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PubMed Central (PMC3 - NLM DTD) (2.977.438 recursos)

Archive of life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), developed and managed by NIH's National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Journal of Bacteriology

Mostrando recursos 1 - 20 de 95.492

  1. Different Functions of Phylogenetically Distinct Bacterial Complex I Isozymes

    Spero, Melanie A.; Brickner, Joshua R.; Mollet, Jordan T.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Donohue, Timothy J.
    NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is a bioenergetic enzyme that transfers electrons from NADH to quinone, conserving the energy of this reaction by contributing to the proton motive force. While the importance of NADH oxidation to mitochondrial aerobic respiration is well documented, the contribution of complex I to bacterial electron transport chains has been tested in only a few species. Here, we analyze the function of two phylogenetically distinct complex I isozymes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an alphaproteobacterium that contains well-characterized electron transport chains. We found that R. sphaeroides complex I activity is important for aerobic respiration and required for anaerobic dimethyl...

  2. An Electrostatic Net Model for the Role of Extracellular DNA in Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Dengler, Vanina; Foulston, Lucy; DeFrancesco, Alicia S.; Losick, Richard
    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that can form biofilms on various surfaces. These cell communities are protected from the environment by a self-produced extracellular matrix composed of proteins, DNA, and polysaccharide. The exact compositions and roles of the different components are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of extracellular DNA (eDNA) and its interaction with the recently identified cytoplasmic proteins that have a moonlighting role in the biofilm matrix. These matrix proteins associate with the cell surface upon the drop in pH that naturally occurs during biofilm formation, and we found here that this...

  3. Identification and Biochemical Characterization of the Novel α2,3-Sialyltransferase WbwA from Pathogenic Escherichia coli Serotype O104

    Czuchry, Diana; Desormeaux, Paul; Stuart, Melissa; Jarvis, Donald L.; Matta, Khushi L.; Szarek, Walter A.; Brockhausen, Inka
    The sialyl-T antigen sialylα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc is a common O-glycan structure in human glycoproteins and is synthesized by sialyltransferase ST3Gal1. The enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotype O104 has the rare ability to synthesize a sialyl-T antigen mimic. We showed here that the wbwA gene of the E. coli O104 antigen synthesis gene cluster encodes an α2,3-sialyltransferase WbwA that transfers sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to Galβ1-3GalNAcα-diphosphate-lipid acceptor. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of purified WbwA enzyme reaction product indicated that the sialyl-T antigen sialylα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAcα-diphosphate-lipid was synthesized. We showed that the conserved His-Pro (HP) motif and Glu/Asp residues of two EDG motifs in WbwA...

  4. A λ Cro-Like Repressor Is Essential for the Induction of Conjugative Transfer of SXT/R391 Elements in Response to DNA Damage

    Poulin-Laprade, Dominic; Burrus, Vincent
    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family are the main contributors to acquired multidrug resistance in the seventh pandemic lineage of Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. Conjugative transfer of SXT/R391 ICEs is triggered by antibiotics and agents promoting DNA damage through RecA-dependent autoproteolysis of SetR, an ICE-encoded λ CI-like repressor. Here, we describe the role of CroS, a distant λ Cro homolog, as a key component contributing to the regulation of expression of the activator SetCD that orchestrates the expression of the conjugative transfer genes. We show that deletion of croS abolishes the...

  5. The Sugar Kinase That Is Necessary for the Catabolism of Rhamnose in Rhizobium leguminosarum Directly Interacts with the ABC Transporter Necessary for Rhamnose Transport

    Rivers, Damien M. R.; Oresnik, Ivan J.
    Rhamnose catabolism in Rhizobium leguminosarum was found to be necessary for the ability of the organism to compete for nodule occupancy. Characterization of the locus necessary for the catabolism of rhamnose showed that the transport of rhamnose was dependent upon a carbohydrate uptake transporter 2 (CUT2) ABC transporter encoded by rhaSTPQ and on the presence of RhaK, a protein known to have sugar kinase activity. A linker-scanning mutagenesis analysis of rhaK showed that the kinase and transport activities of RhaK could be separated genetically. More specifically, two pentapeptide insertions defined by the alleles rhaK72 and rhaK73 were able to uncouple...

