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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (3.020.751 recursos)

Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Journal of Bacteriology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 95.611

  1. The Histidine Kinase BinK Is a Negative Regulator of Biofilm Formation and Squid Colonization

    Brooks, John F.; Mandel, Mark J.
    Bacterial colonization of animal epithelial tissue is a dynamic process that relies on precise molecular communication. Colonization of Euprymna scolopes bobtail squid by Vibrio fischeri bacteria requires bacterial aggregation in host mucus as the symbiont transitions from a planktonic lifestyle in seawater to a biofilm-associated state in the host. We have identified a gene, binK (biofilm inhibitor kinase; VF_A0360), which encodes an orphan hybrid histidine kinase that negatively regulates the V. fischeri symbiotic biofilm (Syp) in vivo and in vitro. We identified binK mutants as exhibiting a colonization advantage in a global genetic screen, a phenotype that we confirmed in...

  2. Replacement of GroEL in Escherichia coli by the Group II Chaperonin from the Archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    Shah, Riddhi; Large, Andrew T.; Ursinus, Astrid; Lin, Bevan; Gowrinathan, Preethy; Martin, Jörg; Lund, Peter A.
    Chaperonins are required for correct folding of many proteins. They exist in two phylogenetic groups: group I, found in bacteria and eukaryotic organelles, and group II, found in archaea and eukaryotic cytoplasm. The two groups, while homologous, differ significantly in structure and mechanism. The evolution of group II chaperonins has been proposed to have been crucial in enabling the expansion of the proteome required for eukaryotic evolution. In an archaeal species that expresses both groups of chaperonins, client selection is determined by structural and biochemical properties rather than phylogenetic origin. It is thus predicted that group II chaperonins will be...

  3. Evolution of Ecological Diversity in Biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Altered Cyclic Diguanylate Signaling

    Flynn, Kenneth M.; Dowell, Gabrielle; Johnson, Thomas M.; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Waters, Christopher M.; Cooper, Vaughn S.
    The ecological and evolutionary forces that promote and maintain diversity in biofilms are not well understood. To quantify these forces, three Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations were experimentally evolved from strain PA14 in a daily cycle of attachment, assembly, and dispersal for 600 generations. Each biofilm population evolved diverse colony morphologies and mutator genotypes defective in DNA mismatch repair. This diversity enhanced population fitness and biofilm output, owing partly to rare, early colonizing mutants that enhanced attachment of others. Evolved mutants exhibited various levels of the intracellular signal cyclic-di-GMP, which associated with their timing of adherence. Manipulating cyclic-di-GMP levels within individual mutants...

  4. Articles of Significant Interest Selected from This Issue by the Editors

  5. Classic Spotlight: When Phenotypic Heterogeneity Met Carbon Catabolite Repression

    Becker, Anke

  6. The Activity of Escherichia coli Chaperone SurA Is Regulated by Conformational Changes Involving a Parvulin Domain

    Soltes, Garner R.; Schwalm, Jaclyn; Ricci, Dante P.; Silhavy, Thomas J.
    The periplasmic chaperone SurA is critical for the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and, thus, the maintenance of membrane integrity in Escherichia coli. The activity of this modular chaperone has been attributed to a core chaperone module, with only minor importance assigned to the two SurA peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domains. In this work, we used synthetic phenotypes and covalent tethering to demonstrate that the activity of SurA is regulated by its PPIase domains and, furthermore, that its activity is correlated with the conformational state of the chaperone. When combined with mutations in the β-barrel assembly machine (BAM), SurA mutations...

  7. Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1-Dependent Activation of AMPK Promotes Brucella abortus Intracellular Growth

    Liu, Ning; Li, Yingying; Dong, Chunyan; Xu, Xiaohan; Wei, Pan; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is well conserved during evolution. AMPK activation inhibits production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells via suppression of NADPH oxidase. However, the role of AMPK during the process of Brucella infection remains unknown. Our data demonstrate that B. abortus infection induces AMPK activation in HeLa cells in a time-dependent manner. The known AMPK kinases LKB1, CAMKKβ, and TAK1 are not required for the activation of AMPK by B. abortus infection. Instead, this activation is dependent on the RNase activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Moreover, we also found that B....

