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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2,924,057 recursos)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Journal of Bacteriology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 95,466

1. NanI Sialidase, CcpA, and CodY Work Together To Regulate Epsilon Toxin Production by Clostridium perfringens Type D Strain CN3718 - Li, Jihong; Freedman, John C.; McClane, Bruce A.
Clostridium perfringens type D strains are usually associated with diseases of livestock, and their virulence requires the production of epsilon toxin (ETX). We previously showed (J. Li, S. Sayeed, S. Robertson, J. Chen, and B. A. McClane, PLoS Pathog 7:e1002429, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002429) that BMC202, a nanI null mutant of type D strain CN3718, produces less ETX than wild-type CN3718 does. The current study proved that the lower ETX production by strain BMC202 is due to nanI gene disruption, since both genetic and physical (NanI or sialic acid) complementation increased ETX production by BMC202. Furthermore, a sialidase inhibitor that interfered with...

2. Chemotaxis Control of Transient Cell Aggregation - Alexandre, Gladys
Chemotaxis affords motile cells the ability to rapidly respond to environmental challenges by navigating cells to niches favoring growth. Such a property results from the activities of dedicated signal transduction systems on the motility apparatus, such as flagella, type IV pili, and gliding machineries. Once cells have reached a niche with favorable conditions, they often stop moving and aggregate into complex communities termed biofilms. An intermediate and reversible stage that precedes commitment to permanent adhesion often includes transient cell-cell contacts between motile cells. Chemotaxis signaling has been implicated in modulating the transient aggregation of motile cells. Evidence further indicates that...

3. Mapping Type IV Secretion Signals on the Primase Encoded by the Broad-Host-Range Plasmid R1162 (RSF1010) - Meyer, Richard
The plasmid R1162 (RSF1010) encodes a primase essential for its replication. This primase makes up the C-terminal part of MobA, a multifunctional protein with the relaxase as a separate N-terminal domain. The primase is also translated separately as the protein RepB′. Here, we map two signals for type IV secretion onto the recently solved structure of RepB′. One signal is located internally within RepB′ and consists of a long α-helix and an adjacent disordered region rich in arginines. The second signal is made up of the same α-helix and a second, arginine-rich region at the C-terminal end of the protein....

4. Regulation of the Expression of De Novo Pyrimidine Biosynthesis Genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum - Tanaka, Yuya; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Inui, Masayuki
Expression of pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis is downregulated by an exogenous uracil in many bacteria. In this study, we show that a putative binding motif sequence of PyrR is required for uracil-mediated repression of pyrR-lacZ translational fusion. However, the uracil response was still observed in the strain with the pyrR gene deleted, implying the existence of a uracil response factor other than PyrR which also acts through the PyrR binding loop region. Deletion of rho, encoding the transcription termination factor Rho, resulted in an increase in the expression of pyrR-lacZ. Moreover, the strain with a double deletion of pyrR and...

5. Chlamydia trachomatis Type III Secretion Proteins Regulate Transcription - Hanson, Brett R.; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Peterson, Ellena M.; Tan, Ming
The Scc4 protein (CT663) of the pathogenic bacterium Chlamydia has been described as a type III secretion (T3S) chaperone as well as an inhibitor of RNA polymerase. To examine if these roles are connected, we first investigated physical interactions between Chlamydia trachomatis Scc4 and the T3S chaperone Scc1 and a T3S substrate, CopN. In a yeast 3-hybrid assay, Scc4, Scc1, and CopN were all required to detect an interaction, which suggests that these proteins form a trimolecular complex. We also detected interactions between any two of these three T3S proteins in a pulldown assay using only recombinant proteins. We next...

6. Opposite and Coordinated Rotation of Amphitrichous Flagella Governs Oriented Swimming and Reversals in a Magnetotactic Spirillum - Murat, Dorothée; Hérisse, Marion; Espinosa, Leon; Bossa, Alicia; Alberto, François; Wu, Long-Fei
Current knowledge regarding the mechanism that governs flagellar motor rotation in response to environmental stimuli stems mainly from the study of monotrichous and peritrichous bacteria. Little is known about how two polar flagella, one at each cell pole of the so-called amphitrichous bacterium, are coordinated to steer the swimming. Here we fluorescently labeled the flagella of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 cells and took advantage of the magnetically controllable swimming of this bacterium to investigate flagellar rotation in moving cells. We identified three motility behaviors (runs, tumbles, and reversals) and two characteristic fluorescence patterns likely corresponding to flagella rotating in opposite directions....

