PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD)
Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
Journal of Bacteriology
Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 95,364
Ugp and PitA Participate in the Selection of PHO-Constitutive Mutants - Iglesias Neves, Henrique; Pereira, Tuanny Fernanda; Yagil, Ezra; Spira, Beny
Mutations that cause the constitutive expression of the PHO regulon of Escherichia coli occur either in the pst operon or in the phoR gene, which encode, respectively, a high-affinity Pi transport system and a histidine kinase sensor protein. These mutations are normally selected on glycerol-2-phosphate (G2P) as the carbon source in the presence of excess Pi. The emergence of early PHO-constitutive mutants, which appear after growth for up to 48 h on selective medium, depends on the presence of phoA, which codes for a periplasmic alkaline phosphatase, while late mutants, which appear after 48 h, depend both on phoA and...
Genome-Wide Analysis of Phosphorylated PhoP Binding to Chromosomal DNA Reveals Several Novel Features of the PhoPR-Mediated Phosphate Limitation Response in Bacillus subtilis - Salzberg, Letal I.; Botella, Eric; Hokamp, Karsten; Antelmann, Haike; Maaß, Sandra; Becher, Dörte; Noone, David; Devine, Kevin M.
The PhoPR two-component signal transduction system controls one of three responses activated by Bacillus subtilis to adapt to phosphate-limiting conditions (PHO response). The response involves the production of enzymes and transporters that scavenge for phosphate in the environment and assimilate it into the cell. However, in B. subtilis and some other Firmicutes bacteria, cell wall metabolism is also part of the PHO response due to the high phosphate content of the teichoic acids attached either to peptidoglycan (wall teichoic acid) or to the cytoplasmic membrane (lipoteichoic acid). Prompted by our observation that the phosphorylated WalR (WalR∼P) response regulator binds to...
The Escherichia coli Membrane Protein Insertase YidC Assists in the Biogenesis of Penicillin Binding Proteins - de Sousa Borges, Anabela; de Keyzer, Jeanine; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan
Membrane proteins need to be properly inserted and folded in the membrane in order to perform a range of activities that are essential for the survival of bacteria. The Sec translocon and the YidC insertase are responsible for the insertion of the majority of proteins into the cytoplasmic membrane. YidC can act in combination with the Sec translocon in the insertion and folding of membrane proteins. However, YidC also functions as an insertase independently of the Sec translocon for so-called YidC-only substrates. In addition, YidC can act as a foldase and promote the proper assembly of membrane protein complexes. Here,...
Role of RNA Secondary Structure and Processing in Stability of the nifH1 Transcript in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis - Pratte, Brenda S.; Ungerer, Justin; Thiel, Teresa
In the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413, aerobic nitrogen fixation occurs in micro-oxic cells called heterocysts. Synthesis of nitrogenase in heterocysts requires expression of the large nif1 gene cluster, which is primarily under the control of the promoter for the first gene, nifB1. Strong expression of nifH1 requires the nifB1 promoter but is also controlled by RNA processing, which leads to increased nifH1 transcript stability. The processing of the primary nifH1 transcript occurs at the base of a predicted stem-loop structure that is conserved in many heterocystous cyanobacteria. Mutations that changed the predicted secondary structure or changed the sequence of...
Analysis of the σE Regulon in Crohn's Disease-Associated Escherichia coli Revealed Involvement of the waaWVL Operon in Biofilm Formation - Chassaing, Benoit; Garénaux, Estelle; Carriere, Jessica; Rolhion, Nathalie; Guérardel, Yann; Barnich, Nicolas; Bonnet, Richard; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette
Ileal lesions of patients with Crohn's disease are colonized by adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), which is able to adhere to and to invade intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), to replicate within macrophages, and to form biofilms on the surface of the intestinal mucosa. Previous analyses indicated the involvement of the σE pathway in AIEC-IEC interaction, as well as in biofilm formation, with σE pathway inhibition leading to an impaired ability of AIEC to colonize the intestinal mucosa and to form biofilms. The aim of this study was to characterize the σE regulon of AIEC strain LF82 in order to identify members...
Two-Tiered Histidine Kinase Pathway Involved in Heat Shock and Salt Sensing in the General Stress Response of Sphingomonas melonis Fr1 - Kaczmarczyk, Andreas; Hochstrasser, Ramon; Vorholt, Julia A.; Francez-Charlot, Anne
The general stress response (GSR) allows bacteria to monitor and defend against a broad set of unrelated, adverse environmental conditions. In Alphaproteobacteria, the key step in GSR activation is phosphorylation of the response regulator PhyR. In Sphingomonas melonis Fr1, seven PhyR-activating kinases (Paks), PakA to PakG, are thought to directly phosphorylate PhyR under different stress conditions, but the nature of the activating signals remains obscure. PakF, a major sensor of NaCl and heat shock, lacks a putative sensor domain but instead harbors a single receiver (REC) domain (PakFREC) N-terminal to its kinase catalytic core. Such kinases are called “hybrid response...
