasmids (RP4, pKM101, R388, R64, and F) to transfer DNA from Escherichia coli to S. elongatus. A series of BioBrick-compatible, mobilizable shuttle vectors was developed. These vectors were based on the putative origin of replication of the Synechococcus resident plasmid pANL. Not only broad-host-range plasmids, such as RP4 and R388, but also narrower-host-range plasmids, such as pKM101, all encoding MPFT-type IV...

5. The mthA Mutation Conferring Low-Level Resistance to Streptomycin Enhances Antibiotic Production in Bacillus subtilis by Increasing the S-Adenosylmethionine Pool Size - Tojo, Shigeo; Kim, Ji-Yun; Tanaka, Yukinori; Inaoka, Takashi; Hiraga, Yoshikazu; Ochi, Kozo
Certain Strr mutations that confer low-level streptomycin resistance result in the overproduction of antibiotics by Bacillus subtilis. Using comparative genome-sequencing analysis, we successfully identified this novel mutation in B. subtilis as being located in the mthA gene, which encodes S-adenosylhomocysteine/methylthioadenosine nucleosidase, an enzyme involved in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-recycling pathways. Transformation experiments showed that this mthA mutation was responsible for the acquisition of low-level streptomycin resistance and overproduction of bacilysin. The mthA mutant had an elevated level of intracellular SAM, apparently acquired by arresting SAM-recycling pathways. This increase in the SAM level was directly responsible for bacilysin overproduction, as confirmed by...

6. Characterization of the Vibrio cholerae VolA Surface-Exposed Lipoprotein Lysophospholipase - Pride, Aaron C.; Guan, Ziqiang; Trent, M. Stephen
Bacterial lipases play important roles in bacterial metabolism and environmental response. Our laboratory recently discovered that a novel lipoprotein lysophospholipase, VolA, localizes on the surface of the Gram-negative aquatic pathogen Vibrio cholerae. VolA functions to cleave exogenous lysophosphatidylcholine, freeing the fatty acid moiety for use by V. cholerae. This fatty acid is transported into the cell and can be used as a nutrient and, more importantly, as a way to alter the membrane architecture via incorporation into the phospholipid biosynthesis pathway. There are few examples of Gram-negative, surface-exposed lipoproteins, and VolA is unique, as it has a previously undercharacterized function...

7. A Conserved Streptococcal Membrane Protein, LsrS, Exhibits a Receptor-Like Function for Lantibiotics - Biswas, Saswati; Biswas, Indranil
Streptococcus mutans strain GS-5 produces a two-peptide lantibiotic, Smb, which displays inhibitory activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including other streptococci. For inhibition, lantibiotics must recognize specific receptor molecules present on the sensitive bacterial cells. However, so far no such receptor proteins have been identified for any lantibiotics. In this study, using a powerful transposon mutagenesis approach, we have identified in Streptococcus pyogenes a gene that exhibits a receptor-like function for Smb. The protein encoded by that gene, which we named LsrS, is a membrane protein belonging to the CAAX protease family. We also found that nisin, a monopeptide...

8. The Bifunctional Cell Wall Hydrolase CwlT Is Needed for Conjugation of the Integrative and Conjugative Element ICEBs1 in Bacillus subtilis and B. anthracis - DeWitt, Tyler; Grossman, Alan D.
The mobile genetic element ICEBs1 is an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) found in Bacillus subtilis. One of the ICEBs1 genes, cwlT, encodes a cell wall hydrolase with two catalytic domains, a muramidase and a peptidase. We found that cwlT is required for ICEBs1 conjugation. We examined the role of each of the two catalytic domains and found that the muramidase is essential, whereas the peptidase is partially dispensable for transfer of ICEBs1. We also found that the putative signal peptide in CwlT is required for CwlT to function in conjugation, consistent with the notion that CwlT is normally secreted...