  8. The LonA Protease Regulates Biofilm Formation, Motility, Virulence, and the Type VI Secretion System in Vibrio cholerae

    Rogers, Andrew; Townsley, Loni; Gallego-Hernandez, Ana L.; Beyhan, Sinem; Kwuan, Laura; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
    The presence of the Lon protease in all three domains of life hints at its biological importance. The prokaryotic Lon protease is responsible not only for degrading abnormal proteins but also for carrying out the proteolytic regulation of specific protein targets. Posttranslational regulation by Lon is known to affect a variety of physiological traits in many bacteria, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. Here, we identify the regulatory roles of LonA in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. We determined that the absence of LonA adversely affects biofilm formation, increases swimming motility, and influences intracellular levels of cyclic diguanylate. Whole-genome expression...

  9. Classic Spotlight: Crowd Sourcing Provided Penicillium Strains for the War Effort

    Forest, Katrina T.; Stock, Ann M.

  10. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Two-Component Regulator CarSR Regulates Calcium Homeostasis and Calcium-Induced Virulence Factor Production through Its Regulatory Targets CarO and CarP

    Guragain, Manita; King, Michelle M.; Williamson, Kerry S.; Pérez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khanam, Sharmily; Patrauchan, Marianna A.; Franklin, Michael J.
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes severe, life-threatening infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), endocarditis, wounds, or artificial implants. During CF pulmonary infections, P. aeruginosa often encounters environments where the levels of calcium (Ca2+) are elevated. Previously, we showed that P. aeruginosa responds to externally added Ca2+ through enhanced biofilm formation, increased production of several secreted virulence factors, and by developing a transient increase in the intracellular Ca2+ level, followed by its removal to the basal submicromolar level. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating Ca2+-induced virulence factor production and Ca2+ homeostasis are not known. Here,...

  11. Sibling Rivalry in Myxococcus xanthus Is Mediated by Kin Recognition and a Polyploid Prophage

    Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N.; Conklin, Austin C.; Pathak, Darshankumar T.; Troselj, Vera; Wall, Daniel
    Myxobacteria form complex social communities that elicit multicellular behaviors. One such behavior is kin recognition, in which cells identify siblings via their polymorphic TraA cell surface receptor, to transiently fuse outer membranes and exchange their contents. In addition, outer membrane exchange (OME) regulates behaviors, such as inhibition of wild-type Myxococcus xanthus (DK1622) from swarming. Here we monitored the fate of motile cells and surprisingly found they were killed by nonmotile siblings. The kill phenotype required OME (i.e., was TraA dependent). The genetic basis of killing was traced to ancestral strains used to construct DK1622. Specifically, the kill phenotype mapped to...

  12. Processing of Nonconjugative Resistance Plasmids by Conjugation Nicking Enzyme of Staphylococci

    Pollet, Rebecca M.; Ingle, James D.; Hymes, Jeff P.; Eakes, Thomas C.; Eto, Karina Yui; Kwong, Stephen M.; Ramsay, Joshua P.; Firth, Neville; Redinbo, Matthew R.
    Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus presents an increasing threat to human health. This resistance is often encoded on mobile plasmids, such as pSK41; however, the mechanism of transfer of these plasmids is not well understood. In this study, we first examine key protein-DNA interactions formed by the relaxase enzyme, NES, which initiates and terminates the transfer of the multidrug resistance plasmid pSK41. Two loops on the NES protein, hairpin loops 1 and 2, form extensive contacts with the DNA hairpin formed at the oriT region of pSK41, and here we establish that these contacts are essential for proper DNA cleavage...

  13. Pathogenic Acinetobacter: from the Cell Surface to Infinity and Beyond

    Weber, Brent S.; Harding, Christian M.; Feldman, Mario F.
    The genus Acinetobacter encompasses multiple nosocomial opportunistic pathogens that are of increasing worldwide relevance because of their ability to survive exposure to various antimicrobial and sterilization agents. Among these, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, and Acinetobacter pittii are the most frequently isolated in hospitals around the world. Despite the growing incidence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp., little is known about the factors that contribute to pathogenesis. New strategies for treating and managing infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter strains are urgently needed, and this requires a detailed understanding of the pathobiology of these organisms. In recent years, some virulence factors important for Acinetobacter...