7. Positive Effect of Carbon Sources on Natural Transformation in Escherichia coli: Role of Low-Level Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein in the Derepression of rpoS - Guo, Mengyue; Wang, Huanyu; Xie, Nengbin; Xie, Zhixiong
Natural plasmid transformation of Escherichia coli is a complex process that occurs strictly on agar plates and requires the global stress response factor σS. Here, we showed that additional carbon sources could significantly enhance the transformability of E. coli. Inactivation of phosphotransferase system genes (ptsH, ptsG, and crr) caused an increase in the transformation frequency, and the addition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) neutralized the promotional effect of carbon sources. This implies a negative role of cAMP in natural transformation. Further study showed that crp and cyaA mutations conferred a higher transformation frequency, suggesting that the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex...

8. Loss of Antibiotic Tolerance in Sod-Deficient Mutants Is Dependent on the Energy Source and Arginine Catabolism in Enterococci - Ladjouzi, Rabia; Bizzini, Alain; van Schaik, Willem; Zhang, Xinglin; Rincé, Alain; Benachour, Abdellah; Hartke, Axel
Enterococci are naturally tolerant to typically bactericidal cell wall-active antibiotics, meaning that their growth is inhibited but they are not killed even when exposed to a high concentration of the drug. The molecular reasons for this extraordinary tolerance are still incompletely understood. Previous work showed that resistance to killing collapsed specifically in mutants affected in superoxide dismutase (Sod) activity, arguing that bactericidal antibiotic treatment led to induction of a superoxide burst. In the present work, we show that loss of antibiotic tolerance in ΔsodA mutants of pathogenic enterococci is dependent on the energy source present during antibiotic treatment. Hexoses induce...

9. Reversal of the Drug Binding Pocket Defects of the AcrB Multidrug Efflux Pump Protein of Escherichia coli - Soparkar, Ketaki; Kinana, Alfred D.; Weeks, Jon W.; Morrison, Keith D.; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Misra, Rajeev
The AcrB protein of Escherichia coli, together with TolC and AcrA, forms a contiguous envelope conduit for the capture and extrusion of diverse antibiotics and cellular metabolites. In this study, we sought to expand our knowledge of AcrB by conducting genetic and functional analyses. We began with an AcrB mutant bearing an F610A substitution in the drug binding pocket and obtained second-site substitutions that overcame the antibiotic hypersusceptibility phenotype conferred by the F610A mutation. Five of the seven unique single amino acid substitutions—Y49S, V127A, V127G, D153E, and G288C—mapped in the periplasmic porter domain of AcrB, with the D153E and G288C...

10. Dps and DpsL Mediate Survival In Vitro and In Vivo during the Prolonged Oxidative Stress Response in Bacteroides fragilis - Betteken, Michael I.; Rocha, Edson R.; Smith, C. Jeffrey
Bacteroides fragilis is a Gram-negative anaerobe and member of the human intestinal tract microbiome, where it plays many beneficial roles. However, translocation of the organism to the peritoneal cavity can lead to peritonitis, intra-abdominal abscess formation, bacteremia, and sepsis. During translocation, B. fragilis is exposed to increased oxidative stress from the oxygenated tissues of the peritoneal cavity and the immune response. In order to survive, B. fragilis mounts a robust oxidative stress response consisting of an acute and a prolonged oxidative stress (POST) response. This report demonstrates that the ability to induce high levels of resistance to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH)...

11. An Essential Poison: Synthesis and Degradation of Cyclic Di-AMP in Bacillus subtilis - Gundlach, Jan; Mehne, Felix M. P.; Herzberg, Christina; Kampf, Jan; Valerius, Oliver; Kaever, Volkhard; Stülke, Jörg
Gram-positive bacteria synthesize the second messenger cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) to control cell wall and potassium homeostasis and to secure the integrity of their DNA. In the firmicutes, c-di-AMP is essential for growth. The model organism Bacillus subtilis encodes three diadenylate cyclases and two potential phosphodiesterases to produce and degrade c-di-AMP, respectively. Among the three cyclases, CdaA is conserved in nearly all firmicutes, and this enzyme seems to be responsible for the c-di-AMP that is required for cell wall homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that CdaA localizes to the membrane and forms a complex with the regulatory protein CdaR and the glucosamine-6-phosphate...