  6. Evolution of Mycolic Acid Biosynthesis Genes and Their Regulation during Starvation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Jamet, Stevie; Quentin, Yves; Coudray, Coralie; Texier, Pauline; Laval, Françoise; Daffé, Mamadou; Fichant, Gwennaele; Cam, Kaymeuang
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, is a Gram-positive bacterium with a unique cell envelope composed of an essential outer membrane. Mycolic acids, which are very-long-chain (up to C100) fatty acids, are the major components of this mycomembrane. The enzymatic pathways involved in the biosynthesis and transport of mycolates are fairly well documented and are the targets of the major antituberculous drugs. In contrast, only fragmented information is available on the expression and regulation of the biosynthesis genes. In this study, we report that the hadA, hadB, and hadC genes, which code for the mycolate biosynthesis dehydratase enzymes, are...

  7. Response of Vibrio cholerae to the Catecholamine Hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

    Halang, Petra; Toulouse, Charlotte; Geißel, Bernadette; Michel, Bernd; Flauger, Birgit; Müller, Manuel; Voegele, Ralf T.; Stefanski, Volker; Steuber, Julia
    In Escherichia coli or Salmonella enterica, the stress-associated mammalian hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) trigger a signaling cascade by interacting with the QseC sensor protein. Here we show that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, exhibits a specific response to E and NE. These catecholates (0.1 mM) enhanced the growth and swimming motility of V. cholerae strain O395 on soft agar in a medium containing calf serum, which simulated the environment within the host. During growth, the hormones were converted to degradation products, including adrenochrome formed by autooxidation with O2 or superoxide. In E. coli, the QseC sensor...

  8. Structural, Functional, and Immunogenic Insights on Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase Pathogenic Virulence Factors from Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus

    Pratt, Ashley J.; DiDonato, Michael; Shin, David S.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Bruns, Cami K.; Belzer, Carol A.; Gorringe, Andrew R.; Langford, Paul R.; Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Kroll, J. Simon; Tainer, John A.; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.
    Bacterial pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus pose threats to human and animal health worldwide, causing meningococcal disease and brucellosis, respectively. Mortality from acute N. meningitidis infections remains high despite antibiotics, and brucellosis presents alimentary and health consequences. Superoxide dismutases are master regulators of reactive oxygen and general pathogenicity factors and are therefore therapeutic targets. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) localized to the periplasm promote survival by detoxifying superoxide radicals generated by major host antimicrobial immune responses. We discovered that passive immunization with an antibody directed at N. meningitidis SOD (NmSOD) was protective in a mouse infection model. To define the...

  9. Acknowledgment of Ad Hoc Reviewers

    Silhavy, Thomas J.

  10. Article of Significant Interest Selected from This Issue by the Editors

  11. Airpnp: Auto- and Integrated Regulation of Polynucleotide Phosphorylase

    Condon, Ciarán
    The properties and expression of polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), capable of both RNA degradation and polymerization, have been studied for 60 years. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, Park et al. (H. Park, H. Yakhnin, M. Connolly, T. Romeo, and P. Babitzke, J Bacteriol 197:3751–3759, 2015, write the latest chapter on the complex regulation of pnp gene expression involving CsrA. I describe how this new piece of the puzzle fits into the global scheme of PNPase autoregulation and how this is influenced by central carbon metabolism at both the posttranscriptional level and that of enzyme activity.

  12. Editorial Board

  13. CsrA Participates in a PNPase Autoregulatory Mechanism by Selectively Repressing Translation of pnp Transcripts That Have Been Previously Processed by RNase III and PNPase

    Park, Hongmarn; Yakhnin, Helen; Connolly, Michael; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul
    Csr is a conserved global regulatory system that represses or activates gene expression posttranscriptionally. CsrA of Escherichia coli is a homodimeric RNA binding protein that regulates transcription elongation, translation initiation, and mRNA stability by binding to the 5′ untranslated leader or initial coding sequence of target transcripts. pnp mRNA, encoding the 3′ to 5′ exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), was previously identified as a CsrA target by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). Previous studies also showed that RNase III and PNPase participate in a pnp autoregulatory mechanism in which RNase III cleavage of the untranslated leader, followed by PNPase degradation of the resulting...