The Bacterial Alarmone (p)ppGpp Activates the Type III Secretion System in Erwinia amylovora - Ancona, Veronica; Lee, Jae Hoon; Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Oh, Jinrok; Hong, Jong-In; Zhao, Youfu
The hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) type III secretion system (T3SS) is a key pathogenicity factor in Erwinia amylovora. Previous studies have demonstrated that the T3SS in E. amylovora is transcriptionally regulated by a sigma factor cascade. In this study, the role of the bacterial alarmone ppGpp in activating the T3SS and virulence of E. amylovora was investigated using ppGpp mutants generated by Red recombinase cloning. The virulence of a ppGpp-deficient mutant (ppGpp0) as well as a dksA mutant of E. amylovora was completely impaired, and bacterial growth was significantly reduced, suggesting that ppGpp is required for full virulence of...
Structural Basis of Functional Diversification of the HD-GYP Domain Revealed by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA4781 Protein, Which Displays an Unselective Bimetallic Binding Site - Rinaldo, Serena; Paiardini, Alessandro; Stelitano, Valentina; Brunotti, Paolo; Cervoni, Laura; Fernicola, Silvia; Protano, Carmela; Vitali, Matteo; Cutruzzolà, Francesca; Giardina, Giorgio
The intracellular level of the bacterial secondary messenger cyclic di-3′,5′-GMP (c-di-GMP) is determined by a balance between its biosynthesis and degradation, the latter achieved via dedicated phosphodiesterases (PDEs) bearing a characteristic EAL or HD-GYP domain. We here report the crystal structure of PA4781, one of the three Pseudomonas aeruginosa HD-GYP proteins, which we have previously characterized in vitro. The structure shows a bimetallic active site whose metal binding mode is different from those of both HD-GYP PDEs characterized so far. Purified PA4781 does not contain iron in the active site as for other HD-GYPs, and we show that it binds...
The Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Protein Bacteroides Host Factor A Participates in Integration of the Integrative Conjugative Element CTnDOT into the Chromosome - Ringwald, Kenneth; Gardner, Jeffrey
CTnDOT is a conjugative transposon found in Bacteroides species. It encodes multiple antibiotic resistances and is stimulated to transfer by exposure to tetracycline. CTnDOT integration into the host chromosome requires IntDOT and a previously unknown host factor. We have identified a protein, designated BHFa (Bacteroides host factor A), that participates in integrative recombination. BHFa is the first host factor identified for a site-specific recombination reaction in the CTnDOT family of integrative and conjugative elements. Based on the amino acid sequence of BHFa, the ability to bind specifically to 4 sites in the attDOT DNA, and its activity in the integration...
Identification and Regulation of a Novel Citrobacter rodentium Gut Colonization Fimbria (Gcf) - Caballero-Flores, Gustavo G.; Croxen, Matthew A.; Martínez-Santos, Verónica I.; Finlay, B. Brett; Puente, José L.
The Gram-negative enteric bacterium Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that has been extensively used as a surrogate model for studying the human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. All three pathogens produce similar attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in the intestinal epithelium. During infection, these bacteria employ surface structures called fimbriae to adhere and colonize the host intestinal epithelium. For C. rodentium, the roles of only a small number of its genome-carried fimbrial operons have been evaluated. Here, we report the identification of a novel C. rodentium colonization factor, called gut colonization fimbria (Gcf), which is encoded by...
The STM4195 Gene Product (PanS) Transports Coenzyme A Precursors in Salmonella enterica - Ernst, Dustin C.; Downs, Diana M.
Coenzyme A (CoA) is a ubiquitous coenzyme involved in fundamental metabolic processes. CoA is synthesized from pantothenic acid by a pathway that is largely conserved among bacteria and eukaryotes and consists of five enzymatic steps. While higher organisms, including humans, must scavenge pantothenate from the environment, most bacteria and plants are capable of de novo pantothenate biosynthesis. In Salmonella enterica, precursors to pantothenate can be salvaged, but subsequent intermediates are not transported due to their phosphorylated state, and thus the pathway from pantothenate to CoA is considered essential. Genetic analyses identified the STM4195 gene product of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium...
The Bifunctional Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene, adhE, Is Necessary for Ethanol Production in Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum - Lo, Jonathan; Zheng, Tianyong; Hon, Shuen; Olson, Daniel G.; Lynd, Lee R.
Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum are anaerobic thermophilic bacteria being investigated for their ability to produce biofuels from plant biomass. The bifunctional alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, adhE, is present in these bacteria and has been known to be important for ethanol formation in other anaerobic alcohol producers. This study explores the inactivation of the adhE gene in C. thermocellum and T. saccharolyticum. Deletion of adhE reduced ethanol production by >95% in both T. saccharolyticum and C. thermocellum, confirming that adhE is necessary for ethanol formation in both organisms. In both adhE deletion strains, fermentation products shifted from ethanol to...