9. Roles of Cyclic Di-GMP and the Gac System in Transcriptional Control of the Genes Coding for the Pseudomonas putida Adhesins LapA and LapF - Martínez-Gil, Marta; Ramos-González, María Isabel; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel
LapA and LapF are large extracellular proteins that play a relevant role in biofilm formation by Pseudomonas putida. Current evidence favors a sequential model in which LapA is first required for the initial adhesion of individual bacteria to a surface, while LapF participates in later stages of biofilm development. In agreement with this model, lapF transcription was previously shown to take place at late times of growth and to respond to the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS. We have now analyzed the transcription pattern of lapA and other regulatory elements that influence expression of both genes. The lapA promoter shows a...

10. Natural Competence and the Evolution of DNA Uptake Specificity - Mell, Joshua Chang; Redfield, Rosemary J.
Many bacteria are naturally competent, able to actively transport environmental DNA fragments across their cell envelope and into their cytoplasm. Because incoming DNA fragments can recombine with and replace homologous segments of the chromosome, competence provides cells with a potent mechanism of horizontal gene transfer as well as access to the nutrients in extracellular DNA. This review starts with an introductory overview of competence and continues with a detailed consideration of the DNA uptake specificity of competent proteobacteria in the Pasteurellaceae and Neisseriaceae. Species in these distantly related families exhibit strong preferences for genomic DNA from close relatives, a self-specificity...

11. Identification of an O-Acyltransferase Gene (oacB) That Mediates 3- and 4-O-Acetylation of Rhamnose III in Shigella flexneri O Antigens - Wang, Jianping; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Lan, Ruiting; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N.; Luo, Xia; Perepelov, Andrei V.; Wang, Yiting; Shashkov, Alexander S.; Xu, Jianguo; Sun, Qiangzheng
O antigen (O polysaccharide) is an important and highly variable cell component present on the surface of cells which defines the serospecificity of Gram-negative bacteria. Most O antigens of Shigella flexneri, a cause of shigellosis, share a backbone composed of →2)-α-l-RhapIII-(1→2)-α-l-RhapII-(1→3)-α-l-RhapI-(1→3)-β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→ repeats, which can be modified by adding various substituents, giving rise to 19 serotypes. The known modifications include glucosylation on various sugar residues, O-acetylation on RhaI, and phosphorylation with phosphoethanolamine on RhaII or/and RhaIII. Recently, two new O-antigen modifications, namely, O-acetylation at position 3 or 4 of RhaIII and position 6 of GlcNAc, have been identified in several S....

12. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Regulates cspD, a Bacterial Toxin Gene, in Escherichia coli - Uppal, Sheetal; Shetty, Deeksha M.; Jawali, Narendra
cspD, a member of cspA family of cold shock genes in Escherichia coli, is not induced during cold shock. Its expression is induced during stationary phase. CspD inhibits DNA replication, and a high level of the protein is toxic to cells. Recently, CspD was proposed to be associated with persister cell formation in E. coli. Here, we show that cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) upregulates cspD transcription. Sequence analysis of the cspD upstream region revealed two tandem CRP target sites, CRP site-I (the proximal site centered at −83.5 with respect to the transcription start) and CRP site-II (the distal site...

13. Regulation of Expression of abcA and Its Response to Environmental Conditions - Villet, Regis A.; Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Wang, Yin; Estabrooks, Zoe; Medeiros, Heidi; Hooper, David C.
The ATP-dependent transporter gene abcA in Staphylococcus aureus confers resistance to hydrophobic β-lactams. In strain ISP794, abcA is regulated by the transcriptional regulators MgrA and NorG and shares a 420-nucleotide intercistronic region with the divergently transcribed pbp4 gene, which encodes the transpeptidase Pbp4. Exposure of exponentially growing cells to iron-limited media, oxidative stress, and acidic pH (5.5) for 0.5 to 2 h had no effect on abcA expression. In contrast, nutrient limitation produced a significant increase in abcA transcripts. We identified three additional regulators (SarA, SarZ, and Rot) that bind to the overlapping promoter region of abcA and pbp4 in...