12. Articles of Significant Interest Selected from This Issue by the Editors

13. Whole-Genome Comparison Uncovers Genomic Mutations between Group B Streptococci Sampled from Infected Newborns and Their Mothers - Almeida, Alexandre; Villain, Adrien; Joubrel, Caroline; Touak, Gérald; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Poyart, Claire; Glaser, Philippe
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus or GBS), a commensal of the human gut and genitourinary tract, is a leading cause of neonatal infections, in which vertical transmission from mother to child remains the most frequent route of contamination. Here, we investigated whether the progression of GBS from carriage to disease is associated with genomic adaptation. Whole-genome comparison of 47 GBS samples from 19 mother-child pairs uncovered 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven insertions/deletions. Of the SNPs detected, 16 appear to have been fixed in the population sampled whereas five mutations were found to be polymorphic. In the infant strains,...

14. Editorial Board

15. Cross Talk Inhibition Nullified by a Receiver Domain Missense Substitution - Huynh, TuAnh Ngoc; Lin, Hsia-Yin; Noriega, Chris E.; Lin, Alice V.; Stewart, Valley
In two-component signal transduction, a sensor protein transmitter module controls cognate receiver domain phosphorylation. Most receiver domain sequences contain a small residue (Gly or Ala) at position T + 1 just distal to the essential Thr or Ser residue that forms part of the active site. However, some members of the NarL receiver subfamily have a large hydrophobic residue at position T + 1. Our laboratory previously isolated a NarL mutant in which the T + 1 residue Val-88 was replaced with an orthodox small Ala. This NarL V88A mutant confers a striking phenotype in which high-level target operon expression...

16. Function of the Histone-Like Protein H-NS in Motility of Escherichia coli: Multiple Regulatory Roles Rather than Direct Action at the Flagellar Motor - Kim, Eun A; Blair, David F.
A number of investigations of Escherichia coli have suggested that the DNA-binding protein H-NS, in addition to its well-known functions in chromosome organization and gene regulation, interacts directly with the flagellar motor to modulate its function. Here, in a study initially aimed at characterizing the H-NS/motor interaction further, we identify problems and limitations in the previous work that substantially weaken the case for a direct H-NS/motor interaction. Null hns mutants are immotile, largely owing to the downregulation of the flagellar master regulators FlhD and FlhC. We, and others, previously reported that an hns mutant remains poorly motile even when FlhDC...

17. Articles of Significant Interest Selected from This Issue by the Editors

18. The DNA-Binding Protein from Starved Cells (Dps) Utilizes Dual Functions To Defend Cells against Multiple Stresses - Karas, Vlad O.; Westerlaken, Ilja; Meyer, Anne S.
Bacteria deficient in the DNA-binding protein from starved cells (Dps) are viable under controlled conditions but show dramatically increased mortality rates when exposed to any of a wide range of stresses, including starvation, oxidative stress, metal toxicity, or thermal stress. It remains unclear whether the protective action of Dps against specific stresses derives from its DNA-binding activity, which may exclude destructive agents from the chromosomal region, or its ferroxidase activity, which neutralizes and sequesters potentially damaging chemical species. To resolve this question, we have identified the critical residues of Escherichia coli Dps that bind to DNA and modulate iron oxidation....

19. GlnR-Mediated Regulation of ectABCD Transcription Expands the Role of the GlnR Regulon to Osmotic Stress Management - Shao, ZhiHui; Deng, WanXin; Li, ShiYuan; He, JuanMei; Ren, ShuangXi; Huang, WeiRen; Lu, YinHua; Zhao, GuoPing; Cai, ZhiMing; Wang, Jin
Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are excellent compatible solutes for bacteria to deal with environmental osmotic stress and temperature damages. The biosynthesis cluster of ectoine and hydroxyectoine is widespread among microorganisms, and its expression is activated by high salinity and temperature changes. So far, little is known about the mechanism of the regulation of the transcription of ect genes and only two MarR family regulators (EctR1 in methylobacteria and the EctR1-related regulator CosR in Vibrio cholerae) have been found to negatively regulate the expression of ect genes. Here, we characterize GlnR, the global regulator for nitrogen metabolism in actinomycetes, as a negative...

20. Mutations That Stimulate flhDC Expression in Escherichia coli K-12 - Fahrner, Karen A.; Berg, Howard C.
Motility is a beneficial attribute that enables cells to access and explore new environments and to escape detrimental ones. The organelle of motility in Escherichia coli is the flagellum, and its production is initiated by the activating transcription factors FlhD and FlhC. The expression of these factors by the flhDC operon is highly regulated and influenced by environmental conditions. The flhDC promoter is recognized by σ70 and is dependent on the transcriptional activator cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein complex (cAMP-CRP). A number of K-12 strains exhibit limited motility due to low expression levels of flhDC. We report here a large...

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