  14. AraR, an l-Arabinose-Responsive Transcriptional Regulator in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831, Exerts Different Degrees of Repression Depending on the Location of Its Binding Sites within the Three Target Promoter Regions

    Kuge, Takayuki; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Inui, Masayuki
    In Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831, a LacI-type transcriptional regulator AraR, represses the expression of l-arabinose catabolism (araBDA), uptake (araE), and the regulator (araR) genes clustered on the chromosome. AraR binds to three sites: one (BSB) between the divergent operons (araBDA and galM-araR) and two (BSE1 and BSE2) upstream of araE. l-Arabinose acts as an inducer of the AraR-mediated regulation. Here, we examined the roles of these AraR-binding sites in the expression of the AraR regulon. BSB mutation resulted in derepression of both araBDA and galM-araR operons. The effects of BSE1 and/or BSE2 mutation on araE expression revealed that the two...

  15. Physiological Roles and Adverse Effects of the Two Cystine Importers of Escherichia coli

    Chonoles Imlay, Karin R.; Korshunov, Sergey; Imlay, James A.
    When cystine is added to Escherichia coli, the bacterium becomes remarkably sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. This effect is due to enlarged intracellular pools of cysteine, which can drive Fenton chemistry. Genetic analysis linked the sensitivity to YdjN, a secondary transporter that along with the FliY-YecSC ABC system is responsible for cystine uptake. FliY-YecSC has a nanomolar Km and is essential for import of trace cystine, whereas YdjN has a micromolar Km and is the predominant importer when cystine is more abundant. Oddly, both systems are strongly induced by the CysB response to sulfur scarcity. The FliY-YecSC system can import a...

  16. Regulation of Bioluminescence in Photobacterium leiognathi Strain KNH6

    Dunn, Anne K.; Rader, Bethany A.; Stabb, Eric V.; Mandel, Mark J.
    Bacterial bioluminescence is taxonomically restricted to certain proteobacteria, many of which belong to the Vibrionaceae. In the most well-studied cases, pheromone signaling plays a key role in regulation of light production. However, previous reports have indicated that certain Photobacterium strains do not use this regulatory method for controlling luminescence. In this study, we combined genome sequencing with genetic approaches to characterize the regulation of luminescence in Photobacterium leiognathi strain KNH6, an extremely bright isolate. Using transposon mutagenesis and screening for decreased luminescence, we identified insertions in genes encoding components necessary for the luciferase reaction (lux, lum, and rib operons) as...

  17. Finding Regulators Associated with the Expression of the Long Polar Fimbriae in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Hu, Jia; Ross, Brittany N.; Cieza, Roberto J.; Torres, Alfredo G.
    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a human pathogen that requires initial adhesion to the intestine in order to cause disease. Multiple adhesion factors have been identified in E. coli strains, among them the long polar fimbriae (Lpf), a colonization factor associated with intestinal adhesion. The conditions of Lpf expression are well understood in enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC); however, the expression of EPEC lpf has been found to be repressed under any in vitro condition tested. Therefore, we decided to identify those factors silencing expression of EPEC lpf. Because histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) is a known repressor of EHEC lpf,...

  18. Articles of Significant Interest Selected from This Issue by the Editors

  19. The FasX Small Regulatory RNA Negatively Regulates the Expression of Two Fibronectin-Binding Proteins in Group A Streptococcus

    Danger, Jessica L.; Makthal, Nishanth; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Sumby, Paul
    The group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) causes more than 700 million human infections each year. The success of this pathogen can be traced in part to the extensive arsenal of virulence factors that are available for expression in temporally and spatially specific manners. To modify the expression of these virulence factors, GAS use both protein- and RNA-based regulators, with the best-characterized RNA-based regulator being the small regulatory RNA (sRNA) FasX. FasX is a 205-nucleotide sRNA that contributes to GAS virulence by enhancing the expression of the thrombolytic secreted virulence factor streptokinase and by repressing the expression of the collagen-binding...

  20. RbsR Activates Capsule but Represses the rbsUDK Operon in Staphylococcus aureus

    Lei, Mei G.; Lee, Chia Y.
    Staphylococcus aureus capsule is an important virulence factor that is regulated by a large number of regulators. Capsule genes are expressed from a major promoter upstream of the cap operon. A 10-bp inverted repeat (IR) located 13 bp upstream of the −35 region of the promoter was previously shown to affect capsule gene transcription. However, little is known about transcriptional activation of the cap promoter. To search for potential proteins which directly interact with the cap promoter region (Pcap), we directly analyzed the proteins interacting with the Pcap DNA fragment from shifted gel bands identified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay....

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