14. Differential Transcriptional Regulation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lsrACDBFG and lsrRK Operons by Integration Host Factor Protein - Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Demuth, Donald R.
We previously showed that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lsrACDBFG and lsrRK operons are regulated by LsrR and cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and that proper regulation of the lsr locus is required for optimal biofilm growth by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Here, we identified sequences that reside immediately upstream from both the lsrA and lsrR start codons that closely resemble the consensus recognition sequence of Escherichia coli integration host factor (IHF) protein. A. actinomycetemcomitans IHFα and IHFβ were expressed and purified as hexahistidine fusion proteins, and using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), the IHFα-IHFβ protein complex was shown to bind to probes containing the...

15. Functional Analysis of the Accessory Protein TapA in Bacillus subtilis Amyloid Fiber Assembly - Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto
Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation relies on the assembly of a fibrous scaffold formed by the protein TasA. TasA polymerizes into highly stable fibers with biochemical and morphological features of functional amyloids. Previously, we showed that assembly of TasA fibers requires the auxiliary protein TapA. In this study, we investigated the roles of TapA sequences from the C-terminal and N-terminal ends and TapA cysteine residues in its ability to promote the assembly of TasA amyloid-like fibers. We found that the cysteine residues are not essential for the formation of TasA fibers, as their replacement by alanine residues resulted in only minor...

16. Function and Localization Dynamics of Bifunctional Penicillin-Binding Proteins in Caulobacter crescentus - Strobel, Wolfgang; Möll, Andrea; Kiekebusch, Daniela; Klein, Kathrin E.; Thanbichler, Martin
The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is a complex macromolecule composed of glycan strands that are cross-linked by short peptide bridges. Its biosynthesis involves a conserved group of enzymes, the bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins (bPBPs), which contain both a transglycosylase and a transpeptidase domain, thus being able to elongate the glycan strands and, at the same time, generate the peptide cross-links. The stalked model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus possesses five bPBP paralogs, named Pbp1A, PbpC, PbpX, PbpY, and PbpZ, whose function is still incompletely understood. In this study, we show that any of these proteins except for PbpZ is sufficient for growth...

17. The Acetylation Motif in AMP-Forming Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetases Contains Residues Critical for Acetylation and Recognition by the Protein Acetyltransferase Pat of Rhodopseudomonas palustris - Crosby, Heidi A.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.
The AMP-forming acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetases are a large class of enzymes found in both anabolic and catabolic pathways that activate fatty acids to acyl-CoA molecules. The protein acetyltransferase (Pat) from Rhodopseudomonas palustris (RpPat) inactivates AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases by acetylating the ε-amino group of a conserved, catalytic lysine residue. In all of the previously described RpPat substrates, this lysine residue is located within a PX4GK motif that has been proposed to be a recognition motif for RpPat. Here, we report five new substrates for RpPat, all of which are also AMP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases. This finding supports the idea that...

18. Characterization of the Operon Encoding the Holliday Junction Helicase RuvAB from Mycoplasma genitalium and Its Role in mgpB and mgpC Gene Variation - Burgos, Raul; Totten, Patricia A.
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen associated with reproductive tract disease in men and women, and it can persist for months to years despite the development of a robust antibody response. Mechanisms that may contribute to persistence in vivo include phase and antigenic variation of the MgpB and MgpC adhesins. These processes occur by segmental recombination between discrete variable regions within mgpB and mgpC and multiple archived donor sequences termed MgPa repeats (MgPars). The molecular factors governing mgpB and mgpC variation are poorly understood and obscured by the paucity of recombination genes conserved in the M. genitalium genome....

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20. Conditional, Temperature-Induced Proteolytic Regulation of Cyanobacterial RNA Helicase Expression - Tarassova, Oxana S.; Chamot, Danuta; Owttrim, George W.
Conditional proteolysis is a crucial process regulating the abundance of key regulatory proteins associated with the cell cycle, differentiation pathways, or cellular response to abiotic stress in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. We provide evidence that conditional proteolysis is involved in the rapid and dramatic reduction in abundance of the cyanobacterial RNA helicase, CrhR, in response to a temperature upshift from 20 to 30°C. The proteolytic activity is not a general protein degradation response, since proteolysis is only present and/or functional in cells grown at 30°C and is only transiently active at 30°C. Degradation is also autoregulatory, since the CrhR proteolytic...

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