Genome-Based Analysis and Gene Dosage Studies Provide New Insight into 3-Hydroxy-4-Methylvalerate Biosynthesis in Ralstonia eutropha - Saika, Azusa; Ushimaru, Kazunori; Mizuno, Shoji; Tsuge, Takeharu
Recombinant Ralstonia eutropha strain PHB−4 expressing the broad-substrate-specificity polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase 1 from Pseudomonas sp. strain 61-3 (PhaC1Ps) synthesizes a PHA copolymer containing the branched side-chain unit 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3H4MV), which has a carbon backbone identical to that of leucine. Mutant strain 1F2 was derived from R. eutropha strain PHB−4 by chemical mutagenesis and shows higher levels of 3H4MV production than does the parent strain. In this study, to understand the mechanisms underlying the enhanced production of 3H4MV, whole-genome sequencing of strain 1F2 was performed, and the draft genome sequence was compared to that of parent strain PHB−4. This analysis uncovered...
Genetic Basis for Metabolism of Methylated Sulfur Compounds in Methanosarcina Species - Fu, He; Metcalf, William W.
Methanosarcina acetivorans uses a variety of methylated sulfur compounds as carbon and energy sources. Previous studies implicated the mtsD, mtsF, and mtsH genes in catabolism of dimethylsulfide, but the genes required for use of other methylsulfides have yet to be established. Here, we show that a four-gene locus, designated mtpCAP-msrH, is specifically required for growth on methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA). The mtpC, mtpA, and mtpP genes encode a putative corrinoid protein, a coenzyme M (CoM) methyltransferase, and a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter, respectively, while msrH encodes a putative transcriptional regulator. Mutants lacking mtpC or mtpA display a severe growth defect in...
Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transport in Bacillus subtilis CodY Activity - Belitsky, Boris R.
CodY is a branched-chain amino acid-responsive transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of several dozen transcription units in Bacillus subtilis. The presence of isoleucine, valine, and leucine in the growth medium is essential for achieving high activity of CodY and for efficient regulation of the target genes. We identified three permeases—BcaP, BraB, and BrnQ—that are responsible for the bulk of isoleucine and valine uptake and are also involved in leucine uptake. At least one more permease is capable of efficient leucine uptake, as well as low-affinity transport of isoleucine and valine. The lack of the first three permeases strongly reduced...
CodY Regulates Expression of the Bacillus subtilis Extracellular Proteases Vpr and Mpr - Barbieri, Giulia; Voigt, Birgit; Albrecht, Dirk; Hecker, Michael; Albertini, Alessandra M.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Ferrari, Eugenio; Belitsky, Boris R.
CodY is a global transcriptional regulator in low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria that is responsive to GTP and branched-chain amino acids. By interacting with its two cofactors, it is able to sense the nutritional and energetic status of the cell and respond by regulating expression of adaptive genetic programs. In Bacillus subtilis, more than 200 genes, including those for peptide transporters, intracellular proteolytic enzymes, and amino acid degradative pathways, are controlled by CodY. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of two extracellular proteases, Vpr and Mpr, is negatively controlled by CodY. By gel mobility shift and DNase I footprinting assays, we...
Diffusion of Antibiotics through the PilQ Secretin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Occurs through the Immature, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Labile Form - Nandi, Sobhan; Swanson, Shauna; Tomberg, Joshua; Nicholas, Robert A.
In strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae harboring the mtr and penB determinants that decrease permeation of antibiotics into the periplasm, mutation or deletion of the PilQ secretin of type IV pili increases resistance to penicillin by ∼3-fold, indicating a role for PilQ in antibiotic permeation. In this study, we examined spontaneously arising mutants with decreased susceptibility to penicillin. One class of mutants had a phenotype indistinguishable from that of a previously characterized pilQ2 mutation that interfered with the formation of SDS-resistant PilQ multimers. A second class of mutants contained frameshift mutations in genes upstream of pilQ in the pilMNOPQ operon that...
An Escherichia coli Mutant That Makes Exceptionally Long Cells - El-Hajj, Ziad W.; Newman, Elaine B.
Although Escherichia coli is a very small (1- to 2-μm) rod-shaped cell, here we describe an E. coli mutant that forms enormously long cells in rich media such as Luria broth, as long indeed as 750 μm. These extremely elongated (eel) cells are as long as the longest bacteria known and have no internal subdivisions. They are metabolically competent, elongate rapidly, synthesize DNA, and distribute cell contents along this length. They lack only the ability to divide. The concentration of the essential cell division protein FtsZ is reduced in these eel cells, and increasing this concentration restores division.
A Novel Pyrroloquinoline Quinone-Dependent 2-Keto-d-Glucose Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aureofaciens - Umezawa, Kiwamu; Takeda, Kouta; Ishida, Takuya; Sunagawa, Naoki; Makabe, Akiko; Isobe, Kazuo; Koba, Keisuke; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Samejima, Masahiro; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yoshida, Makoto
A gene encoding an enzyme similar to a pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent sugar dehydrogenase from filamentous fungi, which belongs to new auxiliary activities (AA) family 12 in the CAZy database, was cloned from Pseudomonas aureofaciens. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned enzyme showed only low homology to previously characterized PQQ-dependent enzymes, and multiple-sequence alignment analysis showed that the enzyme lacks one of the three conserved arginine residues that function as PQQ-binding residues in known PQQ-dependent enzymes. The recombinant enzyme was heterologously expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system for further characterization. The UV-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrum of the oxidized...