  14. Interplay of CodY and ScoC in the Regulation of Major Extracellular Protease Genes of Bacillus subtilis

    Barbieri, Giulia; Albertini, Alessandra M.; Ferrari, Eugenio; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Belitsky, Boris R.
    AprE and NprE are two major extracellular proteases in Bacillus subtilis whose expression is directly regulated by several pleiotropic transcriptional factors, including AbrB, DegU, ScoC, and SinR. In cells growing in a rich, complex medium, the aprE and nprE genes are strongly expressed only during the post-exponential growth phase; mutations in genes encoding the known regulators affect the level of post-exponential-phase gene expression but do not permit high-level expression during the exponential growth phase. Using DNA-binding assays and expression and mutational analyses, we have shown that the genes for both exoproteases are also under strong, direct, negative control by the...

  15. Robustness of the Process of Nucleoid Exclusion of Protein Aggregates in Escherichia coli

    Neeli-Venkata, Ramakanth; Martikainen, Antti; Gupta, Abhishekh; Gonçalves, Nadia; Fonseca, Jose; Ribeiro, Andre S.
    Escherichia coli segregates protein aggregates to the poles by nucleoid exclusion. Combined with cell divisions, this generates heterogeneous aggregate distributions in subsequent cell generations. We studied the robustness of this process with differing medium richness and antibiotics stress, which affect nucleoid size, using multimodal, time-lapse microscopy of live cells expressing both a fluorescently tagged chaperone (IbpA), which identifies in vivo the location of aggregates, and HupA-mCherry, a fluorescent variant of a nucleoid-associated protein. We find that the relative sizes of the nucleoid's major and minor axes change widely, in a positively correlated fashion, with medium richness and antibiotic stress. The...

  16. Impact of Different Target Sequences on Type III CRISPR-Cas Immunity

    Maniv, Inbal; Jiang, Wenyan; Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A.
    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci encode an adaptive immune system of prokaryotes. Within these loci, sequences intercalated between repeats known as “spacers” specify the targets of CRISPR immunity. The majority of spacers match sequences present in phages and plasmids; however, it is not known whether there are differences in the immunity provided against these diverse invaders. We studied this issue using the Staphylococcus epidermidis CRISPR system, which harbors spacers matching both phages and plasmids. We determined that this CRISPR system provides similar levels of defense against the conjugative plasmid pG0400 and the bacteriophage CNPX. However, whereas antiplasmid...

  17. Succinic Semialdehyde Promotes Prosurvival Capability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Wang, Chao; Tang, Desong; Gao, Yong-Gui; Zhang, Lian-Hui
    Succinic semialdehyde (SSA), an important metabolite of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is a ligand of the repressor AttJ regulating the expression of the attJ-attKLM gene cluster in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. While the response of A. tumefaciens to GABA and the function of attKLM have been extensively studied, genetic and physiological responses of A. tumefaciens to SSA remain unknown. In combination with microarray and genetic approaches, this study sets out to explore new roles of the SSA-AttJKLM regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. The results showed that SSA plays a key role in regulation of several bacterial activities, including C4-dicarboxylate utilization,...

  18. Association of O-Antigen Serotype with the Magnitude of Initial Systemic Cytokine Responses and Persistence in the Urinary Tract

    Horvath, Dennis J.; Patel, Ashay S.; Mohamed, Ahmad; Storm, Douglas W.; Singh, Chandra; Li, Birong; Zhang, Jingwen; Koff, Stephen A.; Jayanthi, Venkata R.; Mason, Kevin M.; Justice, Sheryl S.
    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common ailments requiring both short-term and prophylactic antibiotic therapies. Progression of infection from the bladder to the kidney is associated with more severe clinical symptoms (e.g., fever and vomiting) as well as with dangerous disease sequelae (e.g., renal scaring and sepsis). Host-pathogen interactions that promote bacterial ascent to the kidney are not completely understood. Prior studies indicate that the magnitude of proinflammatory cytokine elicitation in vitro by clinical isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) inversely correlates with the severity of clinical disease. Therefore, we hypothesize that the magnitude of initial proinflammatory...

  19. Editorial Board

  20. Classic Spotlight: Regulatory Function of Leader RNAs

    Henkin, Tina M.

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